N'Djamena is the capital and largest city of Chad. A port on the Chari River, near the confluence with the Logone River, it directly faces the Cameroonian town of Kousséri, to which the city is connected by a bridge.
It is a regional market for livestock, salt, dates, and grains. Meat, fish and cotton processing are the chief industries, and the city continues to serve as the center of economic activity in Chad.
|POPULATION :||City: 1,092,066 / Metro: 1,605,696|
|FOUNDED :||May 29, 1900|
|TIME ZONE :||+1|
|LANGUAGE :||French (official), Arabic (official), Sara (in south), more than 120 different languages and dialects|
|RELIGION :||Muslim 53.1%, Catholic 20.1%, Protestant 14.2%, animist 7.3%, other 0.5%, unknown 1.7%, atheist 3.1%|
|AREA :||100 km2 (40 sq mi)|
|ELEVATION :||298 m (978 ft)|
|COORDINATES :||12°6′47″N 15°2′57″E|
|SEX RATIO :||• Male: 50.10% |
• Female: 49.90%
|ETHNIC :||Daza (16.97%), Chadian Arabs (11.08%), Hadjerai (9.15%), Ngambaye (6.41%), Bilala (5.83%), Kanembu (5.80%), Others (24.1%)|
|AREA CODE :||235|
|POSTAL CODE :|
|DIALING CODE :||+235|
Attractions in the city include the Chad National Museum, a cathedral and several mosques. Views of sunset across the Chari River can also be spectacular. N’Djamena was named Capital of Islamic Culture for 2009.
Chad National Museum (On Voie de Contournement, near the Kempinski Hotel N'Djamena). The national museum of Chad, containing many artifacts from its history. Some pieces are lost due to looting during the last civil war.
Avenue Charles de Gaulle, Avenue Charles de Gaulle. With many colonial houses and embassies, this road is a reminder of the French colonials days.
N’Djamena was founded as Fort-Lamy by French commander Émile Gentil on May 29, 1900, and named after Amédée-François Lamy, an army officer who had been killed in the Battle of Kousséri a few days earlier.
During the Second World War, the French relied heavily upon the city's airport to move troops and supplies.
On April 6, 1973, the President François Tombalbaye changed its name to N’Djamena (taken from the Arab name of a nearby village, Niǧāmīnā, meaning “place of rest”) as part of his authenticité program of Africanization.
The city was occupied by Libya during the 1980–81 Libyan intervention as part of the Chadian–Libyan conflict.
The city was partly destroyed during the Chadian Civil War, in 1979 and again in 1980. In these years, almost all of the population fled the town, searching for refuge on the opposite bank of the Chari River in Cameroon, next to the city of Kousseri. The residents did not return until 1981–82, after the end of the clashes.
Following differences between Goukouni and Muammar Gaddafi and international disapproval of Libyan intervention, the Libyan troops left the capital and Chad in 1981. This opened the door to Habré, who marched on N’Djamena, occupying the city with little resistance in 1982 and installing himself as the new president.
On April 13, 2006, a rebel United Front for Democratic Change attack on the city was defeated in the Battle of N’Djamena. The city was once again attacked on February 2, 2008, by UFDD and RFC rebels.
N’Djamena has a semi-arid climate with a short wet season and a lengthy dry season.
The wet season lasts from June to September, with the heaviest precipitation occurring in August.
The dry season essentially covers the remaining eight months.
Based on annual temperatures, N'Djamena is one of the hottest major cities on the planet. In only one month of the year (August) do average monthly high temperatures fail to cross the 32 °C (90 °F) mark.
The city's highest temperatures are usually seen between March and June, just before the onset of the heavier rains. However, outside of the warmest months of the year, nights in N'Djamena are generally tolerable.
N’Djamena is located at 12°6′47″N 15°2′57″ECoordinates: 12°6′47″N 15°2′57″E, on the confluence of the Chari and Logone rivers.
While primarily an administrative center, the city includes the Nassara Strip commercial centre and residential areas, such as Mbololo, Chagoua, Paris Congo and Moursal. The main commercial avenue of the city is the Avenue Charles de Gaulle.
N’Djamena is divided into 10 arrondissements.