LAGOS

Introduction

Info Lagos


introduction

Lagos is a city in the Nigerian state of Lagos. The city, with its adjoining conurbation, is the largest in Nigeria, as well as on the African continent. It is one of the fastest growing cities in the world and also one of the most populous urban agglomerations in the world.

Lagos is a major financial centre in Africa; themega city has the highest GDP, and also houses one of the largest and busiest ports on the continent.

Lagos initially emerged as a port city which originated on a collection of islands, which are contained in the present day Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Lagos Island, Eti-Osa, Amuwo-Odofin and Apapa; the islands are separated by creeks, fringing the southwest mouth of Lagos Lagoon, while protected from the Atlantic Ocean by barrier islands and long sand spits such as Bar Beach, which stretch up to 100 km (60 mi) east and west of the mouth. Due to rapid urbanization, the city expanded to the west of the lagoon to include areas in the present day Lagos Mainland, Ajeromi-Ifelodun and Surulere. This led to the classification of Lagos into two main areas - the Island, which was the initial city of Lagos, before it expanded into the area known as the Mainland.This city area was governed directly by the Federal Government through the Lagos City Council, until the creation of Lagos State in 1967, which led to the splitting of Lagos city into the present day seven Local Government Areas (LGAs), and an addition of other towns (which now make up 13 LGAs) from the then Western Region, to form the state.

Lagos which was the capital of Nigeria since its amalgamation in 1914, went on to become the capital of Lagos State, after its creation. However, the state capital was later moved to Ikejain 1976, while the federal capital also moved to Abuja in 1991. Even though Lagos is still widely referred to as a city, the present day Lagos, also known as "Metropolitan Lagos", and officially as "Lagos Metropolitan Area" is an urban agglomeration orconurbation, consisting of 16 LGAs, including Ikeja, the state capital of Lagos State. This conurbation makes up 37% of Lagos State's total land area, but houses about 85% of the state's total population.

The exact population of Metropolitan Lagos is disputed; In the 2006 federal census data, the conurbation had a population of about 8 million people. However, the figure was disputed by the Lagos State Government, which later released its own population data, putting the population of Lagos Metropolitan Area at approximately 16 million. As at 2015, unofficial figures put the population of the area at approximately 21 million.


info
POPULATION :  • Urban: 13,123,000    /     • Metro: 21,000,000 (estimated)
FOUNDED :  15th century
TIME ZONE : WAT (UTC+1) (UTC+1)
LANGUAGE : English (official), Hausa, Yoruba, Igbo (Ibo), Fulani
RELIGION : Muslim 50%, Christian 40%, indigenous beliefs 10%
AREA :
• Conurbation1,171.28 km2 (452.23 sq mi)
 • Land999.6 km2 (385.9 sq mi)
 • Water171.68 km2 (66.29 sq mi)
 • Urban907 km2 (350 sq mi)
ELEVATION : 41 m (135 ft)
COORDINATES : 6.455027°N 3.384082°E
SEX RATIO : Male: 
 Female: 
ETHNIC :  Nigeria, Africa's most populous country, is composed of more than 250 ethnic groups; the following are the most populous and politically influential: Hausa and Fulani 29%, Yoruba 21%, Igbo (Ibo) 18%, Ijaw 10%, Kanuri 4%, Ibibio 3.5%, Tiv 2.5%
AREA CODE : 010
POSTAL CODE :
DIALING CODE :
WEBSITE :


Tourism

Lagos, subsequent to the re-modernization project achieved by the previous administration of Governor Raji Babatunde Fashola, is gradually becoming a major tourist destination, being one of the largest cities in Africa and in the world. Lagos is currently taking steps to become a global city. The 2009 Eyo carnival (a yearly festival originated from Iperu Remo, Ogun State) which took place on 25 April, was a step toward world city status. Currently, Lagos is primarily known as a business-oriented and a fast-paced community.

A lot of festivals are held in Lagos, festivals vary in offerings each year and may be held in different months. Some of the festivals are Eyo Festival, Badagry Festival,Lagos Black Heritage Carnival, Lagos Carnival, Eko International Film Festival, Lagos Seafood Festival, LAGOS PHOTO Festival and The Lagos Jazz Series which is a unique franchise for high quality live music in all genres with a focus on Jazz. Established in 2010, the popular event takes place over a 3-5 day period at selected high quality outdoor venues. The music is as varied as the audience itself and features a diverse mix of musical genres from Rhythm and Blues to Soul, Afrobeat, Hiphop, Bebop and traditional Jazz. The festivals provide entertainment of dance and song to add excitement to travelers during a stay in Lagos.

Lagos has a number of sandy beaches by the Atlantic Ocean a few are Badagry beach, Eleko Beach, Elegushi, Alpha beach. Two of the popular beaches include Bar Beach and Lekki Beach. Lagos has a variety of hotels ranging from three star to five star hotels. Other places of interest include The Tafawa Balewa Square, Festac town,Lekki Conservation Centre, The Remembrance Arcade and the Slave Jetty in Badagry.


History

Lagos was originally inhabited by the Awori subgroup of the Yoruba peoplein the 15th century, who called it "Oko". Under the leadership of the Oloye Olofin, the Awori moved to an island now called Iddo and then to the larger Lagos Island. In the 16th century, the Awori settlement was conquered by the Benin Empireand the island became a Benin war-camp called "Eko" under Oba Orhogba, the Oba of Benin at the time. Eko is still the native name for Lagos.

Lagos, which means "lakes", was a name given to the settlement by the Portuguese. The present-day Lagos state has a high percentage of Awori, who migrated to the area from Isheri along the Ogun river. Throughout history, it was home to a number of warring ethnic groups who had settled in the area. Following its early settlement by the Awori nobility, and its conquest by the Bini warlords of Benin, the state first came to the attention of the Portuguese in the 15th century.

Portuguese explorer Rui de Sequeira visited the area in 1472, naming the area around the city Lago de Curamo. Another explanation is that Lagos was named forLagos, Portugal—a maritime town which, at the time, was the main centre of Portuguese expeditions down the African coast.

In Britain's early 19th century fight against the transatlantic slave trade, its West Africa Squadron or Preventative Squadron as it was also known, continued to pursue Portuguese, American, French, and Cuban slave ships and to impose anti-slavery treaties with West African coastal chiefs with so much doggedness that they created a strong presence along the West African coast from Sierra Leone all the way to the Niger Delta (today's Nigeria) and as far south as Congo. In 1849, Britain appointedJohn Beecroft Consul of the Bights of Benin and Biafra, a position he held (along with his governorship of Fernando Po) until his death in 1854. John Duncan was appointed Vice Consul and was located at Wydah. At the time of Beecroft's appointment, the Kingdom of Lagos (under Oba Kosoko) was in the western part of the Consulate of the Bights of Benin and Biafra and was a key slave trading port. In 1851 and with pressure from liberated slaves who now wielded political and business influence, Britain intervened in Lagos in what is now known as theBombardment of Lagos or Capture of Lagos resulting in the installation of ObaAkitoye (and the ouster of Oba Kosoko) who signed Treaty Between Great Britain and Lagos, 1 January 1852. The signing of the 1852 treaty ushered in the Consular Period in Lagos' history wherein Britain provided military protection to Lagos.

Following threats from Kosoko and the French who were positioned at Wydah, a decision was made by Lord Palmerston (British Prime Minister) who noted in 1861, "the expediency of losing no time in assuming the formal Protectorate of Lagos".William McCoskry, the Acting Consul in Lagos with Commander Bedingfield convened a meeting with Oba Dosunmu on July 30, 1861 aboard HMS Prometheus where Britain's intent was explained and a response to the terms were required by August 1861. Dosunmu resisted the terms of the treaty but under the threat to unleash violence on Lagos by Commander Bedingfield, Dosunmu relented and signed the Lagos Treaty of Cession on August 6, 1861.

The remainder of modern-day Nigeria was seized in 1887, and when the Colony and Protectorate of Nigeria was established in 1914, Lagos was declared its capital, continuing as such after the country's independence from Britain in 1960. Along with migrants from all over Nigeria and other West African nations were the returnee ex-slaves known as Creoles, who came from Freetown, Sierra Leone, Brazil and the West Indies to Lagos. The Creoles contributed to Lagos' modernisation and their knowledge of Portuguese architecture can still be seen from the architecture on Lagos Island. Electric street lighting was introduced in the city in 1898. Lagos experienced rapid growth throughout the 1960s and 1970s as a result of Nigeria's economic boom.

Before the creation of Lagos State on 27 May 1967, Lagos, which was the country's capital had been administered directly by the Federal Government as a Federal Territory through the Federal Ministry of Lagos Affairs, while the Lagos City Council (LCC) governed the city. Lagos, along with the towns from the then Western region (Ikeja, Agege, Mushin, Ikorodu, Epe and Badagry), were eventually captured to create Lagos State. Lagos city was split into the present day seven Local Government Areas(LGAs), while the other towns now make up 13 LGAs in the state. Lagos played the dual role of being the State and Federal Capital until 1976, when the state capital was moved to Ikeja. Lagos was adversely affected during Nigeria's military rule. Also, on 12 December 1991, the seat of the Federal Government was also formally relocated to Abuja. However, Lagos still remains the financial centre of the country, and also grew to become the most populous conurbation in the country.


Climate

Lagos has a tropical wet and dry climate(Aw) that borders on a tropical monsoon climate (Am). Lagos experiences two rainy seasons, with the heaviest rains falling from April to July and a weaker rainy season in October and November. There is a brief relatively dry spell in August and September and a longer dry season from December to March.

Monthly rainfall between May and July averages over 400 millimetres (16 inches), while in August and September it falls to 200 mm (8 in) and in December reaches as low as 25 mm (1 in). The main dry season is accompanied by harmattan winds from the Sahara Desert, which between December and early February can be quite strong. The highest maximum temperature ever recorded in Lagos was 37.3 °C (99.1 °F), and the minimum was 13.9 °C (57.0 °F).

Climate data for Lagos

MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec 
Average high °C (°F)32.2
(90)
33.1
(91.6)
32.7
(90.9)
32.1
(89.8)
30.9
(87.6)
29.2
(84.6)
28.1
(82.6)
28.1
(82.6)
28.9
(84)
30.4
(86.7)
31
(88)
31.9
(89.4)
 
Average low °C (°F)22.3
(72.1)
23.5
(74.3)
23.8
(74.8)
23.6
(74.5)
23.1
(73.6)
22.6
(72.7)
22.1
(71.8)
21.7
(71.1)
21.9
(71.4)
22.3
(72.1)
22.6
(72.7)
22.4
(72.3)
 
Average rainfall mm (inches)14.3
(0.563)
42
(1.65)
77.1
(3.035)
142.4
(5.606)
204.8
(8.063)
312.2
(12.291)
256.9
(10.114)
112.4
(4.425)
167.1
(6.579)
135.8
(5.346)
54
(2.13)
19
(0.75)
 
Average rainy days1.52.76.48.912.416.213.211.612.710.94.91.4 
              
Source #1: World Meteorological Organization
Source #2: Hong Kong Observatory (sun only)


Geography

Lagos is loosely classified into two main geographical areas - the "Island" and the "Mainland".


Island

The Island is a loose geographical term that is used to define the area of Lagos which is separated from the sprawl of "mainland" by the main channel draining the lagoon into the Atlantic Ocean, which forms Lagos Harbour. The Island is mainly a collection of islands that are separated from each other by creeks of varying sizes and are connected together by bridges. The smaller sections of some creeks have been dredged and built over. This part of Lagos is the area where most business activities and entertainment events in Lagos takes place. It also houses most of the upscale residential areas in Lagos. The two major urban islands of Lagos in Lagos Lagoon are Lagos Island and Victoria Island. Other Local Government areas which are considered to be in the Island include: Amuwo-Odofin, Apapa (sometimes also regarded as in the mainland) and Eti-Osa, where Lekki is located. Three major bridges join the island to the mainland. They are the Carter Bridge which start from Iddo, the Eko Bridge (formerly called the Second Mainland Bridge) and the Third Mainland Bridge, which passes through densely populated mainland suburbs to the Lagos Lagoon.


Lagos Island

Lagos Island contains a central business district. This district is characterised by high-rise buildings. The island also contains many of the city's largest wholesale marketplaces (such as the popular Idumota and Balogun Markets). It also has the National Museum of Nigeria, the Central Mosque, the Glover Memorial Hall, Christ's Church Cathedral (CMS), and the Oba's Palace (Iga Idunganran).[55] Another major part of Lagos Island is Marina. It borders around the idumota and Balogun markets and houses major Banking institutions. Though formerly in a derelict condition, Lagos Island's Tinubu Square is a site of historical importance; it was here that the Amalgamation Ceremony that unified the North and South protectorate to form Nigeria took place in 1914.


Ikoyi

Ikoyi is situated on the eastern half of Lagos Island and joined to it by a landfill.Ikoyi is also connected to Victoria Island by Falomo bridge, which carries a main road over Five Cowrie creek. Ikoyi housed the headquarters of the federal government of Nigeria and other buildings owned by the government, including the old federal secretariat complex. The complex today is on reestablishment.

In Ikoyi there are military and police barracks, a top-security prison and a federal high court of Nigeria. Ikoyi also has a number of hotels, night clubs, a recreational park and one of Africa's largest golf courses. Originally a middle class neighbourhood, in recent years, it has become a fashionable residential enclave for the upper middle class to the upper class. There are also commercial activities in Ikoyi which is spotted in increasing number of offices, banks and shopping complexes. The commercial section is concentrated in the South-West.


Victoria Island

Victoria Island with its annexe is situated to the south of Lagos Island. It has expensive real estate properties and for that reason, many new luxury condos and apartments are blooming up everywhere. Along with Ikoyi, Victoria Island occupies a major area in Lagos which boasts of several sizeable shopping districts. On its sea shore along the Atlantic front, there is environmentally reconstructed Bar Beach.


Iddo

Across the main channel of the lagoon from Lagos Island, there is a smaller settlement called Iddo. Iddo is also a railroad terminus and it is now situated in the Lagos Mainland local government area after it was connected to the mainland like a peninsula.


Mainland

A huge population of Lagosians also live on the mainland, and most industries are located there. The mainland is known for its music and night life, which used to be located in areas around Yaba and Surulere. However, in recent years more night clubs have sprung up on the Island, making the Island (particularly Victoria Island) the main nightlife attractions. Mainland LGAs include Surulere, Ajeromi-Ifelodun andLagos Mainland. Metropolitan Lagos suburban LGAs include: Agege, Apapa, Mushin,Oshodi-Isolo and Ikeja (site of Murtala Muhammed International Airport and the capital of Lagos State).

Major Areas on the mainland include Ebute Metta, Yaba, Ajah and Ejigbo. Some rivers, like Badagry Creek, flow parallel to the coast for some distance before exiting through the sand bars to the sea.


Economy

Lagos is Nigeria's economic focal point, generating a significant portion of the country's GDP. Most commercial and financial business is carried out in the central business district situated on the island. This is also where most of the country's commercial banks, financial institutions, and major corporations are headquartered. Lagos is also the major Information Communications and Telecommunications (ICT) hub of West Africa and potentially, the biggest ICT market in the continent. Lagos has one of the highest standards of living in Nigeria and in Africa.

The Port of Lagos is Nigeria's leading port and one of the largest and busiest in Africa. It is administered by the Nigerian Ports Authority and it is split into three main sections: Lagos port, in the main channel next to Lagos Island, Apapa Port (site of the container terminal) and Tin Can Port, both located in Badagry Creek, which flows into Lagos Harbour from the west. The port features a railhead.

The port has seen growing amounts of crude oil exported, with export figures rising between 1997 and 2000.Oil and petroleum products provide 14% of GDP and 90% of foreign exchange earnings in Nigeria as a whole


Subdivisions

The main districts are the mainland, Greater Lagos and the Islands. Three major bridges join the island to the mainland. They are the Carter Bridge which start from Iddo Island, the Eko Bridge (formerly called the Second Mainland Bridge) and the Third Mainland Bridge which passes through densely populated mainland suburbs through Lagos lagoon.

  • The Mainland holds a greater percentage of inhabitants and industries. Lagos Mainland districts include Ebute-Meta, Surulere (site of two stadiums and National theater), Yaba (location of the University of Lagos) and Ikeja, site of Murtala Muhammed International Airport and capital of Lagos State.
  • Greater Lagos includes Mushin, Maryland, Somolu, Oshodi, Oworonsoki, Isolo, Ikotun, Agege, Iju Ishaga, Egbeda, Ketu, Bariga, Ipaja, and Ejigbo.
  • The Islands The two major urban islands of Lagos in Lagos Lagoon are Lagos Island and Victoria Island. These islands are separated from the mainland by the main channel draining the lagoon into the Atlantic ocean, which forms Lagos Harbour. The islands are separated from each other by creeks of varying sizes and are connected to Lagos Island by bridges.
  • Lagos Island Lagos Island contains a Central Business District (CBD). This district is characterized by high-rise buildings and businesses. The island also contains many of the city's largest wholesale marketplaces (such as the popular Idumota and Balogun markets). It also has the National Museum of Nigeria, a Central mosque, Glover Memorial Hall, Christ's Cathedral (CMS), and the Oba Palace. And lastly, there is the Tinubu Square- a site of historical importance, it was here that the Amalgamation ceremony that unified the North and South protectorate to form Nigeria took place in 1914. Ikoyi is situated on the eastern half of Lagos Island and joined to it by a landfill. Ikoyi is also connected to Victoria Island by a bridge carrying a main road over a Five Cowrie creek. Ikoyi has a great number of hotels, night clubs, a recreational park and one of Africa's largest golf courses. Originally a middle class neighbourhood, in recent years it has become more of a fashionable residential enclave for the upper middle class to the upper class.
  • Victoria Island Home to many company headquarters and entertainment spots, Victoria Island (also known as V.I) along with Ikoyi, occupies a major area in the suburbs of Lagos which boasts of several sizable shopping districts. On its sea shore along the Atlantic front, there is an environmentally reconstructed Bar Beach.
  • Eko Atlantic city is a new city under construction. It is a planned district being constructed on land reclaimed from the Atlantic Ocean.Dredgers, large ships which move sand, are all working around the clock filling the area with sand where the city will be built. Expected to be around 4 square miles, the city will satisfy needs for financial, commercial, residential and tourist accommodations with a state-of-the-art high-tech infrastructure in line with modern and environmental standards. These standards will offer the city’s residents modern water, waste management, security and transportation systems. Eko Atlantic will also offer its residents an independent source of energy generated specifically for the city.


Internet, Communication

Nigeria has both GSM & CDMA Networks. Most of the International GSM Networks are served here on Roaming Partner Basis. Local pre-activated GSM (SIM) connection can be purchased from anywhere in entire Country at very cheap rate. Naira 200/- for a SIM.

GSM/3G

  • Etisalat: Services: Calls, SMS, GPRS and some most advance feature can be found only on this network.
  • Airtel: Airtel is the former Zain (which was formerly CelTel). Services: Calls, SMS & GPRS Services.
  • MTN: Services: Calls, SMS, DATA (Internet) & GPRS Services.
  • Glo: Services: Calls, SMS, DATA (Internet) & GPRS Services.

CDMA

  • Multilinks Telkom: Services: Calls, SMS & DATA (Internet).
  • Visafone: Services: Calls, SMS & DATA (Internet).
  • Starcomms: Services: Calls, SMS & DATA (Internet).

In Nigeria SMS (Short Messaging Service) is known as "Text".

The networks in certain parts of Lagos can be very erratic at times. On certain days you cannot make a phone call at all or you will not be able to recharge your phone for the most of the day making business very difficult at times. But its occasional and that is the reason if you want to stay for a long term,make sure that you have at least two phones or a dual sim phone.

FLIGHTS & HOTELS

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