Khartoum is the capital and second largest city of Sudan and Khartoum state.
It is located at the confluence of the White Nile, flowing north from Lake Victoria, and the Blue Nile, flowing west from Ethiopia. The main Nile continues to flow north towards Egypt and the Mediterranean Sea.
Divided by the Niles, Khartoum is a tripartite metropolis with an estimated overall population of over five million people, consisting of Khartoum proper, and linked by bridges to Khartoum North and Omdurman to the west.
Khartoum proper is the seat of the Sudanese government and is the largest of the three cities. The older part of the city lies beside the White Nile while the newer parts, such as Al-Amarat and Khartoum Two, spread out to the south, across the railway line and the ring road, and around the airport runway. The city, both the old part and its newer extensions, is laid out mostly in a grid. Omdurman has a more Middle Eastern atmosphere with maze-like streets and is home to the huge Souq Omdurman. Bahri is largely industrial and residential.
|TIME ZONE :||EAT (UTC+3)|
|LANGUAGE :||Arabic (official), English (official)|
|RELIGION :||Sunni Muslim 70%, indigenous beliefs 25%, Christian 5%,|
|COORDINATES :||15°38′N 32°32′E|
|SEX RATIO :||• Male: 50.17% |
• Female: 49.83%
|ETHNIC :||Sudanese Arab , Fur, Beja, Nuba, Fallata|
|AREA CODE :||183|
|POSTAL CODE :|
|DIALING CODE :||+249 183|
Khartoum was established 24 kilometres (15 mi) north of the ancient city of Soba in 1821 by Ibrahim Pasha, the son of Egypt's ruler, Muhammad Ali Pasha, who had just incorporated Sudan into his realm. Originally, Khartoum served as an outpost for the Egyptian Army, but the settlement quickly grew into a regional centre of trade. It also became a focal point for the slave trade. Later, it became the administrative center of Sudan and official capital.
Troops loyal to the Mahdi Muhammad Ahmad began a siege of Khartoum on 13 March 1884, against defenders led by British General Charles George Gordon. The siege ended in a massacre of the Anglo-Egyptian garrison. The heavily damaged city fell to the Mahdists on 26 January 1885 and all its inhabitants were put to death.Omdurman was the scene of the bloody Battle of Omdurman on 2 September 1898, during which British forces under Herbert Kitchener defeated the Mahdist forces.
In 1973, the city was the site of an anomalous hostage crisis in which members of Black September held ten hostages at the Saudi Arabian embassy, five of whom were diplomats. The US ambassador, the US deputy ambassador, and the Belgian chargé d'affaires were murdered.
In 1991, Osama bin Laden purchased a house in the affluent al-Riyadh neighborhood of the city and another in Soba. He lived there until 1996 when he was banished from the country. Following the 1998 U.S. embassy bombings, the United States accused bin Laden's al-Qaeda group and launched cruise missile attacks (20 August) on the al-Shifa pharmaceutical factory in northern Khartoum. The destruction of the factory produced diplomatic tension between the U.S. and Sudan. The ruins of the factory are now a tourist attraction.
On 10 May 2008 the Darfur rebel group of the Justice and Equality Movement moved into the city where they engaged in heavy fighting with Sudanese government forces. Their soldiers included minors and their goal was the toppling of Omar al-Bashir's government, though the Sudanese government succeeded in beating back the assault.
On 23 October 2012 an explosion at the Yarmouk munitions factory killed two people and injured another person. The Sudanese government has claimed that the explosion was the result of an Israeli airstrike.
Khartoum features a hot desert climate with a dry season occurring during "wintertime", typical of the Saharo-Sahelian zone which marks the progressive passage between the Sahara Desert, vast arid areas and the Sahel, vast semi-arid areas.
The climate is extremely arid for most of the year with about nine months where average rainfall is lower than 5 mm (0.20 in).
The very long dry season is itself divided into a hot, very dry season between November and March as well as a very hot, dry season between April and June.
The highest temperatures occur during two periods in the year: the first at the late dry season, when average high temperature consistently exceed 40 °C (104 °F) from April to June, and the second at the early dry season, when average high temperature exceed 39 °C (102 °F) in September and October months.
Khartoum is one of the hottest major cities on Earth, with annual mean temperatures hovering around 30 °C (86 °F). The city has also truly hot "winters" for a such dry climate.
After the signing of the historic Comprehensive Peace Agreement between the government of Sudan and the Sudan People's Liberation Movement (SPLA), the Government of Sudan has begun a massive development project. In 2007, the biggest projects in Khartoum were the Al-Mogran Development Project, two five-star hotels, a new airport, Mac Nimir Bridge (finished in October 2007) and the Tuti Bridge that links Khartoum to Tuti Island.
In the 21st century, Khartoum has developed based on Sudan's oil wealth. The center of the city has tree-lined streets. Khartoum has the highest concentration of economic activity in the country. This has changed as major economic developments take place in other parts of the country.
Among the city's industries are printing, glass manufacturing, food processing, and textiles. Petroleum products are now produced in the far north of Khartoum state, providing fuel and jobs for the city. One of Sudan's largest refineries is located in northern Khartoum.
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