The Afghan culture has existed for more than two millennia and reaches at least until the time of the Achaemenid Empire in 500 BC. Back. It is mainly a nomad and tribal society with different regions of the country that have their own traditions and reflect the multicultural and multilingual nature of the nation. In the southern and eastern region, people in the Pashtun culture live in Pashtunwali, an ancient way of life that has survived to this day. The rest of the country is culturally Persian and Turkish. Some non-Pashtuns living near the Pashtuns adopted Pashtunwali in a process called Pashtunization (or Afghanization) while some Pashtuns were persecuted. Millions of Afghans living in Pakistan and Iran for 30 years are influenced by the cultures of neighboring countries.
Afghans are proud of their culture, nation, origin, and especially their religion and independence. Like other climbers, they are viewed with mixed concern and condescension for their great respect for personal honor, loyalty to their tribe, and willingness to settle disputes. Since tribal warfare and civil unrest have always been one of their main occupations, this individualistic trait has made it difficult for foreigners to conquer. Tony Heathcote believes that the tribal system is the best way to organize large groups of people in a geographically difficult country and in a society that has an uncomplicated lifestyle from a materialistic point of view. It is estimated that there are 60 mainly Pashtun tribes, and Afghan nomads are estimated at about 2-3 million.
The nation has a complex history that has survived either in its present cultures or in the form of different languages and monuments. However, many of the historic monuments were damaged during the last wars. The two famous Bamiyan Buddhas were destroyed by the Taliban, whom they regarded as idol worshipers. Nevertheless, archaeologists still find Buddhist relics in various parts of the country, some date from the second century. This indicates that Buddhism was widespread in Afghanistan. Other historical places are the cities of Herat, Kandahar, Ghazni, Mazar-i-Sharif and Zarang. The Jam Minaret at Hari Rivervalley is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. An alleged cloak worn by the Prophet Muhammad of Islam is kept in the Cape Protected Area in Kandahar, a city founded by Alexander and the first capital of Afghanistan. The Citadel of Alexander in the western city of Herat has been renovated in recent years and is a popular attraction for tourists. In the north of the country is the sanctuary of Hazrat Ali, which many believe is the place where Ali was buried. The Ministry of Information and Culture of Afghanistan is renovating 42 historic sites in Ghazni until 2013, when the province is declared the capital of Islamic civilization. The National Museum of Afghanistan is located in Kabul.
Although literacy is low, classical Persian and Pashtun poetry plays an important role in Afghan culture. Poetry has always been one of the most important educational pillars of the region, at the level that has been integrated into the culture. Notable poets include Rumi, Rabi'a Balkhi, Sanai, Jami, Khushal Khan Khattak, Rahman Baba, Khalilullah Khalili, and Parween Pazhwak.
Media and entertainment
The Afghan media began publishing the first newspaper in 1906 at the beginning of the 20th century. In the 1920s, Radio Kabul broadcast local radio services. Afghanistan's national television was launched in 1974, but closed in 1996 when the media was tightly controlled by the Taliban. Since 2002, restrictions on the press have gradually been eased and private media diversified. Freedom of speech and the press is banned in the 2004 constitution and censorship is banned, but that is forbidden to slander individuals or material in opposition produces the principles of Islam. In 2008, Reporters Without Borders initiated the media environment as 156 out of 173 countries, the first of which was the freest. There were about 400 publications, at least 15 local Afghan television channels and 60 radio stations. Foreign radio stations such as Voice of America, BBC World Service and Radio Free Europe / Radio Liberty (RFE / RL) are sending to the country.
The city of Kabul was home to many musicians who were masters of traditional and modern Afghan music. Traditional music is especially popular during the celebrations of Nowruz (New Year) and National Independence Day. Ahmad Zahir, Nashenas, Ustad Sarahang, Sarban, Ubaidullah Jan, Farhad Darya and Naghma are just a few of the notable Afghan musicians, but there are many others. Most Afghans are used to watching Bollywood Indian movies and listening to their movie songs. Many big Bollywood movie stars have their roots in Afghanistan, including Salman Khan, Saif Ali Khan, Shah Rukh Khan (SRK), Aamir Khan, Feroz Khan, Kader Khan, Naseeruddin Shah, Zarine Khan and Celina Jaitley. In addition, several Bollywood films have been filmed in Afghanistan such as Dharmatma, Khuda Gawah, Escape from Taliban and Kabul Express.