Afghanistan

History

History

The excavations of the prehistoric sites of Louis Dupree and others suggest that humans lived in present-day Afghanistan at least 50,000 years ago, and that farming communities in the area are among the oldest in the world. An important place of early historical activity, many believe that Afghanistan is compared in terms of historical value of archaeological sites in Egypt.

The country is in a unique nexus point where numerous cultures have interacted and often fought. It has been home to various peoples throughout the centuries, including the ancient Iranian peoples who established the dominant role of Indo-Iranian languages ​​in the region. Multi-point land was incorporated into large regional empires, including the Achaemenid Empire, the Macedonian Empire, the Indian Maurya Empire and the Islamic Empire.

Many empires and kingdoms were also risen to power in Afghanistan, such as the Greek-Bactrian, Kushan, heftalitas, Kabul Shahis, Saffarids, Samanids, Ghaznavids, Ghurids, Khiljis, Kartids, Timurids, Mughals, and finally, the Hotak and Durrani Dynasties the political origins of the modern state.


Pre-Islamic period

Bilingual Edictby (Greek and Aramaic) was founded in the 3rd century BC. Discovered by Emperor Ashoka in the southern city of Kandahar

The archaeological exploration conducted in the twentieth century suggests that the geographical area of ​​Afghanistan is closely related to the culture and trade with its neighbors to the east, west and north. In Afghanistan, typical Paleolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic, Bronze and Iron artefacts were found. It is believed that urban civilization began as early as 3000 BC. C., and the original city of Mundigak (near Kandahar in the south of the country) may have been a colony of the nearby civilization of the Indus Valley. Recent evidence shows that Industal civilization has expanded into today's Afghanistan and that today the ancient civilization has become part of Pakistan, Afghanistan and India. In more detail, it ranged from present-day northwestern Pakistan to northwestern India and northeastern Afghanistan. In Shortugai in northern Afghanistan, an indus valley was found on the river Oxus. There are also several smaller VCI colonies in Afghanistan.

After 2000 a. C., successive waves of semi-nomadic people began to move south in Central Asia in Afghanistan; among them there were many Indo-Iranian-speaking Indo-Europeans. These tribes later migrated through the area north of the Caspian Sea to South Asia, West Asia and Europe. The region was then known as Ariana.

Some believe that the Zoroastrian religion originated between 1800 and 800 BC in Afghanistan. C., because it is believed that Zoroaster, his founder, lived and died in Balkh. The ancient eastern Iranian languages ​​were spoken in the region around the time of the rise of Zoroastrianism. In the middle of the 6th century BC The Achaemenids toppled the Medes and incorporated Arachosia, Aria and Bactria within their eastern borders. An inscription on the tombstone of Darius I of Persia mentions the Kabul valley in a list of the 29 countries he had conquered.

Alexander the Great and his Macedonian troops arrived in 330 BC. In Afghanistan, after Darius III. Defeated by Persia a year earlier at the Battle of Gaugamela. After the short occupation of Alexander, the successor state of the Seleucid Empire controlled the region until 305 BC. EC, when they handed over a large part of it to the Maurya Empire under an alliance contract. The Maurya controlled the area south of the Hindu Kush, until around 185 BC. Were crashed. Its decline began 60 years after the end of the Ashoka government, which led to the Hellenistic recapture of the Greco-Bactrians. A large part of them soon separated from them and became part of the Indo-Greek Kingdom. They were defeated and expelled by the Indo-Scythians at the end of the second century BC.

During the first century BC U. Z. subjugated the region of the Parthian, but lost it to his Indo-Parthian vassals. In the middle to late first century, the large Kushan empire centered in Afghanistan, became a major promoter of Buddhist culture, with which Buddhism thrive in the region. The Kushans were overthrown by the Sassans in the third century AD, although the Indo-Sassanians continued to dominate at least parts of the region. They were followed by the Kidarites, who in turn were replaced by the Hephtalites. In the 6th century AD, the successors of Kushan and Hepthalite founded a small dynasty called Kabul Shahi. A large part of the areas in the northeast and south of the country remained dominated by the Buddhist culture.


Islamization and Mongol invasion

 The Arab Muslims brought Islam to Herat and Zaranj in 642 and began to expand eastward; some of the aborigines found it acceptable while others rebelled. The country was recognized by the Arabs as al-Hind due to its cultural affiliation with Greater India. Before the introduction of Islam, the people of the region were mainly Buddhists and Zoroastrians, but there were also Surya and Nana worshipers, Jews and others. The Zunbils and Kabul Shahi were conquered for the first time in 870 by the Zaranj Saffari Muslims. Later, the Samanis expanded their Islamic influence south of the Hindu Kush. It is reported that Muslims and non-Muslims still lived side by side in Kabul before Ghaznavid came to power in the 10th century.

In the eleventh century, Mahmud de Ghazni defeated the remaining Hindu rulers and effectively Islamized the wider region, with the exception of Kafiristan. Afghanistan became one of the most important centers of the Muslim world during this Islamic Golden Age. The Ghaznavid dynasty was overthrown by the Ghurids, who expanded into the already powerful Islamic empire.

In 1219 AD, Genghis Khan and his Mongol army invaded the region. It is said that his troops wiped out the Korean cities of Herat and Balkh and Bamyan. The destruction caused by the Mongols forced many villagers to return to a rural agrarian society. The Mongolian government continued Ilkhanate to the northwest, while the Afghan Khilji dynasty administered tribal areas south of the Hindu Kush until the invasion of Timur, who founded the Timúrido Empire in 1370.

At the beginning of the 16th century Babur came from Fergana and conquered Kabul from the Arghun dynasty. In 1526, he invaded Delhi to replace the Lodi dynasty with the Mughal Empire. Between the sixteenth century and the eighteenth century, the khanate of Bukhara, Safavids and Mughals ruled parts of the territory. Before the 19th century, the northwestern part of Afghanistan was called by the regional name Khorasan. Two of the four capitals of Khorasan (Herat and Balkh) are now formed in Afghanistan, while regions of Kandahar, Zabulistan, Ghazni, Afghanistan are Kabulistan and the border between Khorasan and Hindostan.


Hotak dynasty and Durrani Empire

In 1709, Mirwais Hotak, a local tribal leader of the Ghilzai, successfully rebelled against the Safavids. He defeated Gurgin Khan and made Afghanistan independent. Mirwais died a natural cause in 1715 and was succeeded by his brother Abdul Aziz, who was soon killed by the son Mirwais Mahmud, for the betrayal. Mahmud led the Afghan army in 1722 to the Persian capital of Isfahan, captured the city after the Battle of Gulnabad and proclaimed himself king of Persia. The Afghan dynasty was driven out of Persia by Nader Shah in 1729 after the Battle of Damghan.

In 1738, Nader Shah and his forces captured Kandahar, the last bastion of the Hotak, Shah Hussain Hotak, at which time Ahmad Shah Durrani imprisoned, 16, were released and appointed commander of an Afghan regiment. Soon after, Persian and Afghan troops invaded India. In 1747 the Afghans chose Durrani as their head of state. Durrani and its Afghan army conquered much of today's Afghanistan, Pakistan, the provinces of Khorasan and Kohistan in Iran and Delhi in India. He defeated the Indian Maratha Empire, and one of his greatest victories was the Battle of Panipat in 1761.

In October 1772, Durrani died of a natural cause and was buried in a place now adjacent to the Capa Sanctuary in Kandahar. He was transferred from his son, Timur Shah, who transferred the capital of Afghanistan from Kandahar to Kabul after the death of Timur in 1793 in 1776, the throne of Durrani to his son Zaman Shah, followed by Mahmud Shah, Shuja Shah and others ,

The Afghan Empire was threatened in the early 19th century by the Persians in the west and the Sikh Empire in the east. Fateh Khan, the leader of the Barakzai tribe, had installed 21 of his brothers in positions of power throughout the empire. After his death, they rebelled and divided the provinces of the empire among themselves. During this turbulent period, Afghanistan had many temporary rulers until Emir Dost Mohammad Khan in 1826. The Punjab region was lost to Ranjit Singh, who invaded Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and in 1834 conquered the city of Peshawar. In 1837, during the Battle of Jamrud near the Khyber Pass, Akbar Khanand's Afghan army captured the Jamrud Khalsa Sikh army, but Commander Hari Singh killed Sikh Nalwa to end the Afghan-Sikh wars. At this time, the British advanced from the East and the first great conflict began during the "Great Game".


Western influence

In 1838, the British marched to Afghanistan and captured Dost Mohammad Khan (Emir of Afghanistan), exiled him to India and replaced him with former ruler Shah Shuja. After an uprising, the withdrawal of Kabul from the British-Indian troops in 1842 and the Battle of Kabul, which led to her recovery, the British handed Dost Mohammad Khan to power and withdrew their forces from Afghanistan. In 1878, the second Anglo-Afghan war was fought by the perceptions of Russian influence, Abdur Rahman Khan replaced Ayub Khan and Britain won international relations controlled Afghanistan under the Treaty of Gandamak in 1879. In 1893 Mortimer Durand left Amir Abdur Rahman Khan sign a controversial agreement in which the ethnic Pashtuns and Baloise territories were divided by the Durand Line. This was a standard policy of the division and rule of the British and would create tension, especially with the new state of Pakistan.

After the third Anglo-Afghan war and the signing of the Rawalpindi Treaty on 19 August 1919, King Amanullah Khan declared Afghanistan to be a sovereign and completely independent state. He tried to end the traditional isolation of his country by establishing diplomatic relations with the international community and, after a tour of Europe and Turkey from 1927-28, introduced several reforms to modernize his nation. A driving force behind these reforms was Mahmud Tarzi, an ardent believer in women's education. He advocated Article 68 of the 1923 Constitution of Afghanistan, which made primary education compulsory. The institution of slavery was abolished in 1923.

Some of the reforms that have been put into practice, such as the abolition of the traditional burqa for women and the opening of several mixed schools, have quickly alienated many tribal leaders and religious leaders. In the face of overwhelming armed opposition, Amanullah Khan was forced to abdicate in January 1929 after Kabul had fallen victim to the rebels led by Habibullah Kalakani. Prince Mohammed Nadir Shah, cousin of Amanullah, defeated and killed Kalakani in November 1929 and was declared King Nadir Shah. He gave up the reforms of Amanullah Khan in favor of gradual modernization, but was assassinated in 1933 by Abdul Khaliq, a student of the Hazara school.

Mohammed Zahir Shah, the son of 19 years of Nadir Shah, ascended the throne and ruled from 1933 to 1973. Until 1946 Zahir Shah ruled with the help of his uncle, who held the post of Prime Minister and continued the policy of Nadir Cha. Another Uncle of Zahir Shah, Shah Mahmud Khan, became Prime Minister in 1946 and began an experiment that allowed for greater political freedom but reversed politics as it went beyond what he expected. He was replaced in 1953 by Mohammed Daoud Khan, cousin and brother-in-law of the king. Daoud Khan sought a closer relationship with the Soviet Union and a more distant relationship with Pakistan. Afghanistan remained neutral and participated neither in the Second World War nor in a power bloc in the Cold War. He was, however, a beneficiary of this recent rivalry as both the Soviet Union and the United States competed for the construction of major highways, airports and other vital infrastructure in Afghanistan. Afghanistan received more Soviet development aid per capita than any other country. In 1973, while King Zahir Shah made an official visit abroad, Daoud Khan launched a bloodless coup and became the first president of Afghanistan. Meanwhile, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto participated in neighboring Pakistan in Afghanistan. Some experts suggest that Bhutto paved the way for the Saur revolution in April 1978.


Marxist revolution and Soviet war

In April 1978, the Democratic People's Party (PDPA) in Afghanistan took power in the revolution of Saur. Within months, opponents of the Communist government launched an uprising in East Afghanistan, which quickly expanded into a civil war led by the Mujahideen guerrillas against government forces across the country. The Pakistani government provided covert training centers for these rebels, while the Soviet Union sent thousands of military advisers to support the PDPA government. Meanwhile, the growing friction between rival factions of the PDPA-dominant Khalq and Parcham led mostly moderate- in the dismissal of Cabinet members Parchami and the arrest of officers Parchami under the pretext of a state Parchami.

In September 1979, Nur Muhammad Taraki was killed in a coup inside the PDPA staged by his Khalq counterpart Hafizullah Amin, who took over the presidency. Misstraute of the Soviets was Amin assassinated by Soviet special forces in December 1979. A government organized by the Soviets, led by Babrak Karmalbut Parcham, including the two factions, filled the void. Soviet troops were deployed to stabilize Afghanistan under Karmal in large numbers, although the Soviet government did not expect to conduct most of the fighting in Afghanistan. As a result, the Soviets were now directly involved in an internal war in Afghanistan. The PDPA banned usury, declared gender equality and introduced women to political life.

In mid-1979, the US supported Afghan anti-Soviet mujahedin and foreign "Arab-Afghan" fighters through ISI Pakistan (see CIA activities in Afghanistan). Billions of cash and weapons, including more than two thousand FIM 92 Stinger ground-to-air missiles, were delivered to Pakistan from the United States and Saudi Arabia.

The Soviet war in Afghanistan led to the deaths of more than 1 million Afghans, mostly civilians, and the creation of 6 million refugees fleeing Afghanistan, mainly to Pakistan and Iran. In the face of increasing international pressure and numerous casualties, the Soviets withdrew in 1989, but supported Afghan President Mohammad Najibullah until 1992.

From 1989 to 1992, the government of Najibullah tried to solve the ongoing civil war with economic and military aid, but without local Soviet troops. Najibullah sought support for his government by portraying his government as Islamic, and in the 1990 constitution, the country officially became an Islamic state and all references to communism were removed. However, Najibullah received no significant support, and with the dissolution of the Soviet Union in December 1991, he lost foreign aid. This, along with the internal collapse of his administration, led to his removal in April 1992. After the fall of the Najibullah government in 1992, the Islamic state of post-communist Afghanistan was established by the Peshawar Agreement, a peace and power sharing agreement signed by all Afghan Parties joined in April 1992, with the exception of Pakistani support for Hezb-e Islami by Gulbuddin Hekmatyar. Hekmatyar began a bombing campaign against the capital Kabul, which ushered in a new war phase.

Saudi Arabia and Iran supported various Afghan militias, and instability developed rapidly. The conflict between the two militias soon became a comprehensive war.

Due to the sudden start of the war, the working government departments, the police units and a system of justice and accountability for the newly created Islamic State of Afghanistan had no time to train. The atrocities were committed by individuals of various armed groups, while Kabul sank into anarchy and chaos. Due to the chaos, some leaders had more and more control over their (sub) commanders. For civilians, there was little security for murder, rape and blackmail. An estimated 25,000 people died during the period of heavy bombing by Hezb-i Islami of Hekmatyar and Junbish-i Milli forces of Abdul Rashid Dostum, who had formed an alliance with Hekmatyar in 1994, half a million people fled Afghanistan.

The south and east of Afghanistan was controlled by local commanders such as Gul Agha Sherzai and others. In 1994, the Taliban (a movement originally run by Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam, run by religious schools for Afghan refugees in Pakistan) developed as a political-religious force in Afghanistan. The Taliban seized control of southern Afghanistan for the first time in 1994, forcing dozens of local Pashtun leaders to capitulate.

In late 1994, Ahmad Shah Massud's forces clung to Kabul. The government of Rabbani has taken measures to reopen the courts, restore law and order, and initiate a national political process aimed at national consolidation and democratic elections. Massoud invited the Taliban leaders to join the process, but they refused.


Taliban Emirate and Northern Alliance

After the fall of Kabul for the Taliban, Massoud and Dostum formed the Northern Alliance. The Taliban defeated Dostum's forces during the Battles of Mazar-i-Sharif (1997-98). Pakistan's Chief of Staff, Pervez Musharraf, began sending thousands of Pakistanis to help the Taliban defeat the Northern Alliance. From 1996 to 2001, the al Qaeda network of Osama bin Laden and Ayman al-Zawahiri also operated in Afghanistan. This and the fact that nearly one million Afghans were internally displaced made the United States worry. From 1990 to September 2001, about 400 thousand Afghans died in the mini-internal wars.

On September 9, 2001, Massoud was killed by two Arab suicide bombers in Panjshir province in Afghanistan. Two days later, the September 11 attacks took place in the United States. The US government suspected Osama bin Laden as the perpetrator of the attacks and demanded that the Taliban hand him over. After refusing to comply, Operation Enduring Freedom of October 2001 was launched. During the initial invasion, US and UK forces bombed the training camps of al Qaeda. The United States began working with the Northern Alliance to remove the Taliban from power.


Recent history (2002–present)

In December 2001, after the government of the Taliban was overthrown and the new Afghan government under President Hamid Karzai was formed, the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) was created by the UN Security Council to help to help the Karzai administration and provide basic security. Taliban forces also began to regroup in Pakistan, while other coalition troops entered Afghanistan and began rebuilding the war-torn country.

Shortly after the fall of power, the Taliban began an insurgency to regain control of Afghanistan. In the next decade, the ISAF and the Afghan troops carried out many offensives against the Taliban, but they did not defeat them completely. Afghanistan remains one of the poorest countries in the world due to lack of foreign investment, government corruption and Taliban insurgency.

Meanwhile, the Afghan government managed to build some democratic structures, and the country changed its name to the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan. Attempts were often made with the support of foreign donor countries to improve the economy, health, education, transportation and agriculture of the country. ISAF forces also began to train the Afghan National Security Forces. In the decade after 2002, more than five million Afghans were repatriated, including some who were duly deported from Western countries.

In 2009, a bleak government led by the Taliban began to form in parts of the country. In 2010, President Karzai tried to carry out peace negotiations with the Taliban leaders, but the rebel group refused to participate until mid-2015, when the supreme leader of the Taliban finally decided to support the peace talks.

After the May 2011 death of Osama bin Laden in Pakistan, many prominent Afghan figures were killed. The struggles on the border between Afghanistan and Pakistan intensified and many large-scale attacks on the Haqqani network, based in Pakistan, also occurred throughout Afghanistan. The United States blamed dishonest elements within the Pakistani government for the increased attacks. The US government spent tens of billions of dollars on development aid over 15 years and more than a trillion dollars in military spending during the same period. Corruption of Western and Afghan associated defense and development contractors reached unprecedented levels in a country where the national GDP was only a small fraction of the US government's annual budget for the conflict.

After the 2014 presidential election, President Karzai left office and the president of Ashraf Ghanibecame in September 2014. The United States war in Afghanistan (the longest war in America) officially ended on December 28, 2014. However, thousands of NATO soldiers led by the US remained in the country to train and advise the Afghan government forces. The present 2001 war resulted in more than 90,000 direct war-related deaths, including insurgents, Afghan civilians and government forces. More than 100 thousand were injured.

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