The oldest proof of writing in Bangladesh is the inscription "Mahasthan Brahmi," which dates back to the 3rd century BC. Christ. During the Gupta Empire, Sanskrit literature flourished in the region. Bengali was developed by Sanskrit and Praguri in the 11th century. Bengali literature is a millennial tradition. The Charapapods are the earliest examples of Bengali poetry. Sufi spiritism has inspired many Bengali Muslim writers. During the sultan in Bengal, medieval writers from Bengal were influenced by Arabic and Persian works. Syed Alaol is a famous secular poet and translator. Chandidas are an example of popular literature in Bangladesh, which evolved during the Middle Ages. The Bengal Renaissance shaped the emergence of modern Bengali literature, including novels, stories and science fiction. Rabindranath Tagore is the first Nobel laureate of the Nobel Prize for Literature and is described as the Bengal Shakespeare. Kazi Nazrul Islam is a revolutionary poet who has resigned with a spiritual rebellion against colonialism and fascism. Begum Roquea was a pioneer of Bengali writing in English, with his early work on feminist science fiction. Other Renaissance icons include Michael Maddusdan Dut and Sarat Chandra Chadadhdhi.
The famous writer Syed Mujtaba Ali is known for his cosmopolitan Bengali worldview. Humeyung Ahmed is a popular writer of modern magnet realism and science fiction in Bangladesh. Shamsur Rahman is a poet's poet in Bangladesh for many years. Yasimudin is a known pastoral poet. Farrukh Ahmed, Sufi Kamal, Kaiser Hack and Nermalendou Gwon are important figures of contemporary poetry in Bangladesh. Famous writers from Bangladeshi novels include Mir Mosharraf Hossain, Akhteruzzaman Elias, Syed Waliullah, Shahidullah Kaiser Shawkat Osman, Selina Hossain, Taslima Nasrin, Haripada Datha, Razia Khan, Anisul Hoque, Al Mahmoud, Bipradash Barua, Tahmima Anam, Neamat Imam, Monica Ali and Zia Haider Rahman. Many Bangladeshi writers, such as Mohammed Zafar Ikabal, K. Anis Ahmed and Farah Gusnadi, are recognized for their short stories.
The annual Ekushey Book Fair and the Dhaka Literary Festival, organized by the Bangla Academy, are among the largest literary festivals in South Asia.
Women in Bangladesh
Although many women have held important political positions in Bangladesh since 2015, women in the country continue to suffer from a patriarchal social regime where violence is common. Wage levels for women in the 1980s were low, generally between 20 and 30% of male rates. While in India and Pakistan, women are less involved in the labor force as their education increases, there is a reverse trend in Bangladesh.
Bengal has a long history of feminist activity dating back to the 19th century. Roquia Sakhawat Hussain and Faizunnessa Chowdhurani have played an important role in the emancipation of purebred Muslim women from Bengal and in promoting girls' education. Several women were elected to the Bengal Legislative Assembly in the British Raj. The first Begum women's magazine was published in 1948. Women played an important role in civil society in Bengal, eastern Pakistan.
Women's participation in Bangladesh is one of the highest in the Muslim world: 59%. Women dominate blue jobs in Bangladesh's garment industry. Agriculture, social services, health and education are also the main occupations of women in Bangladesh; while employment growth for white-collar workers is growing steadily.
The architectural traditions of Bangladesh have a heritage of 2,500 years old. The terracotta architecture is a distinctive feature of Bengal. Bengali pre-Islamic architecture reached its peak during the Pala Empire, when the Pala School of Sculptural Art established large structures such as the Somapura Mahavihara. Islamic architecture began to develop under the Sultanate of Bengal, when local terracotta styles influenced the construction of medieval mosques. The Adina Mosque of Bengal undivided was the largest mosque built on the Indian subcontinent.
The Sixty Dome mosque was the largest medieval mosque built in Bangladesh, and is a good example of Turkish-Bengali architecture. The Mughal style replaced indigenous architecture when Bengal became a province of the Mughal Empire and influenced the development of urban housing. The Temple of Kantajew and the Temple of Dhakeshwari are excellent examples of the architecture of the late Hindu temples. The architecture of the Indo-Saracenic Renaissance, based on Indo-Islamic styles, flourished during the British period. The zamindar nobility in Bangladesh built numerous Indo-Saracenic palaces and country houses, such as the Ahsan Manzil, the Tajhat palace, the Dighapatia palace, Puthia Rajbari and Natore Rajbari.
The Bengali vernacular architecture stands out as a pioneer in the bungalow. The villages of Bangladesh consist of thatched houses made of natural materials such as mud, straw, wood and bamboo. In modern times, the bungalows in the villages are increasingly made of tin.
Muzharul Islam was the pioneer of modern architecture in Bangladesh. His varied works mark the course of modern architectural practice in the country. Islam brought the world's leading architects, including Louis Kahn, Richard Neutra, Stanley Tigerman, Paul Rudolph, Robert Boughey and Konstantinos Doxiadis, to work in ancient East Pakistan. Louis Kahn was chosen to design the National Parliament Complex in Sher-e-Bangla Nagar. Kahn's monumental designs, which combine the regional aesthetic of red brick, his own brutalism of marble and concrete and the use of lakes to represent Bengali geography, are considered one of the masterpieces of the 20th century. In more recent times, award-winning architects like Rafiq Azam have marked the course of contemporary architecture by adopting influences from the works of Islam and Kahn.
The theater in Bangladesh includes several forms, with a history that dates back to the 4th century AD. It includes narrative forms, songs and forms of dance, supra-personae forms, representations with scroll paintings, puppet theater and processional forms. Jatra is the most popular form of popular Bengali theater. The dance traditions of Bangladesh include indigenous forms of tribal and Bengali dance, as well as classical dances from India, including the Kathak, Odissi and Manipuri dances.
The music of Bangladesh presents the mystical tradition of Baul, cataloged by UNESCO as a masterpiece of intangible cultural heritage. Numerous musical traditions based on lyrics that include Gombhira, Bhatiali and Bhawaiya, which vary from one region to the next. Folk music is accompanied by the ektara, an instrument with a single string. Other instruments include dotara, dhol, flute and tabla. Classical Bengali music includes songs by Tagore and Nazrul geeti. Bangladesh has a rich tradition of Indian classical music, which uses instruments such as sitar, tabla, sarod and santoor.
Bangladesh has a rich heritage of ancient Indian and Islamic art, even in painting, sculpture and architecture. Terracotta works are a distinctive feature of Bengali art. Bengal also influenced the art of China, Japan, Southeast Asia and Tibet. The Pala-Sena school is considered to be the highlight of ancient Bengali art. Islamic medieval art was heavily influenced by Persian art, particularly in architecture, gardening and miniature painting. The Moghul emperors sponsored the weaving of Bengali artistic silk and muslin fabrics, including the famous Jamdani muslin. The Nawabs of Bengal were known for their condescension in the manufacture of ivory.
The modern art of Bangladesh began with the works of Zainul Abedin, a renowned painter. Other notable painters include SM Sultan, Mohammad Kibria, Shahabuddin Ahmed, Quamrul Hassan, Qayyum Chowdhury and Kanak Chanpa Chakma. Notably, the first modern sculptors included Novera Ahmed and Nitun Kundu. The country has a prosperous scene of contemporary art that has received international recognition. The Dhaka Art Summit is a biannual event that showcases works from Bangladesh for an international audience.
The martial arts of Bangladesh evolved in villages where zamindars used large private armies to protect their lands. The Lathi khela and the Boli Khela are two main forms of Bengali martial arts.
The Nakshi Kantha is a tradition of centuries-old embroidery for quilts, which is said to be indigenous to East Bengal (Bangladesh). The sari is the national dress for the woman of Bangladesh. Mughal Dhaka was famous for producing the best muslin saris, including the famous Dhakai and Jamdani, whose fabric is listed on the UNESCO list as one of the masterpieces of the intangible cultural heritage of mankind. Bangladesh also produces Rajshahi silk. Shalwar Kameez is also widely used by Bangladeshi women. In urban areas, some women can also be seen in western clothing. The kurta and the sherwani are the national dresses of the men of Bangladesh. Lungi and dhoti are used by Bengali men in informal settings. The handloom industry offers between 60 and 65% of the demand for clothing. In addition to ethnic wear, tailored suits and ties in the country are usually worn by men in the country, and are common in offices, schools and social events.
The Bengali ethnic fashion industry has flourished well in the changing environment of the fashion world. The retailer Aarong is one of the most successful ethnic clothing brands in South Asia. The development of the Bangladeshi textile industry, which supplies the main international brands, has promoted the production and retailing of modern Western garments locally, and now the country has several expanding local brands such as Westecs and Yellow . Bangladesh is the second largest garment exporter in the world.
Among Bangladeshi fashion designers, Bibi Russell has been internationally acclaimed for her "Fashion for Development" shows.
White rice is the main ingredient of Bangladesh cuisine, along with many vegetables and lentils. Rice preparations also include Bengal bryans, Pulaos and Kichiris. Sour sauce, gou, sunflower oil and lark are widely used in Bangladeshi cuisine. Fish is the main source of protein in Bengali cuisine. Hilsa is the national fish and is extremely popular in Bangladesh. Other fish include cockroaches, sea fish, catfish, tilapia and baramundi. Fish eggs are a gourmet delicacy. Seafood has an important place in Bengali cuisine, especially lobster, prawns and dried fish. The consumption of meat includes chicken, beef, lamb, caramel, duck and chicken. In Chittagong, Mezban Holidays is a popular tradition serving hot veal curry. In Silch, lemon juice is used to marinate dishes. In tribal mountainous terrain, the prevalence of bamboo shoots is predominant. Bangladesh has a wide variety of desserts, including distinctive sweets such as Roshogolla, Roshomalai, Chomchom, Mishti Doi and Kalojaam. Cookies are traditional cooked desserts made with rice or fruit. Halva is served during religious holidays. Naan, paratha, luchi and bakarkhani are the main local breads. Black tea is available to guests as a welcoming gesture. Kebabs are very popular in Bangladesh, especially in search of kebabs, chicken teak and shashlik.
Bangladesh shares its culinary heritage with the neighboring Indian state of West Bengal. However, the two regions have several differences. In the Muslim majority in Bangladesh, meat consumption is higher; In the predominant part of the Hindu West Bengal, vegetarianism is more widespread. The Bangladeshi diaspora dominates the South Asian restaurant industry in many Western countries, especially in the United Kingdom.
Pohela Boishakh, the new Bengali year, is the main festival of Bengali culture and sees widespread festivities. Of the main festivals held in Bangladesh, only Pohela Boishakh comes without any pre-existing expectations (specific religious identity, gift culture, etc.). Unlike parties like Eid al-Fitr, where dressing in splendid clothes has become a norm, or Christmas where exchanging gifts has become an integral part of the holiday, Pohela Boishakh really tries to celebrate the simplest rural roots of Bengal. As a result, more people can participate in the festivities together without the burden of having to reveal their class, religion or financial ability. Other cultural festivals include Nabonno and Poush Parbon, both Bengali harvest festivals.
The Muslim feasts of Eid al-Fitr, Eid al-Adha, Milad a Nabi, Muharram, Chand Raat, Shab-e-Barat; the Hindu festivals of Durga Puja, Janmashtami and Rath Yatra; The Buddhist festival of Buddha Purnima, which marks the birth of Gautama Buddha, and the Christian Christmas festival are national holidays in Bangladesh and are the most widespread celebrations in the country.
In addition, there are national days such as the commemoration of February 21, 1952, Day of the Language Movement (International Mother Language Day), Independence Day and Victory Day. On the Day of the Language Movement, people congregate at the Shaheed Minar in Dhaka to remember the national heroes of the Bengali Language Movement, and at the Jatiyo Smriti Soudho on Independence Day and Victory Day to remember to the national heroes of the Bangladesh Liberation War. These occasions are observed with public ceremonies, parades, citizen rallies, political speeches, fairs, concerts and other public and private events that celebrate the history and traditions of Bangladesh. TV and radio stations broadcast special programs and patriotic songs. And many schools and universities organize fairs, festivals and concerts in which citizens of all levels of society can participate.
Cricket is one of the most popular sports in Bangladesh, followed by football. The National Cricket Team participated in its first Cricket World Cup in 1999, and the following year, it received the status of elite cricket. But they have fought so far, recording only ten Test victories: eight against Zimbabwe with five in 2005 and three in 2014, the other two winning a 2-0 win against the West Indies in 2009.
The team has had more success in One Day International cricket. In July 2010, they celebrated their first triumph against England in any form of match. Later in 2010, they beat New Zealand for the first time. At the end of 2012, they won a five-game home series against ODI against a national team from the West Indies. In 2011, Bangladesh successfully organized the 2011 ICC Cricket World Cup with India and Sri Lanka. In 2012, the country hosted the Asian Cup. The team defeated India and Sri Lanka, but failed to maintain their reputation in the last game against Pakistan. However, it was the first time Bangladesh advanced at the end of any major cricket tournament. They competed at the 2010 Asian Games in Guangzhou, beating Afghanistan to claim their gold medal at the first Asian Games cricket tournament. The Bangladeshi cricket player Sakib Al Hasan is ranked number one in the CIC multi-discipline ranking in all three cricket formats.
Kabaddi is a very popular game in Bangladesh, considered the national game. Other popular sports include field hockey, tennis, badminton, handball, basketball, volleyball, chess, shooting and fishing. The National Sports Council regulates 42 different sports federations.
Bangladesh has 5 great masters in chess. Among them, Niaz Murshed was the first great teacher in South Asia. In another achievement, Margarita Mamun, a Russian rhythmic gymnast of Bangladeshi origin, became world champion in 2013 and 2014.