Bangladesh

Introduction

Introduction

Bangladesh, officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh, is a sovereign state in South Asia. It forms the largest and eastern portion of the ethno-linguistic region of Bengal. Located at the top of the Bay of Bengal, the country borders India and Myanmar, and is separated from Nepal and Bhutan by the narrow Siliguri corridor. With a population of 170 million, it is the eighth most populous country in the world, the fifth most populous in Asia and the third most populated with a Muslim majority. The official Bengali language is the seventh most spoken language in the world, which Bangladesh shares with the neighboring states of West Bengal, Tripura and Assam (Barak Valley).

Three of the largest rivers in Asia, the Ganges (known locally as the Padma), the Brahmaputra (locally known as the Jamuna) and the Meghna, flow through Bangladesh and form the fertile Bengal Delta, the largest delta in the world. world. With great biodiversity, Bangladesh is home to 700 rivers, most of the world's largest mangrove forest; jungle and tea growing highlands; a coastline of 600 km (370 miles) with the longest beach in the world; and several islands, including a coral reef. Bangladesh is one of the most densely populated countries in the world, along with South Korea and Monaco. The capital, Dhaka, and the port city of Chittagong are the most prominent urban centers. The predominant ethnic group are Bengalis, with a politically dominant Bengali Muslim majority, followed by Bengali Hindus, Chakmas, Bengali Christians, Marmas, Tanchangyas, Bisnupriya Manipuris, Bengali Buddhists, Garos, Santhals, Biharis, Oraons, Tripuris, Worlds, Rakhines, Rohingyas, Ismailis and Bahais.

The Great Bengal was known by the ancient Greeks and Romans as Gangaridai. The people of the delta developed their own language, script, literature, music, art and architecture. Early Asian literature described the region as a sea power. It was an important access point of the historic Silk Road. Bengal was absorbed into the Muslim world and ruled by sultans for four centuries, including under the Sultanate of Delhi and the Sultanate of Bengal. This was followed by the administration of the Mughal Empire. The Islamic Bengal was a melting pot of cultures, a regional power and a key player in medieval world trade. The British colonial conquest took place at the end of the 18th century. Nationalism, social reforms and the arts developed under the British Raj in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, when the region was a hotbed of the anti-colonial movement in the subcontinent.

The first British partition of Bengal in 1905, which created the province of East Bengal and Assam, set the precedent for the partition of British India in 1947, when East Bengal joined the Dominion of Pakistan and was renamed as East Pakistan in 1955. It was separated from West Pakistan by 1,400 kilometers (870 mi) of Indian territory. Eastern Pakistan housed the country's demographic majority and legislative capital. The Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971 resulted in the secession of East Pakistan as a new republic with a secular multiparty parliamentary democracy. A state of an ephemeral party and several military coups in 1975 established a presidential government. The restoration of the parliamentary republic in 1991 led to improved economic growth and relative stability. Bangladesh continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption, polarized politics, human rights abuses by security forces, overpopulation and global warming. However, the country has made notable progress in human development, including those related to health, education, gender equality, population control and food production. The poverty rate has been reduced from 57% in 1990 to 25.6% in 2014.

Considered a medium power in international affairs and an important developing country, Bangladesh is listed as one of the following eleven. It is a unitary state with an elected parliament called Jatiyo Sangshad. Bangladesh has the third largest army and economy in South Asia after India and Pakistan. It is a founding member of SAARC and houses the permanent secretariat of BIMSTEC. The country is the largest global contributor to United Nations peacekeeping operations. It is a member of developing countries 8, the OIC, the Commonwealth of Nations, the World Trade Organization, the Group of 77, the Non-Aligned Movement, BCIM and the Indian Ocean Association. The country has important natural resources, including natural gas and limestone. Agriculture produces mainly rice, jute and tea. Historically renowned for muslin and silk, modern Bangladesh is one of the leading producers

Considered a medium power in international affairs and an important developing country, Bangladesh is listed as one of the following eleven. It is a unitary state with an elected parliament called Jatiyo Sangshad. Bangladesh has the third largest army and economy in South Asia after India and Pakistan. He is a founding member of SAARC and hosts the permanent secretariat of BIMSTEC. The country is the largest global contributor to UN peacekeeping operations. He is a member of developing countries 8, of the OIC, of ​​the Commonwealth of Nations, of the World Trade Organization, of the 77 Group, of the Non-Aligned Movement, of BCIM and of the Indian Ocean. The country has important natural resources, including natural gas and limestone. Agriculture mainly produces rice, jute and tea. Historically recognized by muslin and silk, modern Bangladesh is one of the world's leading textile manufacturers. Its main commercial partners include the European Union, the United States, Japan and other neighboring nations of China, Singapore, Malaysia and India.


Understand

British India was divided by joint leaders of the Congress, the Indian-Muslim League and Great Britain in the summer of 1947, creating the kingdoms of the Commonwealth of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan and a Republic of India. Bangladesh began to exist in 1971 when East Bengali-speaking Pakistan broke away from its union with western Pakistan dominated by the Punjab after a bloody nine-month war. Although Bangladesh emerged as an independent country only in 1971, its history goes back thousands of years and has long been known as a crossroads of history and culture. Here you will find the longest sea beach in the world, countless mosques, the largest mangrove forest in the world, interesting tribal villages and a lot of elusive wildlife. Although relatively poor compared to its flourishing South Asian neighbor, India, Bangladeshis are very friendly and hospitable people, who give personal hospitality to personal finances.

Ready-made garments, textiles, pharmaceuticals, agricultural products, shipbuilding and fishing are some of the largest industries. The gap between rich and poor is increasingly obvious and the middle class is shrinking rapidly, as in the rest of Asia, especially in cities such as Dhaka and Chittagong as it moves between the old working class city and wealthy neighborhoods like Gulshan and Baridhara.


Climate

Bangladesh has a subtropical monsoon climate. There are six seasons in a year: winter (December-January), spring (February-March), summer (April-May), monsoon (June-July), autumn (August-September) and late autumn (October-November) . The average temperature throughout the country generally ranges from 9 C - 29 C in the winter months and between 21 C - 34 C during the summer months. The annual rainfall varies from 160 cm to 200 cm in the west, from 200 cm to 400 cm in the southeast and from 250 cm to 400 cm in the northeast. Cyclones above category three / four are rare (especially in the deep winter of January to March), but although they are rare, they can still cause widespread disruption of infrastructure and energy failures, especially in coastal areas. . It is recommended that you do not travel in the southern part of the country (Khulna, Bagerhat, Chittagong, Cox's Bazaar) during this season.

In summer try to use cotton clothes because it is very wet. Be careful during the rainy season: even large cities such as Dhaka and Chittagong are quickly submerged by torrential rains, and open drains or missing sewer covers can be fatal. The best time to visit is from October to February.


Geography

The geography of Bangladesh is divided among three regions. Most of the country is dominated by the fertile delta of the Ganges-Brahmaputra. The parts of the northwest and center of the country are formed by Madhupur and the plateaus of Barind. The northeast and the southeast house evergreen mountain ranges. The Ganges delta is formed by the confluence of the Ganges (local name Padma or Pôdda), Brahmaputra (Jamuna or Jomuna) and the Meghna rivers and their respective tributaries. The Ganges joins with the Jamuna (main channel of the Brahmaputra) and then joins the Meghna, which eventually flows into the Bay of Bengal. The alluvial soil deposited by rivers when they overflow their banks has created some of the most fertile plains in the world. Bangladesh has 57 transboundary rivers, which makes water-related problems politically difficult to solve, in most cases like India's lower riverine state.

Bangladesh is predominantly fertile and fertile land. Most parts of Bangladesh are less than 12 m (39.4 ft) above sea level, and it is estimated that approximately 10% of the land would be flooded if sea level increased by 1 m (3 m). , 28 feet) .17% of the country is covered by forests and 12% is covered by hill systems. The country's haor wetlands are of great importance for global environmental science.

In southeastern Bangladesh, experiments have been conducted since the 1960s to "build with nature." The construction of crossed dams has induced a natural accumulation of silt, creating new lands. With the Dutch funds, the government of Bangladesh began to promote the development of this new land in the late seventies. The effort has become an effort of several agencies, the construction of roads, sewers, embankments, cyclone shelters, toilets and ponds, as well as the distribution of land to settlers. By the fall of 2010, the program will have allocated some 27,000 acres (10,927 ha) to 21,000 families. With an elevation of 1,064 m (3,491 ft), the highest peak in Bangladesh is Keokradong, near the border with Myanmar.

Biodiversity

Bangladesh ratified the Rio Convention on Biological Diversity on May 3, 1994. As of 2014, the country must review its National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan.

Bangladesh is located in the ecological zone of Indomalaya. Its ecology includes a long coastline, numerous rivers and tributaries, lakes, wetlands, evergreen forests, semi-evergreen forests, hilly forests, deciduous moist forests, swampy freshwater forests and flat lands with tall grass. The plain of Bangladesh is famous for its fertile alluvial soil that supports extensive cultivation. The country is dominated by lush vegetation, with villages often buried in forests of mango, jaca, bamboo, betel nut, coconut and date palm. There are 6000 species of plants, including 5000 plants with flowers. Water bodies and wetland systems provide a habitat for many aquatic plants. Water lilies and lotuses grow vividly during the monsoon. The country has 50 wildlife sanctuaries.

Bangladesh is home to a large part of the Sundarbans, the largest mangrove forest in the world. It covers an area of ​​6,000 km2 in the southwestern coastal region. It is divided into three protected sanctuaries: the south, east and west zones. The forest is a UNESCO World Heritage site. The north-eastern region of Sylhet is home to wetlands, which is a unique ecosystem. It also includes tropical and subtropical coniferous forests, a swamp freshwater forest and mixed deciduous forests. The southeastern region of Chittagong covers evergreen and semi-evergreen mountain forests. The center of Bangladesh includes the flat salt forest that runs along the districts of Gazipur, Tangail and Mymensingh. St. Martin's Island is the only coral reef in the country.

Bangladesh has a lot of wildlife in its forests, marshes, forests and hills. The vast majority of animals live in a habitat of 150,000 km2. The Bengal tiger, the clouded leopard, the saltwater crocodile, the black panther and the fisherman are among the main predators of the Sundarbans. The north and east of Bangladesh is home to the Asian elephant, the gibbon hoolock, the Asian black bear and the eastern hornbill of various colors.

Chital deer are widely seen in the forests of the southwest. Other animals include the giant black squirrel, crowned langur, Bengal fox, sambar deer, jungle cat, king cobra, wild boar, mongooses, pangolins, pythons and water monitors. Bangladesh has one of the largest populations of Irrawaddy dolphins and Gangetic dolphins. A 2009 census found 6,000 Irrawaddy dolphins that inhabit the coastal rivers of Bangladesh. The country has numerous species of amphibians (53), reptiles (139), marine reptiles (19) and marine mammals (5). It has 628 species of birds.

Several animals became extinct in Bangladesh during the last century, including a horn and two horns of rhinoceros and common peacock. The human population is concentrated in urban areas, which limits deforestation to some extent. Rapid urban growth has threatened natural habitats. Although many areas are protected by law, a large part of Bangladesh's wildlife is threatened by this growth. The Environmental Conservation Act of Bangladesh was enacted in 1995. The government has designated several regions as ecologically critical areas, including wetlands, forests and rivers. The Sundarbans Tiger project and the Bangladesh Bear project are among the key initiatives to strengthen conservation.


Demographics

Estimates of Bangladesh's population vary, but the most recent data suggest between 162 and 168 million people (2015). However, the 2011 census estimated 142.3 million, much less than recent estimates (2007-2010) of the population of Bangladesh ranging from 150 to 170 million. Bangladesh is therefore the eighth most populous nation in the world. In 1951, the population was only 44 million. It is also the most densely populated large country in the world, and ranks 11th in population density, when very small countries and city-states are included.

The population growth rate of Bangladesh was one of the highest in the world in the 1960s and 1970s, when its population grew from 65 to 110 million. With the promotion of birth control in the 1980s, the growth rate began to decline. The fertility rate now stands at 2.55, lower than India (2.58) and Pakistan (3.07). The population is relatively young, with 34% of 15 years or less and 5% 65 or more. Life expectancy at birth is estimated at 70 years for men and women in 2012. Despite the rapid economic growth, about 26% of the country still lives below the international poverty line, which means living with less than $ 1.25 per day. Bengalis make up 98% of the population.

Minorities include indigenous people in the Chittagong Hill Tracts and other parts of northern Bangladesh. The Hill Tracts is home to 11 tribal ethnic groups, especially Chakma, Marma, Tanchangya, Tripuri, Kuki, Khiang, Khumi, Murang, Mru, Chak, Lushei and Bawm. The Sylhet Division is home to the Bishnupriya Manipuri, Khasi and Jaintia tribes. The Mymensingh district has a substantial Garo population. The northern region of Bangladesh is home to aboriginal Santal, Munda and Oraon. Bangladesh is also home to a large Ismaili community.

The southeastern region received an influx of Rohingya refugees from Burma, particularly during the Burmese military repressions in 1978 and 1991. During the renewed sectarian riots in Rakhine State in 2012, Bangladesh closed its borders amid fears of a third major exodus of refugees. Burma The stranded Pakistanis or Biharis are a contentious dispute between Bangladesh and Pakistan. In 2008, the Bangladesh High Court granted full citizenship to all second-generation Pakistanis born after 1971. The Hill Tracts region suffered riots and an insurgency from 1975 to 1997 due to an indigenous movement for autonomy. A peace agreement was signed in 1997; however, the region remains heavily militarized.

Religion

Islam is the largest religion in Bangladesh, with about 88% of the population adhering to it. The country is home to the majority of Bengali Muslims, the second largest ethnic group in the Muslim world. The majority of Bangladeshi Muslims are Sunni, followed by Shiites and Ahmadis. About 4% are non-denominational Muslims. Bangladesh has the fourth largest Muslim population in the world and is the third largest Muslim country after Indonesia and Pakistan.

Hinduism is followed by about 11% of the population, the majority being Hindu Bengali and a small ethnic segment. The Hindu people of Bangladesh are the second largest religious group in the country and the third largest Hindu community in the world after those in India and Nepal. Hindus in Bangladesh are distributed almost equally in all regions, with large concentrations in Gopalganj, Dinajpur, Sylhet, Sunamganj, Mymensingh, Khulna, Jessore, Chittagong and parts of Chittagong Hill Tracts. And despite the decrease in their number, Hindus are the second largest religious community after the Muslims of Dhaka.

Buddhism is the third largest religion, with 0.6%. Bangladesh Buddhists are largely concentrated among the Chittagong Hill Tracts ethnic groups, particularly the Chakma, Marma and Tanchangya peoples; while the Chittagong Coast is home to the large number of Bengali Buddhists.

Christianity is the fourth largest religion at 0.3%.

The remaining population of 0.1% follows several popular religions and animist religions.

Many people in Bangladesh practice Sufism, which has a long tradition in the region. The largest gathering of Muslims in the country is the Bishwa Ijtema, which is celebrated every year by the Tablighi Jamaat. Ijtema is the second largest Muslim congregation in the world after Hajj.

The Constitution of Bangladesh declares Islam as the religion of the state, but prohibits religious policy. Proclaim the same recognition of Hindus, Buddhists, Christians and people of all religions. In early 1972, Bangladesh became the first constitutionally secular country in South Asia. The US State Department UU describes Bangladesh as a pluralistic secular democracy.


Economy

Bangladesh is a developing country, with a mixed market-based economy and is listed as one of the emerging markets of Next Eleven. Bangladesh's per capita income was US $ 1,190 in 2014, with a GDP of US $ 209 billion. In South Asia, Bangladesh has the third largest economy after India and Pakistan, and has the second largest foreign exchange reserve after India. The Bangladeshi diaspora contributed 15.31 billion US dollars in 2015.

During the first five years of independence, Bangladesh adopted socialist policies that turned out to be a critical mistake of the Awami League. The subsequent military regime and the governments of the BNP party and the Jatiya party reestablished free markets and promoted the private sector in Bangladesh. In 1991, Finance Minister Saifur Rahman launched a series of liberal reforms. Since then, Bangladesh's private sector has grown rapidly, with many conglomerates now stimulating the economy. Major industries include textiles, pharmaceuticals, shipbuilding, steel, electronics, energy, building materials, chemicals, ceramics, food processing and leather goods. Export-oriented industrialization has increased in recent years and the country's exports have reached 30 billion US dollars. UU In 2014-2015. Bangladesh's predominant export earnings come from its clothing sector. The country also has a vibrant business sector, which includes the microfinance institution that won the Grameen Bank Nobel Peace Prize and the largest non-governmental development agency BRAC.

Inadequate energy supply is a major impediment to growth. According to the World Bank, poor governance, corruption and weak public institutions are the main challenges for Bangladesh's development. In April 2010, Standard & Poor's granted Bangladesh a long-term credit rating of BB, which is lower than India and well above Pakistan and Sri Lanka.

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