Brunei

Introduction

Introduction

Brunei , officially the Nation of Brunei, the Abode of Peace , is a sovereign state located on the north coast of the island of Borneo, in Southeast Asia. In addition to its coastline with the South China Sea, the country is completely surrounded by the state of Sarawak, Malaysia. It is divided into two parts by the Sarawak district of Limbang. Brunei is the only sovereign state completely on the island of Borneo; the rest of the island's territory is divided between the nations of Malaysia and Indonesia. The population of Brunei was 408,786 in July 2012.

At the height of the Bruneian Empire, Sultan Bolkiah (who ruled between 1485 and 1528) controlled most parts of Borneo, including the current Sarawak and Sabah and the Sulu Archipelago, northeast of Borneo, Seludong. (Modern Manila), and the islands in the northwest corner of Borneo. The maritime state was visited by the Magellan Expedition of Spain in 1521 and fought against Spain in the Castile War of 1578.

During the 19th century, the Bruneian Empire began to decline. The sultanate gave Sarawak (Kuching) to James Brooke and set him up as white Raja, and gave Sabah to the Northern British Chatting Company of Borneo. In 1888, Brunei became a British protectorate and was assigned a British resident as colonial director in 1906. After the Japanese occupation during the Second World War, a new constitution was written in 1959. In 1962, a small rebellion army against the monarchy ended with the help of the British.

Brunei gained independence from the United Kingdom on 1 January 1984. The economic growth of the 1990s and 2000s, with a GDP increase of 56 per cent between 1999 and 2008, turned Brunei into an industrialized country. He has developed the wealth of vast fields of oil and natural gas. Brunei has the second highest human development index among Southeast Asian countries, after Singapore, and is classified as a "developed country". According to the International Monetary Fund (IMF), Brunei ranks fifth in the world in gross domestic product per capita in purchasing power parity. The IMF calculated in 2011 that Brunei was one of two countries (the other was Libya) with a public debt of 0% of national GDP. Forbes also ranks Brunei as the richest fifth nation in 182, based on its oil and gas fields.


Geography and climate

The climate of Brunei is semi-tropical and Bandar Seri Begawan is subtropical. Temperatures vary from 14 to 33 ° C, with January being the warmest month. The rainy season is always soft and humid, followed by a hot and humid dry season. However, the difference between the two stations is not marked.

The topology of Brunei is a flat coastal plain that rises to the mountains in the east, Bukit Pagan being the highest point at 1,850 meters, with some mountainous highlands in the west.

There are no typhoons, earthquakes, serious floods and other forms of natural catastrophes to confront, and the biggest environmental problems are the seasonal ones caused by forest fires (caused by clandestine clearings) in neighboring Indonesia.


Demographics

Native indigenous Brunei include Belait, Brunei Bisaya (not to be confused with the neighboring Bisaya / Visaya Philippines), Brunei Malaysia, Dusun, Kedayan, Lun Bawang, Murut and Tutong.

The population of Brunei in July 2013 was 415,717, 76% of whom live in urban areas. The urbanization rate is estimated at 2.13% per year from 2010 to 2015. The average life expectancy is 77.7 years. In 2014, 65.7% of the population was Malaysian, 10.3% Chinese, 3.4% Aboriginal, 20.6% of the smaller groups making up the rest. The official language of Brunei is Malay. Ministry of Culture, Youth and Sports supports linguistic movement to increase language use in Brunei

The main language spoken is Melayu Brunei (Malaise Brunei). Malaysian brunettei is very different from standard Malay and the rest of the Malaysian dialects, being about 84% related to standard Malay and is mostly unintelligible to each other.

English and Chinese are also widely spoken, English is also used in business, as a language of work and as a language of instruction from primary to higher education, and there is a relatively large expatriate community.

Most expatriates come from non-Muslim countries such as Australia, the United Kingdom, South Korea, Japan, the Philippines, Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam and India.

Other languages ​​and dialects spoken are Arabic, Malay Kedayan dialect, Malay dialect Tutong, Murut and Dusun.


Religion

Islam is the official religion of Brunei, especially that of the Sunni branch, dictated by the Shafi'i Madhhab. Two-thirds of the population, including most Malaysians from Brunei and Chinese from Brunei, adhere to Islam. Other religions practiced are Buddhism (13%, mainly by the Chinese) and Christianity (10%). Free thinkers, mainly Chinese, represent about 7% of the population. Although most practice some form of religion with elements of Buddhism, Confucianism, and Taoism, they prefer to present themselves as having not officially practiced any religion, and therefore as atheists in official censuses. Followers of indigenous religions make up about 2% of the population.


Economy

Brunei's small and rich economy is a mix of foreign and domestic enterprises, government regulations, social measures and village traditions. The production of crude oil and natural gas accounts for about 90% of GDP. Some 167,000 barrels (26,600 m3) of oil are produced each day, making Brunei the fourth largest oil producer in Southeast Asia. It also produces about 25.3 million cubic meters of natural gas per day, making Brunei the ninth largest exporter of natural gas in the world.

Substantial income from foreign investment complements domestic production revenues. Most of these investments are made by the Brunei Investment Agency, a branch of the Ministry of Finance. The government provides all medical services and subsidizes rice and housing.

The national airline, Royal Brunei Airlines, is trying to make Brunei a modest international travel hub between Europe and Australia / New Zealand. The airline's position at London Heathrow Airport is at the heart of this strategy. It has a daily place at the airport which is heavily controlled by capacity, serving the Bandar Seri Begawan via Dubai. The airline also serves major Asian destinations including Shanghai, Bangkok, Singapore and Manila.

Brunei relies heavily on imports, such as agricultural products (rice, food, livestock, etc.), automobiles and electrical products from other countries. Brunei imports 60% of its food needs; of this amount, about 75% comes from ASEAN countries.

The leaders of Brunei are very concerned that the growing integration into the global economy will undermine internal social cohesion. But he has become a bigger player by acting as the president of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Forum 2000. The leaders plan to improve the workforce, reduce unemployment, which was 6, 9% in 2014; strengthen the banking and tourism sectors and, in general, broaden the economic base.

The Brunei government has also promoted food self-sufficiency, especially in rice. Brunei renamed Brunei Rice 1 to Laila Rice at the launching ceremony of the "Padi Planting Toward Achieving Self-Sufficiency in Rice Production in Brunei Darussalam" in the Wasan Padi Fields in April 2009. In August 2009, the Royal Family collected the first strains of Laila padi, after years of attempts to revive local rice production, an objective initially articulated about half a century ago. In July 2009, Brunei launched its national halal brand system, Brunei Halal, with the aim of exporting to foreign markets.

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