Nanjing is the capital of Jiangsu province, People's Republic of China and the second largest city in the east China region,with a total population of 8,230,000, Situated in the heartland of the Yangtze River Delta, it has long been a major center of culture, education, research, politics, economy, transport networks and tourism, and legally remains the capital of Republic of China which lost the mainland during the civil war.
The city has a prominent place in Chinese history and culture, having served as the capitals of various Chinese dynasties, kingdoms and republican governments dating from the 3rd century AD to 1949. Prior to the advent of pinyin romanization, Nanjing's city name was spelled as Nanking or Nankin. Nanjing has a number of other names, and some historical names are now used as names of districts of the city, and among them there is the name Jiangning (江寧), whose former character Jiang (江, River) is the former part of the name Jiangsu and latter character Ning (寧, simplified form 宁, Peace) is the short name of Nanjing. When being the capital of a state, for instance, the ROC, Jing (京) is adopted as the abbreviation of Nanjing. Although as a city located in southern part of China becoming Chinese national capital as early as in Jin dynasty, the name Nanjing was designated to the city in Ming dynasty, about a thousand years later. Nanjing is particularly known as Jinling or Ginling (金陵, literally "Gold Mountain") and the old name has been used since the Warring States Period in Zhou Dynasty.
Located in Yangtze River Delta area and the center of east China, Nanjing is home to one of the world's largest inland ports. Nanjing is also one of the fifteen sub-provincial cities in the People's Republic of China's administrative structure, enjoying jurisdictional and economic autonomy only slightly less than that of a province. Nanjing has been ranked seventh in the evaluation of "Cities with Strongest Comprehensive Strength" issued by the National Statistics Bureau, and second in the evaluation of cities with most sustainable development potential in the Yangtze River Delta. It has also been awarded the title of 2008 Habitat Scroll of Honour of China, Special UN Habitat Scroll of Honour Award and National Civilized City. Nanjing boasts many high-quality universities and research institutes, with the number of universities listed in 100 National Key Universities ranking third, including Nanjing University.The ratio of college students to total population ranks No.1 among large cities nationwide. Nanjing is one of the three Chinese top research centers according to Nature Index.
Nanjing, one of the nation's most important cities for over a thousand years, is recognized as one of the Four Great Ancient Capitals of China, and had been the world's largest city aggregately for hundreds of years, enjoyed peace and prosperity and beared wars and disasters.It has been serving as the capital city of Jiangsu province after the People's Republic of China was established, and is still the nominal capital of the Republic of China that accommodates many of its important heritage sites, including the Presidential Palace and Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum. Nanjing is famous for human historical landscapes, mountains and waters such as Fuzimiao, Ming Palace, Chaotian Palace, Porcelain Tower, Drum Tower, Stone City, City Wall, Qinhuai River, Xuanwu Lake and Purple Mountain. Key cultural facilities include Nanjing Library, Nanjing Museum and Art Museum.
|FOUNDED :||unknown (Yecheng, 495 BC. Jinling City, 333 BC)|
|TIME ZONE :||China Standard (UTC+8)|
|LANGUAGE :||Standard Chinese or Mandarin (Putonghua, based on the Beijing dialect), Yue (Cantonese), Wu (Shanghainese), Minbei (Fuzhou), Minnan (Hokkien-Taiwanese), Xiang, Gan, Hakka dialects, minority languages (see Ethnic groups entry)|
|RELIGION :||Daoist (Taoist), Buddhist, Christian 3%-4%, Muslim 1%-2%; note: officially atheist|
|AREA :||6,598 km2 (2,548 sq mi)|
|ELEVATION :||20 m (50 ft)|
|COORDINATES :||32°03′N 118°46′E|
|SEX RATIO :||• Male: 51.83|
• Female: 48.17
|ETHNIC :||Han Chinese 91.5%, Zhuang, Manchu, Hui, Miao, Uyghur, Tujia, Yi, Mongol, Tibetan, Buyi, Dong, Yao, Korean, and other nationalities 8.5%|
|AREA CODE :||25|
|POSTAL CODE :||210000–211300|
|DIALING CODE :||+86 25|
|WEBSITE :||Official Website|
Nanjing is one of the most beautiful cities of mainland China with lush green parks, natural scenic lakes, small mountains, historical buildings and monuments, relics and much more, which attracts thousands of tourists every year.
The city pass can be bought for ¥100 at the entrance to any of the big parks in the city, such as the zoo or Yuhuatai Memorial Park and provides you with free entry to 21 different locations. You need to provide a passport photo for each pass and they are valid for one calendar year.
- Qin Huai River (秦淮河). Qin Huai River, a branch of the great Yangtze River, is 110 kilometers (about 68 miles) in length and covers a drainage area of 2,631 square kilometers (about 1,016 square miles). The river was originally called Huai River, and it is said that the river was channeled to the city of Nanjing during the reign of Emperor Qin Shi Huang, so it was named Qin Huai River from then on. Qin Huai River is the largest river in the Nanjing City area and is the 'life blood' of the city. Qin Huai River is so fascinating that it captures the imaginations of people both at home and abroad.There are many famous sites of interest along the banks of the Qin Huai River , including Confucius Temple just 5 minutes away, Zhanyuan Garden, Zhonghua Gate, and the sights along the Taoye Ferry ride to Zhenhuai Bridge.Taking the painted boats to cruise on the Qinhuai River, visitors can not only admire the sights along the river but can also experience the traditional culture of Nanjing. Visitors can take boats at different wharfs to admire the scenery along the river.
- City Wall of Nanjing (城墙). The City Wall of Nanjing was designed by Emperor Zhu Yuanzhang (r. 1368-1398) after he founded the Ming Dynasty(1368-1644) and established Nanjing as the capital 600 years ago. To consolidate his sovereignty and keep out invaders, he adopted the suggestions of advisor Zhu Sheng to build a higher city wall, to collect grains and to postpone the coronation. Then, he started to build the city wall. It took 21 years for the project, which involved 200,000 laborers to move 7 million cubic meters of earth.
- Confucius Temple (夫子庙). Once an imperial examination testing center for the entire Jiangsu region, this museum comprises a tiny fraction of the once-massive original buildings. The rest of the site is a massive, labyrinthine market; a top tourist draw in Nanjing and a place where you can get all your haggling out of your system. Get your picture taken with the Confucius sculpture and grab some tea on one of the gondolas on the canal. On the southern side of town next to Zhonghua Gate and the Taiping Museum.
- The Gate of China (Zhonghuamen) (中华门), 8 Jiefeng Gate, Zhonghuanan Lu (Take subway line 1 to Zhonghuamen station and get out at exit #2, cross the highway and turn right, keep walking till you get to Yuhua lu, turn left and head straight to the gate), 12358. The southern gate of Nanjing's city wall; this massive gate is one of the best preserved parts of Nanjing's city wall, and one of the best remaining examples of early Ming defensive architecture extant anywhere. The wooden castle at top was destroyed by fire, but the immense masonry (each complete with the mason's name and home province by order of the emperor) substructure remains. Two courtyards contain an archery range and vegetable gardens. The main gate has three immense depots within where, long emptied of provisions, you can find some scale models and exhibits about the gate. In one depot you can find an air raid siren used during the Japanese attack on the city.¥50 to enter.
- Ruins of the Ming Dynasty Imperial Palace (明故宫遗址), ZhongshanDong Lu(Directly above Minggugong subway station on line 2). The palace was built by the first Ming Emperor in 1366 and originally stretched 2.5km in length. It was completely destroyed in the Qing Dynasty and what remains today barely hints at its size. In the tree shaded southern half are the small section of wall holding the huge arches of the Meridian Gate, five stone 'Outer Dragon' bridges and a array of megaliths, some baring fragments of carvings. The site was effectively a prototype of Beijing's Forbidden City as the layout was copied by the Emperors grandson when he moved the capital northwards in 1421. Free.
- Nanjing Massacre Memorial Hall (侵华日军南京大屠杀遇难同胞纪念馆), 418 Shuiximen DaJie (Next to YunJinLu Subway station), e-mail:[email protected]. 08:30-16:30; Closed Mondays. A memorial for the hundreds of thousands of Chinese who died at the hands of Japanese troops in Nanjing during World War II. Two partially excavated mass-burial sites reveal victims remains in situ, accompanied by insightful information boards around the walkway. The elongated sites sympathetically restrained architecture and beautifully maintained gardens are interspersed with sculptures, murals and other artworks that inspire solemn meditations. Close to the entrance is the recently opened museum exhibiting multitudes of photos, videos and objects to tell the full story, somewhat even-handedly, that can easily occupy you for hours. Captions are in English, Chinese, and Japanese. Entrance lines can be long, so plan accordingly. Free.
- Nanjing Museum (南京博物院), 321 ZhongshanDong Lu (Next to Zhongshan Gate). 830-1700. Eleven exhibition halls display a mixture of poetry, bronzes and silk artifacts interspersed with cultural displays. Worth pondering over are a jade burial suit and an arched door from the Ming era Porcelain Pagoda. A great place to spend humid or rainy days. Free.
- Presidential Palace (总统府), 292 Changjiang Lu (Walk out from Daxinggong (大行宫) metro station, turn into Changjiang Lu, it will be on your left.), 025-84578700. 08:00-18:00 in summer, 08:00-17:00 in winter. Spend half a day exploring the headquarters of past emperors and the Nationalist government. The Palace includes the former offices of many top governmental officials, including Chiang Kai-shek and Sun Yat-sen, as well as the former residence of Sun Yat-sen. It is one the few places in mainland China where the flag of the Republic of China still flies. Informational placards around the palace are partly in English.¥40.
- Taiping Kingdom History Museum (太平天国历史博物馆) (About 400m from Sanshanjie metro station), 025-52238687. 08:00 - 17:00. A small museum focusing on the Taiping Rebellion (1843-1868), a piece of history not well known in the West. This was one of the bloodiest conflicts in recorded history — some estimates put the death toll higher than for World War I, and it was certainly much worse than the American Civil War at about the same time, even though the Chinese used more primitive weapons. It was a crucial moment in China's relationship with the West, modernity, and its relationship to its own imperial history. It was partly a religious movement; the leader claimed to be God's second son, Jesus' younger brother. The quasi-Christian, peasant-led rebellion overran an area greater than Texas with Nanjing as its capital. At different times it threatened both the foreign settlements in Shanghai and the Qing government in Beijing, though it did not take either. On exhibit are documents relating to Taiping history and the grinding reduction of their movement by enterprising Qing generals and their European auxiliaries, culminating in the siege of Nanjing. Next door are the beautiful Zhanyuan Gardens.
- Jiangsu Province Kunqu Theatre. This highly-regarded theater company in Nanjing will give you a chance to see Kunqu Opera, a traditional Chinese art form, firsthand. Expect the dialogue to be sung in ancient Chinese, but LED subtitling in English and contemporary Chinese characters is provided.
- Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge (南京长江大桥). This 6km bridge over the Yangtze has sculptures that are classics of Chinese sociallist art; with workers and farmers carrying tools, soldiers carrying weapons, and all of them holding books, most likely Quotations of Chairman Mao Zedong (better known as The Little Red Book). The bridge was built after Soviet advisors left China during the Sino-Soviet Split of the 1960's, and is therefore the first major project built entirely by Chinese, without foreign help. A new town is currently being constructed on the other side, which may include a direct subway connection in the future.
- Jiming Temple (鸡鸣寺), No.1 Ji Ming Si Road (Near Xuanwu Lake, there are several bus stops nearby with over 20 buses pass such as no. 3, 11, 20, 31. Also accessible by Metro Line 3 at Jimingsi Station.), 025-57715595. Jiming Temple is the most popular temple in Nanjing and it is located convenient to downtown.Tickets are ¥10, which includes 3 free incense with every ticket. Price may rise during popular seasons (e.g., Spring Festival).
- Meihuashan (formerly known as Wu Wangfen, but after Wang Jingwei was buried here it got renamed to Meihuashan). ¥70 area ticket which includes the Ming Tomb, Plum Blossom Hill, PlumValley Arts BUILDING Red, Purple Cloud Lake 5 attractions..
- Nanjing Yuejiang Lou (南京阅江楼).
- Zifeng Tower (紫峰大厦) (Gulou metro station), 025-83280777. The tallest (450-metre, 89-story) building in the city and the seventh tallest building in the world. Hosts an expensive restaurant and a bar at 78th floor. Also there is a public observatory at the 72nd floor. Observatory entrance ¥10000(Nov 2016).
Purple Mountain 紫金山
Some say that Nanjing is all about Tombs. Plan an entire day just exploring the mountain and surrounding areas. The park has a shuttle "train" you can ride and is included in the price of certain tickets. There is also a cable car going up the hill for ￥25 one-way and ￥45 round-trip, or you can walk. The area is home to the tombs of three very important emperors:
- Ming Xiaoling Mausoleum (明孝陵).The most famous Ming-era site of Nanjing, Ming Xiaoling is the mausoleum complex of Zhu Yuanzhang, also known as the Hongwu Emperor, the first emperor of the Ming Dynasty. Most of the monuments are lined up along the mile-long Sacred Way (shendao), which runs from the Square Pavilion (Sifangcheng) with its giant bixi turtle to the artificial hill where the emperor is supposed to have been buried. Look out for the stone camels and elephants of the sacred way, as well as for the site's second turtle - homage of the Kangxi Emperor, the greatest emperor of the Qing dynasty, to his Ming predecessor.
The site's third turtle - the least known of the three, but the biggest and most mysterious - was found in a nearby ravine in the late 20th century, and is now installed in the Red Chamber Culture Park (红楼艺文苑, Honglou Yiwen Yuan), which is located just east of the main Ming Xiaoling complex, and can be visited on the same ticket.
- Dr. Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum (中山陵). Resting place of the leader of the 1911 revolution.
- The tomb of Sun Quan (孙权墓). From the Three Kingdoms period
A Purple Mountain pass might be worth buying if you plan on visiting 2 or 3 of the parks on the mountain. The Purple Mountain pass can be bought for ￥100 at the entrance to Sun Yat-sen's Memorial (and possibly at any of the other parks on the mountain) and provides you with entry to nine parks.
Outside the city
- Qixia Temple (栖霞寺), 南京市栖霞街88号 (From Nanjing, take bus 206 to the village of Qixia (栖霞), fare: ¥3, expect 1 hour. The bus starts from the Northern Station Square, but it is best boarded at Xinzhuang Guangchang Dong (新庄广场东, metro line 3). Enroute the bus passes through a village then back onto the highway, where it runs parallel to the train viaduct. Get off when it gets to the next village and stops on a bridge; it will actually pass in front of the temple's car park and entry gate. Qixia Temple is back toward the village centre), . 07:00-17:00. A one time retreat for Emperor QianLong, the temple at the foot of maple forested hillside now draws hoards of less exulted visitors to clamber along the network of trails connecting fancifully named pavilions, ponds, tombs and natural stone features. The temple itself is not extensive, having only a pair of identical looking bell and drum towers in front of an austerely large hall, embedded with elegant lacquer-red window frames, containing a relatively contemporary, yet gracefully benevolent looking gigantic Buddha seated on a golden lotus. At the rear of the hall is a pair of intricately carved cabinets of a more impressively authentic vintage housing stone Buddha and Guanyin statues. The temple allegedly has an ancient bone relic purported to be from the historical Buddha, though it is kept well hidden. Further up the hill is a cluster of stone formations bifurcated by a steep canyon, believed to have been split in antiquity by mystical forces, that enables accent up a stair way to a pavilion and a high view over the valley. Higher up the hill are the crumbling remnants of group of buildings used by Qianlong’s army. The best time to visit is during autumn when the maple trees are radiating orange or Spring when the peach blossoms are loaded with pink and white flowers.¥40.
- Yangshan Quarry (阳山碑材) (the Nanjing-Tangshan Line (南汤线, Nan-Tan Xian) bus from the Nanjing Railway Station.). The three sections of a gigantic stele, which the Yongle Emperor commissioned for the mausoleum of his father the Hongwu Emperor can be seen here in situ. The project was never completed, as the Ming engineers realized that there is no way the stone monoliths could be moved out of here to Ming Xiaoling.
Nanjing has a humid subtropical climate and is under the influence of the East Asian monsoon. The four seasons are distinct, with damp conditions seen throughout the year, very hot and muggy summers, cold, damp winters, and in between, spring and autumn are of reasonable length. Along with Chongqing and Wuhan, Nanjing is traditionally referred to as one of the "Three Furnacelike Cities" along the Yangtze River (长江流域三大火炉) for the perennially high temperatures in the summertime.
However, the time from mid-June to the end of July is the plum blossom blooming season in which the meiyu (rainy season of East Asia; literally "plum rain") occurs, during which the city experiences a period of mild rain as well as dampness. Typhoons are uncommon but possible in the late stages of summer and early part of autumn. The annual mean temperature is around 15.91 °C (60.6 °F), with the monthly 24-hour average temperature ranging from 2.7 °C (36.9 °F) in January to 28.1 °C (82.6 °F) in July. Extremes since 1951 have ranged from −14.0 °C (7 °F) on 6 January 1955 to 40.7 °C (105 °F) on 22 August 1959. On average precipitation falls 115 days out of the year, and the average annual rainfall is 1,090 millimetres (43 in). With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 37 percent in March to 52 percent in August, the city receives 1,926 hours of bright sunshine annually.
|Daily highs (°C)||7.0||8.8||13.4||20.3||25.6||28.8||31.9||31.7||27.3||22.2||15.9||10.0|
|Nightly lows (°C)||-1.1||0.6||4.8||10.6||15.9||20.7||24.6||24.2||19.2||12.9||6.1||0.4|
|Source:Nanjing Climate and environment|
Nanjing, with a total land area of 6,598 square kilometres (2,548 sq mi), is situated in the heartland of drainage area of lower reaches of Yangtze River, and in Yangtze River Delta, one of the largest economic zones of China. The Yangtze River flows past the west side and then north side of Nanjing City, while the Ningzheng Ridge surrounds the north, east and south side of the city. The city is 300 kilometres (190 mi) west-northwest of Shanghai, 1,200 kilometres (750 mi) south-southeast of Beijing, and 1,400 kilometres (870 mi) east-northeast of Chongqing. The downstream Yangtze River flows from Jiujiang,Jiangxi, through Anhui and Jiangsu to East Sea, north to drainage basin of downstream Yangtze is Huai River basin and south to it is Zhe River basin, and they are connected by the Grand Canal east to Nanjing. The area around Nanjing is called Hsiajiang (下江, Downstream River) region, withJianghuai (江淮) stressing northern part and Jiangzhe (江浙) stressing southern part. The region is also known as Dongnan (東南, South East, the Southeast) and Jiangnan(江南, River South, south of Yangtze).
Nanjing borders Yangzhou to the northeast, one town downstream when following the north bank of the Yangtze, Zhenjiang to the east, one town downstream when following the south bank of the Yangtze, and Changzhou to the southeast. On its western boundary is Anhui province, where Nanjing borders five prefecture-level cities,Chuzhou to the northwest, Wuhu, Chaohu and Maanshan to the west and Xuancheng to the southwest.
Nanjing is the intersection of Yangtze River, an east-west water transport artery, and Nanjing–Beijing railway, a south-north land transport artery, hence the name “door of the east and west, throat of the south and north”. Furthermore, the west part of the Ningzhen range is in Nanjing; the Loong-like Zhong Mountain is curling in the east of the city; the tiger-like Stone Mountain is crouching in the west of the city, hence the name “the Zhong Mountain, a dragon curling, and the Stone Mountain, a tiger crouching”. Mr. Sun Yet-sen spoke highly of Nanjing in the “Constructive Scheme for Our Country”, “The position of Nanjing is wonderful since mountains, lakes and plains all integrated in it. It is hard to find another city like this.”
Since the Three Kingdoms period, Nanjing has been an industrial center for textiles and minting owing to its strategic geographical location and convenient transportation. During the Ming dynasty, Nanjing's industry was further expanded, and the city became one of the most prosperous cities in China and the world. It led in textiles, minting, printing, shipbuilding and many other industries, and was the busiest business center in East Asia. Textiles boomed particularly in Qing dynasty, the industry created around 200 thousand jobs and there were about 50 thousand satin machines in the city in 18th and 19th century.
Into the first half of the twentieth century after the establishment of ROC, Nanjing gradually shifted from being a production hub towards being a heavy consumption city, mainly because of the rapid expansion of its wealthy population after Nanjing once again regained the political spotlight of China. A number of huge department stores such as Zhongyang Shangchang sprouted up, attracting merchants from all over China to sell their products in Nanjing. In 1933, the revenue generated by the food and entertainment industry in the city exceeded the sum of the output of the manufacturing and agriculture industry. One third of the city population worked in the service industry, .
In the 1950s after PRC was established by CPC, the government invested heavily in the city to build a series of state-owned heavy industries, as part of the national plan of rapid industrialization, converting it into a heavy industry production center of east China. Overenthusiastic in building a “world-class” industrial city, the government also made many disastrous mistakes during development, such as spending hundreds of millions of yuan to mine for non-existent coal, resulting in negative economic growth in the late 1960s. From 1960s to 1980s there were Five Pillar Industries, namely, electronics, cars, petrochemical, iron and steel, and power, each with big state-owned firms. After the Reform and Opening recovering market economy, the state-owned enterprises found themselves incapable of competing with efficient multinational firms and local private firms, hence were either mired in heavy debt or forced into bankruptcy or privatization and this resulted in large numbers of layoff workers who were technically not unemployed but effectively jobless.
The current economy of the city is basically newly developed based on the past. Service industries are dominating, accounting for about 60 percent of the GDP of the city, and financial industry, culture industry and tourism industry are top 3 of them. Industries of information technology, energy saving and environmental protection, new energy, smart power grid and intelligent equipment manufacturing have become pillar industries. Big private firms include Suning Commerce, Yurun, Sanpower, Fuzhong,Hiteker, 5stars, Jinpu, Tiandi, CTTQ Pharmaceutical and Simcere Pharmaceutical. Big state-owned firms include Panda Electronics, Yangzi Petrochemical, Jinling Petrochemical, Nanjing Chemical, Nanjing Steel, Jincheng Motors, Jinling Pharmaceutical, Chenguang and NARI. The city has also attracted foreign investment,multinational firms such as Siemens, Ericsson, Volkswagen, Iveco, A.O. Smith, andSharp have established their lines, and a number of multinationals such as Ford, IBM,Lucent, Samsung and SAP established research center there. Many China-based leading firms such as Huawei, ZTE and Lenovo have key R & D institutes in the city. Nanjing is an industrial technology research and development hub, hosting many R & D centers and institutions, especially in areas of electronics technology, information technology, computer software, biotechnology and pharmaceutical technology and new material technology.
In recent years, Nanjing has been developing its economy, commerce, industry, as well as city construction. In 2013 the city's GDP was RMB 801 billion (3rd in Jiangsu), and GDP per capita(current price) was RMB 98,174(US$16041), a 11 percent increase from 2012. The average urban resident's disposable income was RMB 36,200, while the average rural resident's net income was RMB 14,513. The registered urban unemployment rate was 3.02 percent, lower than the national average (4.3 percent). Nanjing's Gross Domestic Product ranked 12th in 2013 in China, and its overall competence ranked 6th in mainland and 8th including Taiwan and Hong Kong in 2009.
The sub-provincial city of Nanjing is divided into 11 districts.
|District||Simplified Chinese||Hanyu Pinyin||Population (2013)||Area (km2)|
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