Shenzhen is a major city in Guangdong Province, China. Shenzhen is located immediately north of Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. It currently also holds sub-provincial administrative status, with powers slightly less than a province.
Shenzhen was a market town of 30,000 people on the route of the Kowloon–Canton Railway. That changed in 1979 when Shenzhen was promoted to city-status and in 1980 designated China’s first Special Economic Zone(SEZ). According to the Government report for 2015, Shenzhen had transformed to a city with population of 10,778,900 and a metropolitan area population of over 18 million. Shenzhen was one of the fastest-growing cities in the world during the 1990s and the 2000s. Shenzhen's population boom slowed down to less than one percent per year by 2013 as the manufacturing boom ebbed in favor of other industries.
Shenzhen's modern cityscape is the result of its vibrant economy made possible by rapid foreign investment since the institution of the policy of "reform and opening" establishment of the SEZ in late 1979. Significant sums of finance have been invested into the SEZ by both Chinese citizens and foreign nationals. More than US$30 billion in foreign investment has gone into both foreign-owned and joint ventures, at first mainly in manufacturing but more recently in the service industries as well.
Shenzhen is a major financial center in southern China. The city is home to the Shenzhen Stock Exchange as well as the headquarters of numerous high-tech companies. Shenzhen ranks 19th in the 2016 edition of the Global Financial Centres Indexpublished by the Z/Yen Group and Qatar Financial Centre Authority. It also has one of the busiest container ports in the world.
|POPULATION :||• Sub-provincial city 10,778,900|
• Urban 10,630,000
|FOUNDED :||City : March 1979|
SEZ formed: 1 May 1980
|TIME ZONE :||China Standard (UTC+8)|
|RELIGION :||approximately 37% of Shenzhen residents were practitioners of Chinese folk religions, 26% are Buddhists, 18% Taoists, 2% Christians and 2% Muslims; 15% were unaffiliated to any religion.|
|AREA :||• Sub-provincial city 2,050 km2 (790 sq mi)|
• Urban 1,991.64 km2 (768.98 sq mi)
|ELEVATION :||0–943.7 m (0–3,145.7 ft)|
|COORDINATES :||22°33′N 114°06′E|
|SEX RATIO :||• Male: 52%|
• Female: 48%
|AREA CODE :||755|
|POSTAL CODE :||518000|
|DIALING CODE :||+86 755|
In 1979, Shenzhen — then a group of farming and fishing communities along the Hong Kong border with a total population of a few hundred thousand — was designated the first of China's Special Economic Zones (SEZs). The plan was to create a sealed off enclave to experiment with market reforms and performance incentives without posing a threat or risk to the established political and economic system elsewhere in China. Shenzhen won the honor because of its proximity to the abundant capital resources and management expertise across the border in Hong Kong. Since then, it has been a real boom town and today is a bustling city of 14 million.
A 2010 study conducted by Forbes magazine ranks Shenzhen's population density as the 5th highest in the world. Shenzhen also boasts the highest per capita GDP in China, pulling in an impressive USD 13581 in 2009, but this is hotly disputed due to the method whereby the population figure is derived. But many observers also point out that, given the preponderance of privately held companies in Shenzhen and the widespread avoidance of tax, it is highly likely that the GDP figure is also severely understated. A walk around Shenzhen's leafy western suburbs will quickly allay any doubts as to the wealth in the city.
Although little visited by international tourists, Shenzhen is a popular destination for Chinese domestic tourists. They were originally attracted by its famous theme parks but as the city has developed and become richer they are increasingly drawn by Shenzhen's famous architecture, shopping, bars, restaurants and active art scene. Shenzhen's beaches have become famous throughout China. In 2006, the Dapeng Peninsula, the location of Shenzhen's best beaches, was nominated by the China National Geographic Magazine as one of the most beautiful coastlines in China. Visitors are also starting to recognize some fascinating historical sites, particularly those related to the Hakka culture and Hong Kong's annexation after the Opium Wars, which are scattered throughout the suburban area.
From a climate perspective, the best time to visit Shenzhen is October to December when the weather is pleasantly cool. Shenzhen has a sub-tropical climate with incredibly high humidity combined with soaring temperatures in the summer. For many, this is a season to avoid. The long intense summer also coincides with the typhoon season from June to October. Spring is cooler but is often afflicted by fog and heavy thunderstorms.
The question of the population of Shenzhen is a hotly discussed one. Official Chinese population figures have been traditionally affected by the fact that the basis for reporting is those who have official registration or "hukou" in the city. Shenzhen has many immigrant workers whose hukou are for their home town or village, so "official" numbers are wildly low. An advance on this front came a couple of years ago when, for practical purposes, "hukou" was replaced by a residents' registration certificate. This certificate, which is cheap and easy to administer, and which allows for travel to Hong Kong without returning to one's place of origin for passport application, has made population counting easier. The Shenzhen Statistics Bureau in April 2010, as of end 2009, says that Shenzhen has an official resident population of 8.91 million, out of which 2.41 million have legal household (hukou) status. The official Family Planning Bureau which bases its figure on police registration data gives the population as 14 million. Note that unlike Shanghai and Beijing which have large rural populations, all of Shenzhen's population is classified as urban.
Major tourist attractions of Shenzhen include the China Folk Culture Village,Window of the World, Happy Valley, Splendid China, the Safari Park in Nanshan district, Chung Ying Street(a street dividing Shenzhen and Sha Tau Kok, Hong Kong), Xianhu Botanical Gardens, Minsk World, amongst others. The city also offers free admission to over twenty public city parks including People's Park, Lianhuashan Park, Lizhi Park, Zhongshan Park, andWutongshan Park.
Human habitation in Shenzhen dates back to ancient times. The earliest archaeological remains so far unearthed are shards from a site at Xiantouling on Dapeng Bay, dating back to 5000 BC. From the Han dynasty (third century BC) onwards, the area around Shenzhen was a center of the salt monopoly, thus meriting special Imperial protection. Salt pans are still visible around the Pearl River area to the west of the city and are commemorated in the name of Yantian District (盐田, meaning "salt fields").
The settlement at Nantou was the political center of the area from early antiquity. In the year 331 AD, six counties covering most of modern southeastern Guangdong were merged into one province or “jun” (郡) named Dongguan with its administrative center at Nantou. As well as being a center of the politically and fiscally critical salt trade, the area had strategic importance as a stopping off point for international trade. The main shipping route to India, Arabia and the Byzantine Empire started at Guangzhou. As early as the eighth century, chronicles record the Nantou area as being a major commercial center, and reported that all foreign ships in the Guangzhou trade would stop there. It was also as a naval defense center guarding the southern approaches to the Pearl River.
Shenzhen was also involved in the events surrounding the end of theSouthern Song dynasty (1276–79). The Imperial court, fleeing Kublai Khan’s forces, established itself in the Shenzhen area. Lu Xiufu, the then-chief minister, realized all was lost and knowing the Mongolian forces would soon take over the area, he preferred suicide instead of the emperor being captured which might have brought shame to the dynasty. He jumped off a cliff with Emperor Bing, aged 8, the last emperor of the Southern Song Dynasty strapped to his back, killing both. In the late 19th century the Chiu or Zhao (Zhao was also the Song Imperial surname) clan in Hong Kong identified that Chiwan (Chinese:赤湾), an area near Shekou as the final resting place of the Emperor and built a tomb for him. The tomb, since restored, is still at the same location.
Earliest known records that carried the name Shenzhen dates from 1410, during the Ming Dynasty. Local people called the drains in paddy fields “zhen” (圳). Shenzhen (深圳) literally means “deep drains” as the area was once crisscrossed with rivers and streams, with deep drains within the paddy fields. The character 圳 is limited in distribution to an area of South China with its most northerly examples in Zhejiang Province which suggests an association with southwards migration during the Southern Song Dynasty (12th and 13th centuries). The County town at Xin'an in modern Nanshan dates from the Ming Dynasty where it was a major naval center at the mouth of the Pearl River. In this capacity it was heavily involved in 1521 in the successful Chinese action against the Portuguese Fleet under Fernão Pires de Andrade. This battle, called the Battle of Tunmen, was fought in the straits between Shekou and Nei Lingding Island.
In November 1979, Bao'an County (宝安县) was promoted to prefecture level, directly governed by Guangdong province. It was renamed Shenzhen, after Shenzhen town, the then administrative centre of the county which stood approximately around present location of the Dongmen.
1980 onwards as a Special Economic Zone
Shenzhen was singled out to be the first of the five Special Economic Zones(SEZ) in May 1980. Initially, the SEZ comprises an area of only 327.5 km2 of southern Shenzhen, covering the current Luohu, Futian, Nanshan and Yantian districts. The SEZ was created to be an experimental ground for the practice of market capitalism within a community guided by the ideals of "socialism with Chinese characteristics".
In 1982 Bao'an County was re-established, though this time as a part of Shenzhen. The county was converted to become Bao'an District, which was out of the Special Economic Zone. Shenzhen was promoted to a Sub-provincial City in March 1983 and was given the right of provincial-level economic administration in November 1988. With a population of 30,000 in 1980, economic development has meant that by 2008 the city has had 12 million inhabitants.
Shenzhen became one of the largest cities in the Pearl River Delta region, which itself is an economic hub of China, as well as the largest manufacturing base in the world.
For five months in 1996, Shenzhen was home to the Provisional Legislative Council and Provisional Executive Council of Hong Kong.
On 1 July 2010, the Shenzhen Special Economic Zone was expanded to include all districts, a five-fold increase over its pre-expansion size. In August 2011, the city hosted the 26th Universiade, an international multi-sport event organized for university athletes.
Though Shenzhen is situated about a degree south of the Tropic of Cancer, due to the Siberian anticyclone, it has a warm, monsoon-influenced, humid subtropical climate . Winters are mild and relatively dry, due in part to the influence of the South China Sea, and frost is very rare; it begins dry but becomes progressively more humid and overcast. However, fog is most frequent in winter and spring, with 106 days per year reporting some fog. Early spring is the cloudiest time of year, and rainfall begins to dramatically increase in April; the rainy season lasts until late September to early October. The monsoon reaches its peak intensity in the summer months, when the city also experiences very humid, and hot, but moderated, conditions; there are only 2.4 days of 35 °C (95 °F)+ temperatures. The region is prone to torrential rain as well, with 9.7 days that have 50 mm (1.97 in) or more of rain, and 2.2 days of at least 100 mm (3.94 in). The latter portion of autumn is dry. The annual precipitation averages at around 1,970 mm (78 in), some of which is delivered in typhoons that strike from the east during summer and early autumn. Extreme temperatures have ranged from 0.2 °C (32 °F) on 11 February 1957 to 38.7 °C (102 °F) on 10 July 1980.
Climate data for Shenzhen
|Record high °C (°F)||29.1|
|Average high °C (°F)||19.8|
|Daily mean °C (°F)||15.4|
|Average low °C (°F)||12.5|
|Record low °C (°F)||0.9|
|Source: Shenzhen Meteorological Bureau|
Shenzhen is located in the Pearl River Delta, bordering Hong Kong to the south, Huizhou to the north and northeast, Dong Guan to the north and northwest. Lingding Yang and Pearl River to the west and Mirs Bay to the east. The municipality covers an area of 1,991.64 square kilometres (769 sq mi) including urban and rural areas, with a total population of 10,358,381 at the 2010 census. It makes part of Pearl Delta River Mega City built-up area with 44,738,513 inhabitants spread on 9 municipalities (including Macao) and 17,573 km2. The city is elongated measuring 81.4 kilometers from east to west while the shortest section from north to south is 10.8 kilometers.
The city was originally a hilly area, with fertile agrarian land. However, after becoming a Special Economic Zone in 1979, Shenzhen underwent significant change in landscape. Most of these smaller hills were leveled in the early 1980s. With the influx of migrants from inland China, Shenzhen is experiencing a second stage boom, and it is now expanding peripherally and the hills in surrounding areas such as Mission Hills are still continuously being leveled to make way for more development.
Shenzhen is located on the border with the Hong Kong SAR across the Sham Chun River and Sha Tau Kok River, 100 kilometres (62 mi) southeast of the provincial capital of Guangzhou, 60 kilometres (37 mi) south of the industrial city of Dongguan and 60 kilometres (37 mi) north-northeast of the city of Zhuhai.
Over 160 rivers or channels flow through Shenzhen. Notable ones include Sham Chun River, Maozhou River and Longgang River. There are currently 24 reservoirs within the city limits with a total capacity of 525 million tonnes.
In 2015, Shenzhen's GDP totaled $270 billion, putting it on par with a mid-sized province by terms of total GDP. Its total economic output is higher than that of Portugal, the Republic of Ireland, and Vietnam. Its per-capita GDP was ¥164,664 ($25,038) as of 2014, on par with some of the developed countries of the OECD. Shenzhen was the first of the Special Economic Zones to be established and it showed the most rapid growth, averaging at a very high growth rate of 40% per annum between 1981 and 1993, compared to the average GDP growth of 9.8% for the country as a whole. The economic growth later slowed after this early breakneck pace; from 2001 to 2005, Shenzhen's overall GDP grew by 16.3 percent yearly on average, though growth has slowed to around 10% per year since 2012. Shenzhen is in the top ranks among mainland Chinese cities in terms of comprehensive economic power. Shenzhen's economic output is ranked fourth among the 659 Chinese cities (behind Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou).
In 2001, the working population reached 3.3 million. Though the secondary sector of industry had the largest share (1.85 million in 2001, increased by 5.5%), the tertiary sector of industry is growing fast (1.44 million in 2001, increased by 11.6%). The proportion of the three industries to the aggregate of GDP was 0.1:46.7:53.2 in 2009. The proportion of the primary industry to GDP was down by 13.4%, and the tertiary industry was up by 12.5%. Its import and export volumes have been first for the last nine consecutive years. It is the second in terms of industrial output. For five consecutive years, its internal revenue within local budget ranks third. It also ranks third in the use of foreign capital.
Shenzhen is a major manufacturing center in China. In the 1990s, Shenzhen was described as constructing "one high-rise a day and one boulevard every three days". The Shenzhen's rapidly growing skyline is regarded as one of the best in the world. It currently has 59 buildings at over 200 meters tall, including the Kingkey 100 (the 14th tallest building in the world) and Shun Hing Square (the 19th tallest building in the world).
Shenzhen is home to some of China's most successful high-tech companies, including BYD, Konka, Skyworth, Tencent, Coolpad, ZTE, Gionee, TP-Link,DJI, BGI (Beijing Genomics Institute), OnePlus and Huawei.Taiwan's largest company, Hon Hai Group, has a large manufacturing plant based in Shenzhen. Many foreign high-tech companies have their China operations centers located in the Science and Technology Park of the Nanshan District. Additional examples of successful Chinese companies with large operation in Shenzhen include, China International Marine Containers which is the largest container-manufacturing company in the world, and Vanke which is the largest residential real estate developer in China. In the financial sector, Ping An Bank and China Merchants Bank are some of the largest banks in China, with headquarters in Shenzhen.
Due to its unique status, Shenzhen is also an extremely fertile ground for startups, be it by Chinese or foreign entrepreneurs. Successful startups include Petcube, Palette, WearVigo, Notch and Makeblock. Shenzhen is also the product development base of the hardware startup accelerator, HAX Accelerator (formerly HAXLR8R).
Shenzhen Convention & Exhibition Center is a large public construction project with multiple functions of hosting business activities, celebrations, conferences, conventions, entertainment events, exhibitions, restaurants and all kinds of shows.
Administrative divisions of Shenzhen
|Division code||English name||Chinese||Pinyin||Area in km2||Population 2010|
|440300||Shenzhen City||深圳市||Shēnzhèn Shì||1996.78||10,358,381|
|440303||Luohu District||罗湖区||Luóhú Qū||78.75||923,421|
|440304||Futian District||福田区||Fútián Qū||78.65||1,317,511|
|440305||Nanshan District||南山区||Nánshān Qū||185.49||1,088,345|
|440306||Bao'an District *||宝安区||Bǎo'ān Qū||398.38||2,638,917|
|440307||Longgang District *||龙岗区||Lónggǎng Qū||387.82||1,672,720|
|440308||Yantian District||盐田区||Yántián Qū||74.63||209,360|
|Guangming New District||光明新区||Guāngmíng Xīnqū||155.44||480,907|
|Pingshan New District||坪山新区||Píngshān Xīnqū||167.00||300,800|
|Longhua New District||龙华新区||Lónghuá Xīnqū||175.58||1,379,460|
|Dapeng New District||大鹏新区||Dàpéng Xīnqū||295.05||126,560|
|Qianhai Shenzhen-Hong Kong|
Modern Service Industry Cooperation Zone
Xiàndài Fúwùyè Hézuòqū
|* — The stats does not includes the subordinated new districts.|
All new districts are management areas; not administrative divisions registered under the Ministry of Civil Affairs.
* – Guangming and Longhua are subordinate to Bao'an
* – Pingshan and Dapeng are subordinate to Longgang
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