Wuxi (无锡) is an industrial city on the Yangtze Riverbetween Suzhou and Nanjing. Wuxi is in the South ofJiangsu Province, roughly halfway between Shanghaiand Nanjing, with Shanghai 128km to the East and Nanjing 183 km to the West. Suzhou is nearby, under half an hour by bus or car. The city has a population of 4.32 million and covers an area of 4650 square km.
Wuxi is bordered by water, with Lake Tai to the South and the Yangtse River to the North.
Wuxi has a history of over 3,000 years; its establishment can be traced back to the end of the Shang Dynasty. Taibo，the eldest son of emperor Zhouwu in the West Zhou Dynasty came here from the inland of China. He introduced the inland culture to the south and created the Wu culture. The place used to be rich in tin deposits during the Zhou and Qin dynasties. As the tin was depleted by the end of the Qin Dynasty, the place was called Wuxi, meaning “ a place without tin”.
The climate is moist and temperate, sub-tropical with distinct seasons. The average annual temperature is 15.5 ℃ There are 250 frostless days and the average rainfall is about 1,000 mm. There are hills, rivers and lakes in this area but most of it is flat and crisscrossed with canals and small rivers. It is a fertile area, the “land teeming with fish and rice”.
Wuxi is well-developed economically and has good transport connections.
With rich natural and cultural heritage, Wuxi is one of the top ten tourist cities in China. The typical features of the area is that of the regions of rivers and lakes. Wuxi occupies the most scenic part of Lake Taihu and enjoys the beautiful scenery.
|TIME ZONE :||China Standard (UTC+8)|
|LANGUAGE :||Standard Chinese or Mandarin (Putonghua, based on the Beijing dialect), Yue (Cantonese), Wu (Shanghainese), Minbei (Fuzhou), Minnan (Hokkien-Taiwanese), Xiang, Gan, Hakka dialects, minority languages (see Ethnic groups entry)|
|RELIGION :||Daoist (Taoist), Buddhist, Christian 3%-4%, Muslim 1%-2%; note: officially atheist|
|AREA :||4,787.61 km2 (1,848.51 sq mi)|
|COORDINATES :||31°34′N 120°18′E|
|SEX RATIO :||• Male: 52%|
• Female: 48%
|ETHNIC :||Han Chinese 91.5%, Zhuang, Manchu, Hui, Miao, Uyghur, Tujia, Yi, Mongol, Tibetan, Buyi, Dong, Yao, Korean, and other nationalities 8.5%|
|AREA CODE :||510|
|POSTAL CODE :||Urban center: 214000|
Other Area: 214200, 214400
|DIALING CODE :|
|WEBSITE :||Official Website|
Wuxi is a major tourist area of the Lower Yangtze Delta. It has both natural and man-made places of interest.
The city was built on the shore of Lake Tai with the lake providing a rich tourism resource. Noted spots includeYuantouzhu (the Islet of Turtlehead) and Taihu Xiandao(Islands of the Deities). Completed in 2008, this 115-metre (377 ft) tall Ferris wheel takes 18 minutes to complete one revolution. Passengers can enjoy the scenery of Lake Tai and the city center. At night, lighting effects are switched on around the wheel.
Literally "Tin Mountain" and "Kindhearted Mountain", Mount Xi and Mount Hui are two small hills located in the western part of the city. The classic royal Ji-chang-yuan Gardens are located at the foot of the hill as well as the Tianxia di er quan (天下第二泉), literally "the second spring under heaven"). Xi Shan is also a name for a tourist area located in Suzhou. Because two separate Chinese characters are both pronounced "Xi": one stands for "West", the other (in this case) is for the metal material tin.
The Grand Canal passes through the city. There are two canals: one is the old canal that has been there since it was excavated, the other is the new canal created after 1949.
Wuxi has many private gardens or parks built by learned scholars and rich people in the past. Among these, Li Yuan, Mei Yuan are good examples that have been well preserved. Xihui Gongyuan (Xihui Park), located at the foot of Xi Shan also houses historical relics, notably Jichang Garden. It is about 1,770 kilometres (5,810,000 ft) in length.
Located south of the Long Mountain, near Wuxi's Mashan Town, the 88 metres (289 ft) tall Grand Buddha at Ling Shan is one of the largest Buddha statues in China, and the ninth tallest statue worldwide.
Built during 16th - 19th century A.D., the town is located in the north-west part of Wuxi on the west bank of the Grand Canal and at the foot of Mount Hui. The town's buildings are mainly family ancestral halls.
Film and television District
Located in the western part of Wuxi, the district consists of Wuxi Three State City Park, Tang City, and Shuihu City. Established in 1987, it was the first Movie and TV film studio in China. The CCTV Wuxi Film/TV Studio used for the shooting of The Three Kingdoms and Water Margins is classified as a AAAAA scenic area by the China National Tourism Administration.
Shan Juan Cave
Located in Yixing (part of Wuxi), Shan Juan Cave is a 4-star scenic zone. The Chinese Romeo and Juliet, Liang Shanbo and Zhu Yingtai were said to study behind the cave.
According to traditional Chinese historians, twoZhou princes, Taibo and Zhongyong, founded the first Chinese state in the area of Wuxi around the 11th century BC. This state of Wu(吳) had its first capital at Meili, generally thought to be the village of Meicun in Wuxi (although some records indicate a location closer to Wu's later capitals aroundSuzhou). Taibo and Zhongyong helped develop Wu's agriculture and waterways and the area soon flourished. Taibo died without an heir, and Zhongyong succeeded him asKing of Wu. His descendants were later officially enfeoffed by the Zhou court as vassals before declaring themselves full kings again during the Spring and Autumn Period.
A shrine to Taibo was set up in today's Meicun. Although the original wood structure was eventually destroyed in war, it has been rebuilt several times. A stone carved with sayings by Confucius can still be seen at the modern Taibo Shrine, whose architecture dates mostly to the Qing dynasty.
Spring and Autumn Period and Warring States Period
The State of Wu became one of the strongest kingdoms during the Spring and Autumn Period. Sunzi (Suntzu), who wrote the famous "the Art of War" came to Wu and helped the king with his military affairs. Wu was considered one of the seven strongest kingdoms during this period. Some of Sunzi's descendants still live in Sunxiang in Wuxi near the Plum Garden. However, Wu was later defeated by the State of Yue, today's Zhejiang andFujian, which in turn was overthrown by the State of Chu and incorporated into Chu during the Warring States period.
Qin and Han dynasty
The cultural and economic center of the "Wu" area shifted to Suzhou after the reign of the first Qin dynasty emperor, Qin Shi Huang, who united China; Wuxi at that time belonged to Suzhou. During the Han dynasty, Wuxi was set up as a county by emperor Han Wudi. Historic records show that tin was discovered during the early Han era, leading to conflicts in the area. Soon, however, the tin was depleted. This was once believed to be the origin of the name Wuxi, meaning "no tin." The name was changed to Youxi (有錫), meaning "having tin", during the Wang Mang conflicts period because Wang wanted to change the name.
Six dynasties, Tang and Song dynasties
Agriculture and the silk industry flourished in Wuxi and the town became a transportation center under the early Tang Dynasty after the construction of the Grand Canal. Although Suzhou became the center of the Wu area, Wuxi was also important in the county of Wu.
Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties
During the Taiping Rebellion, Wuxi was devastated by the war's destruction, like other parts of the lower Yangtze valley. Warfare disrupted planting in the region.During the Ming dynasty, Wuxi became a prosperous cultural center. During the late Ming and early Qing periods, Wuxi was a center for political discussion and public opinion. Agriculture, with rice and fish were major products in the Qing period.
During the late 19th century, Wuxi became a center of the textile industry in China and one of the four most important rice markets nationwide. By 1878, Wuxi was the leading silk-producing county in Jiangsu, outstripping even Suzhou, the traditional center of that industry. In the late 19th century, Wuxi was also the regional center for the waterborne transport of grain and a major commercial center.
Between 1900 and 1940, Wuxi was considered one of the most important counties in China. In dramatist Cao Yu's well-known drama "Thunderstorm", Wuxi was mentioned several times with the comment "Wuxi is a good place". After the China was set up by the communists in 1949, Wuxi continued to grow in importance, with an increases in textile production along with both light and heavy industry. This city was considered the second most important city in Jiangsu Province after the capital Nanjing. However, its developmental model has been criticized for the environmental deterioration caused. New strategies are now under consideration to ensure its sustainable development.
Wuxi is hot and humid in summer and chilly and damp in winter, with an average annual temperature of 18 °C (64 °F) and very occasional snow. Because of its proximity to the East China Sea, it has a monsoon season and receives 100 centimetres (39 inches) of rain annually.
Climate data for Wuxi
|Average high °C (°F)||7.4|
|Average low °C (°F)||0.2|
The city plan, as is typical of many older Chinese cities, is of a central city with a roughly circular plan, crisscrossed with older canals, the main canal still seeing heavy barge traffic.
Wuxi itself is on an alluvial plain of deep sedimentary deposits cut between limestone foothills, making it one of the sources for "scholar's rocks", the intricately weathered stones which were used as devices for contemplation.
Currently Wuxi is designated as an investment grade city, and has two large industrial parks devoted to new industries. While being the current manufacturing centers on textiles, there are projects to move to electric motor manufacturing and MRP software development. Wuxi is the solar technology hub in China as two major photovoltaic companies are based in the city. They are Suntech Power and Jetion Holdings Ltd which were listed on overseas stock exchanges.
In 2008 new energy industries were worth 37.8 Billion RMB, with the solar photovoltaic industry accounting for 30.2 Billion RMB of the total. The GDP per capita was ¥107,400 (US$17,050) in 2011, ranked first in Jiangsu, ahead of Nanjing and Suzhou.
Bicycle manufacturing for international brands is another industry, including bicycle assembly and bicycle component manufacturing. One of the two Chinese factories of Taiwan-based brake manufacturer Tektro is in Wuxi.
The center of the city is filled with modern high rise buildings and the market is being redeveloped in a postmodern style. Hynix completed a new chip plant in Wuxi.
Wuxi New District
Since it was established in 1992, Wuxi New District (WND) has evolved to be one of the major industrial parks in China. A wide variety of components, sub-systems and original equipments are made in WND. Approximately 1200 enterprises have been registered in WND by the end of 2008. Wuxi New District provides strong support for international manufacturing operations. The Zone focuses on formation of the five pillar industries of electronic information, precision machinery and mechanical and electrical integration, bio-pharmaceuticals, fine chemicals and new materials.
Wuxi Export Processing Zone
Established in 1992, Wuxi Export Processing Zone is located in Wuxi New District with a planned area of 2.98 km2. The encouraged industries include electronic information, optical-mechanical-electronic-integration, precision machinery, and new materials. It is situated near to Wuxi Airport and Changzhou Port.
|Liangxi District||梁溪区||Liángxī Qū||836,198||72||11,613|
|Binhu District||滨湖区||Bīnhú Qū||688,965||567||1,215|
|Xinwu District||新吴区||Xīnwú Qū||536,807||219||2,451|
|Xishan District||锡山区||Xīshān Qū||681,300||396||1,720|
|Huishan District||惠山区||Huìshān Qū||691,059||327||1,215|
|Satellite cities (County-level cities)|
|Defunct: Chong'an District, Nanchang District, & Beitang District|
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