Jaipur is the capital and largest city of the Indian state of Rajasthan in Northern India. It was founded on 18 November 1727 by Maharaja Jai Singh II, the ruler of Amer after whom the city is named. As of 2011, the city has a population of 3.1 million, making it the tenth most populous city in the country. Jaipur is also known as the Pink City of India.
Located at a distance of 260 km from the Indian capital New Delhi, it forms a part of the Golden Triangle tourist circuit along with Agra (240 km). Jaipur is a popular tourist destination in India and serves as a gateway to other tourist destinations in Rajasthan such as Jodhpur (348 km), Jaisalmer (571 km) and Udaipur (421 km)
|TIME ZONE :||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|RELIGION :||Hindu 77.9%|
|AREA :||484.64 km2 (187.12 sq mi)|
|ELEVATION :||431 m (1,414 ft)|
|COORDINATES :||26.9°N 75.8°E|
|SEX RATIO :||• Male: 51.70|
• Female: 48.30
|AREA CODE :|
|POSTAL CODE :|
|DIALING CODE :||+91-141|
|WEBSITE :||Official Website|
Jaipur, also known as the Pink City, is the capital of Indian state of Rajasthan and its largest city. The city was built in the eighteenth century by Sawai Jai Singh as India's first planned city, and today it's a major tourist attraction amongst Indian as well as international travellers. It is a very picturesque city with splendid palaces, forts and historical monuments and belongs to the tourist Golden Triangle along with Delhi and Agra. It hosts several attractions including the City Palace, Govind Dev ji Temple, Vidhan Sabha, Birla Temple and several massive Rajput forts. It also serves as a stepping stone for travelers heading to the desert cities of Jodhpur and Jaisalmer.
Now Jaipur is growing fast and various development projects are being undertaken by the government and private enterprises. The town planning and infrastructure development in Jaipur is quite above the mark relative to many other Indian cities.
Jaipur's nickname, the Pink City, is due to its distinctly coloured buildings, which were originally painted this color to imitate the red sandstone architecture of Mughal cities. The present earthy red color originates from repainting of the buildings undertaken for a visit by the Prince of Wales in 1876.
Jaipur gets its name from its founder Maharaja Jai Singh II (1693-1744), a great warrior and astronomer. He came to power at the age of 11 on the death of his father Maharaja Bishan Singh. Jai Singh’s lineage can be traced back to the Kucchwaha Rajput, clan who came to power in the 12th century. They were long-term rivals to the Sisodia Rajputs who ruled from Mewar. This rivalry led them to ally with the Mughals, and this alliance resulted in them eventually gaining a pre-eminent position in Rajasthan.
Ruling from the magnificent Amber Fort which they built, the might of the Kucchwahas encompassed the kingdoms of Mewar (Udaipur) and Marwar (Jodhpur). After Jai Singh came to power, there was moment of disquiet when he supported Aurangzeb’s son Azam Shah’s bid to the throne. Azam Shah lost the battle of succession to his brother Bahadur Shah, who demanded Jai Singh’s removal and the installation of Vijay Singh to the throne of Jaipur. Jai Singh, not one to take setbacks lying down, formed a formidable front against the Mughals by aligning himself with other Rajput states and reinstated himself.
After the dust had settled, peace reigned, the kingdom prospered and its borders expanded. Jai Singh built the city around the Amber Fort to serve as his capital, and the city was named Jaipur, after himself. Much of the credit for Jaipur goes to Vidhyadhar Bhattacharya, the chief architect from Bengal who, with Jai Singh’s approval, founded the city on strong scientific principles, laid out according to the Shilpa Shastra, the ancient architectural manual. It remains one of India’s best planned cities. However, expansion meant that the limited sources of water proved inadequate for the city.
After Jai Singh’s death in 1744, his sons squabbled for power and without a monarch, the kingdom became open to invasion and neighboring Rajput states and the Marathas usurped large areas of kingdom. The core, however, remained part of the kingdom, which lasted during British times. As with the Mughals, Jaipur maintained good relations with the British and during the war of independence in 1857 remained loyal to the Raj. Yet, the British gradually began to undermine the independence of the state and exercised greater control over the administration.
In 1876, Maharaja Ram Singh painted the entire city pink, traditionally a colour associated with hospitality, to welcome the Prince of Wales (later King Edward VII) to the city. The tradition has been maintained and today all residents in the old city are compelled by law to preserve the pink colour. Jaipur has thereby earned the sobriquet of pink city.
Maharaja Ram Singh also built the Ramgarh Lake to supply water to the burgeoning city. During the 19th and 20th centuries, the city’s population spread beyond its walls. In 1922, Man Singh II ascended to the throne and it was during his reign that civic buildings like the secretariat, schools, hospitals and other public buildings were built. After independence, Jaipur merged with the states of Jodhpur, Jaisalmer and Bikaner to form the state of Rajasthan. In 1956, Jaipur became the capital of the state of Rajasthan.
Jaipur's climate is characterized as semiarid, with just a few rainy days per month for most of the year. The exception is the monsoon period from June to September, when heavy rain and thunderstorms are commonplace. Expect daytime highs of above +20°C throughout the year, and prepare for scorching heat in May and June. During the winter temperatures are mild, and while nighttime temperatures seldom drop much below +10°C, Jaipur has experienced temperatures below freezing.
|Daily highs (°C)||22.4||25.0||31.0||37.1||40.3||39.3||34.1||32.4||33.8||33.6||29.2||24.4|
|Nightly lows (°C)||8.4||10.8||16.0||21.8||25.9||27.4||25.8||24.7||23.2||19.4||13.8||9.2|
In addition to its role as the provincial capital, educational, and administrative centre, the economy of Jaipur is fuelled by tourism, gemstone cutting, the manufacture of jewellery and luxury textiles, and information technology. Three major trade promotion organisations have their offices in Jaipur. These are: Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce & Industry, (FICCI) the PHD Chamber of Commerce and Industry (PHDCCI) and the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) which has its regional offices here. In 2008, Jaipur was ranked 31 among the 50 Emerging Global Outsourcing cities. Jaipur Stock Exchange is one of the regional stock exchanges in India and was founded in 1989. Jaipur is a major hub for arts and crafts. It has many traditional shops selling antiques, jewellery, handicrafts, gems, bangles, pottery, carpets, textiles, leather and metal products. Jaipur is one of India's largest manufacturers of hand-knotted rugs. Jaipur leg, a rubber-based prosthetic leg for people with below-knee amputations, was designed and is produced in Jaipur.
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