Bandung , is the capital of West Java province in Indonesia and Indonesia's third largest city by population, with over 2.4 million, and Greater Bandung made up of 2 municipalities and 38 districts, making it the nation's 2nd largest metropolitan area with 6,965,655 inhabitants at the 2010 census. Located 768 metres (2,520 ft) above sea level, approximately 140 kilometres (87 miles) south east of Jakarta, Bandung has cooler temperatures year-round than most other Indonesian cities. The city lies on a river basin surrounded by volcanic mountains. This topography provides a good natural defense system, which was the primary reason for the Dutch East Indies government's plan to move the colony capital from Batavia to Bandung.
The Dutch colonials first established tea plantations around the mountains in the eighteenth century, and a road was constructed to connect the plantation area to the colonial capital Batavia (180 kilometres (112 miles) to the northwest). The Dutch inhabitants of Bandung demanded establishment of a municipality (gemeente), which was granted in 1906, and Bandung gradually developed into a resort city for plantation owners. Luxurious hotels, restaurants, cafes and European boutiques were opened, hence the city was nicknamed Parijs van Java(Dutch: "The Paris of Java").
After Indonesia declared independence in 1945, the city experienced rapid development and urbanization, transforming Bandung from an idyllic town into a dense 16,500 people/km2 (per square kilometer) metropolitan area, a living space for over 2.5 million people. Natural resources have been heavily exploited, particularly by conversion of protected upland area into highland villas and real estate and, although the city has encountered many problems (ranging from waste disposal and floods to a complicated traffic system and lack of road infrastructure), Bandung still attracts large numbers of tourists, weekend sightseers and migrants from other parts of Indonesia.
|POPULATION :||• Total 2,575,478|
• BMA 6,965,655
|FOUNDED :||Settled 1488|
Consolidated September 25, 1810
|TIME ZONE :||Indonesia Western Time (UTC+7)|
|LANGUAGE :||Bahasa Indonesia (official, modified form of Malay), English, Dutch, local dialects (the most widely spoken of which is Javanese)|
|RELIGION :||Muslim 86.1%, Protestant 5.7%, Roman Catholic 3%, Hindu 1.8%, other or unspecified 3.4%|
|AREA :|| • Total 167.67 km2 (64.74 sq mi)|
• Metro 1,876.8 km2 (724.6 sq mi)
|ELEVATION :||768 m (2,520 ft)|
|COORDINATES :||6°55′03″S 107°37′09″E|
|SEX RATIO :||• Male: 50.30|
• Female: 49.70
|ETHNIC :||Javanese 40.6%, Sundanese 15%, Madurese 3.3%, Minangkabau 2.7%, Betawi 2.4%, Bugis 2.4%, Banten 2%, Banjar 1.7%, other or unspecified 29.9%|
|AREA CODE :||22|
|POSTAL CODE :|
|DIALING CODE :||(+62) 22|
|WEBSITE :||Official Website|
Bandung is a popular weekend destination for residents of Jakarta. The cooler climate of the highland plantation area, the varieties of food, the cheaper fashion shops located in factory outlets and distros, golf courses, and the zoo, are some of the attractions of the city. Bandung is also a popular shopping destination due to cheap textile and fashion products, especially forMalaysian and Singaporean tourists.
In the 1990s, local designers opened denim clothing stores along Cihampelas Street, which was transformed into a "jeans street". The city attracts people from other big cities to buy local fashion wares, as they are cheaper than branded items. Beside at Cihampelas Street, many factory outlets also opened at Riau Street, Setiabudi Street, and Djuanda Street (known as Dago). Textile factories on the outskirts of Bandung have opened factory outlets on site selling what is marketed as sisa export (rejected or over-produced export quality items). Bandung Supermal, Bandung Indah Plaza, Ciwalk (abbreviation of Cihampelas Walk) and Paris van Java are popular shopping centres in Bandung.
Significant tourist sites near Bandung include the Tangkuban Prahu volcano crater to the north, the striking Kawah Putih volcano lake, and Patenggang Lake, a lake surrounded by tea plantations about 50 kilometres (31 miles) to the south of the city.
To view the Bandung Basin clearly in its mountain surroundings, visitors travel to the Bongkor protected forest area (kawasan hutan lindung), Saung Daweung and Arcamanik; to the slopes of West Manglayang Mountain in an area known as Caringin Tilu, with entry from Padasuka and Cicaheum to the north. The forest is located in 1,500 above sea level and is covered with pine trees managed by a government corporation Perhutani and can be accessed with 30 minutes drive from downtown. Visitors going to the north of the city also find Taman Hutan Raya Ir. H. Djuanda. The Cicaheum area also hosts Bukit Moko, a tourist spot famous for its views and its steel statue of a giant star called Puncak Bintang. Bandung has several museums that should be visited by tourists, such as the Geological Museum of Bandung, the Indonesia Postal Museum, Sri Baduga Museum, and the Asian-African Conference Museum.
Tourist information office
Although the oldest written reference to the city dates back to 1488, there were numerous archaeological finds of "Java Man" that lived on the banks of Cikapundung river and the shores of Bandung's Great Lake.
In the 17th-18th century, the Dutch East Indies Company (VOC) created small plantations in Bandung, with a road to Batavia (today's Jakarta) completed in 1786. In 1809, Louis Bonaparte, the ruler of the Netherlands and its colonies, ordered the Dutch Indies Governor H.W. Daendels to improve Java's defenses against the threat of the English, who occupied the nearby Malay peninsula. Daendels responded by building the Great Post Road (De Groote Postweg) that stretched about 1000 km between the west and the east coasts of Java. Because north coast was in the form of impassable swamps and marshes at the time, the road was diverted through Bandung along what is now Jalan Asia-Afrika.
Daendels liked Bandung's strategic location so much that he ordered the capital to be moved there. Military barracks were built and Bupati Wiranatakusumah II, the chief administrator of that area, built his dalem(palace), Masjid Agung (The Grand Mosque) and pendopo (meeting place) in the classical Javan alun-alun (city square) near a pair of holy city wells (Sumur Bandung) and facing the mystical mountain of Tangkuban Perahu.
Powered by its cinchona (for malaria drug quinine), tea, and coffee plantations, Bandung prospered and developed into an exclusive European style resort with hotels, cafes, and shops. Many of Bandung landmarks, including the Preanger and Savoy Homann hotels, as well as the shopping street of Jalan Braga, are still available today. The Concordia Society building, now Gedung Merdeka, was built with a large ball room as a club for rich Europeans to spend their weekends.
In 1880, the first major railroad between Jakarta to Bandung opened, boosting small industries and bringing in Chinese workers. The first of Bandung universities, theTechnische Hogeschool (TH) was established on July 3, 1920. One of the its alumni members is President Soekarno himself. That university is now known as theInstitut Teknologi Bandung (ITB)
In 1942, after Japanese soldiers landed in coastal areas of Java, the Dutch retreated from Jakarta to Bandung, but were driven out from there as well and surrendered soon after. After the end of the war, first the British and later the Dutch came back trying to reestablish the pre-war colonial situation, but on March 24, 1946, during the struggle for Indonesian independence, the city of Bandung was burned down by retreating forces of the TRI, because they would not comply with the order given by the British forces to move out of Bandung to the south (Bandung Sea of Fire/Bandung Lautan Api). For the TRI this act was a sign of refusal to surrender. Over 200,000 people fled the city during the incident.
In 1955, the Asia Africa Conference (Konferensi Asia Afrika) was held in Bandung, paving the way for the creation of the Non-Aligned Movement in 1961. The Indonesian parliament was located in Bandung from 1955 to 1966, but was moved back to Jakarta in 1966.
The city of Bandung has a tropical highland rainforest monsoon climate. Due to its elevation, the climate in Bandung is cooler than most Indonesian cities and is classified as humid; the average temperature is 23.6 °C (74.5 °F) throughout the year. The average annual rainfall ranges from 1,000 millimetres in the central and southeast regions to 3,500 millimetres in the north of the city. The wet season conforms with other Indonesian regions, around November to April. In the dry season, the climate is usually humid and sunny with some cloud cover. In the rainy season, it rains almost every day with partly sunny weather in between and considerable cloud cover.
|Climate data for Bandung, West Java, Indonesia|
|Record high °C (°F)||32.2|
|Average high °C (°F)||27.2|
|Daily mean °C (°F)||23.3|
|Average low °C (°F)||19.4|
|Record low °C (°F)||15.0|
|Source: Sistema de Clasificación Bioclimática Mundial|
Bandung, the capital of West Java province, located about 180 kilometres (110 mi) southeast of Jakarta, is the third largest city in Indonesia. Its elevation is 768 metres (2,520 ft) above sea level and is surrounded by up to 2,400 m (7,874 ft) high Late Tertiary and Quaternary volcanic terrain. The 400 km2 flat of central Bandung plain is situated in the middle of 2,340.88 km2 wide of the Bandung Basin; the basin comprises Bandung, the Cimahi city, part of Bandung Regency, part of West Bandung Regency, and part of Sumedang Regency.The basin's main river is the Citarum; one of its branches, the Cikapundung, divides Bandung from north to south before it merges with Citarum again in Dayeuhkolot. The Bandung Basin is an important source of water for potable water, irrigation and fisheries, with its 6,147 million m³ of groundwater being a major reservoir for the city.
The northern section of Bandung is hillier than other parts of the city, and the distinguished truncated flat-peak shape of the Tangkuban Perahuvolcano (Tangkuban Perahu literally means 'upside-down boat') can be seen from the city to the north. Long-term volcanic activity has created fertile andisol soil in the north, suitable for intensive rice, fruit, tea, tobaccoand coffee plantations. In the south and east, alluvial soils deposited by the Cikapundung river predominate.
Geological data shows that the Bandung Basin is located on an ancient volcano, known as Mount Sunda, erected up to 3,000–4,000 metres (9,850–13,100 ft) during the Pleistocene age. Two large-scale eruptions took place; the first formed the basin and the second (est. 55,000 Before Present) blocked the Citarum river, turning the basin into a lake known as "the Great Prehistoric Lake of Bandung". The lake drained away; for reasons which are the subject of ongoing debate among geologists.
The Bandung economy is mainly built upon tourism, manufacturing, textiles/apparel, educational institutions, technology, retail, services, plantations/agriculture, financial services, pharmaceutical companies, and food production.
Bandung has nearly 50 higher educational institutions and is among the most popular destination for education in Indonesia. The once quiet residential district of Dago has become an important business and entertainment centre with chic cafes and restaurants spread out along Dago Street. In the early 1990s Cihampelas Street became a popular clothing store location and remains so to this day.
Creative culture has shaped some of the Bandung economy. Small businesses known as "distro" sell non-trademarked products made by local designers. Books, indie label records, magazines, fashion products and other accessories are typical distro products. Distros are popular with young people and distance themselves from factory outlets in term of philosophy. Distros arise from individual designers and young entrepreneurs, while factory outlet products are from large scale garment factories.
The Bandung city administration has agreed to substantially develop seven industrial and trade areas, for Bandung specialty products:
- Binongjati Knitting Industrial and Trade Center
- Cigondewah Textile Trade Center
- Cihampelas Jeans Trade Center
- Suci (T and Oblong) Shirt Industrial Center
- Cibaduyut Shoes Industrial Center
- Cibuntu Tofu and Tempeh Industrial Center
- Sukamulya Sukajadi Doll Industrial Center
Bandung City is divided into 30 districts (kecamatan), listed below with their populations at the 2010 Census:
Babakan Ciparay (143,203)
Bandung Kidul (57,398)
Bandung Kulon (138,644)
Bandung Wetan (29,807)
Bojongloa Kaler (117,218)
Bojongloa Kidul (83,600)
Cibeunying Kaler (68,807)
Cibeunying Kidul (104,575)
Sumur Bandung (34,486)
Ujung Berung (72,414)
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