JAKARTA

Introduction

Info Jakarta


introduction

Jakarta is the capital and largest city of Indonesia, (though Jakarta is also a province) and one of the most populous urban agglomerations in the world.

Located on the northwest coast of Java, Jakarta is the country's economic, cultural and political centre, and with a population of 10,075,310.

The city itself has a land the size of Singapore, with a population comparable to Portugal (around 10 million) Dubbed The Big Durian, an equivalent to New York's Big Apple, its concrete jungle (number 17 of world's city with skyscrapers), traffic frenzy, and hot polluted air may tempt you to skip the town as fast as possible, but what awaits inside will change your perspective! One of the most bustling and cosmopolitan cities in Asia, the J-Town has cheerful nightlife, vibrant shopping malls, a variety of foods, refreshing greeneries, cultural diversity and rich history, that caters to all levels of budget and how much fun you want to have.


info

POPULATION : City: 10,075,310. /  Metro: 30,214,303
FOUNDED : 
TIME ZONE : WIB (UTC+7) 
LANGUAGE : Bahasa Indonesia (official),  English, Dutch
RELIGION : Islam 85.36%, Protestantism 7.53%, Buddhism 3.30%, Catholics 3.15%, Others 0.66%
AREA : 661.5 km2 (255.4 sq mi)
ELEVATION : 8 m (26 ft)
COORDINATES : 6°12′S 106°49′E
SEX RATIO : Male: 50.30%  
 Female: 49.70%
ETHNIC : Javanese 35.16%, Beatwi 27.65%, Sundanese 15.27%, Chinese 5.53%, Batak 3.61%, Others 12.78%
AREA CODE : 21
POSTAL CODE :
DIALING CODE : +62 21
WEBSITE : Official Website


Tourism

Jakarta is a shopping hub in the nation and is also one of the best places to shop in South East Asia. The city has numerous shopping malls and traditional markets. With a total of 550 hectares, Jakarta has the world's largest shopping mall floor area within a single city. Malls such as Plaza Indonesia, Grand Indonesia Shopping Town, Plaza Senayan, Senayan City and Pacific Place provides numerous selections of luxury brands. Mall Taman Anggrek, as well as Ciputra World Jakarta that bring the new concept of shopping mall in Jakarta which has Artpreneur - A place of destination to discover, explore, experience and celebrate Indonesian and International Art, Pondok Indah Mall, Mal Kelapa Gading, and Central Park Jakarta cater high-street brands such as UK's Topshop and Europe's Zara.

Most of the visitors attracted to Jakarta are domestic tourists from all over Indonesia. As the gateway of Indonesia, Jakarta often serves as the stop-over for foreign visitors on their way to Indonesian popular tourist destinations such as Bali and Yogyakarta. Other than attracted to monuments, landmarks, and museums around Merdeka square and Jakarta Old Town, tourist attractions include Taman Mini Indonesia Indah, Ragunan Zoo, Sunda Kelapa old port and the Ancol Dreamland complex on Jakarta Bay, including Dunia Fantasi (Fantasy World) theme park, Sea World, Atlantis Water Adventure, and Gelanggang Samudra.

Tourism is contributing a growing amount of income to the city. In 2012, the tourism sector contributed 2.6 trillion rupiah (US$268.5 million) to the city's total direct income of 17.83 trillion rupiah, a 17.9 per cent increase over 2011. Tourism stakeholders are expecting greater marketing of the Jakarta as a tourism destination.

In February 2014, the Jakarta Government started providing double-decker bus tours that offers sightseeing in Central Jakarta. The buses' route covers tourist attractions, such as Monas, Istiqlal Mosque, the Cathedral, National Museum, Sarinah, and Plaza Indonesia, as well as Grand Indonesia shopping centres.

Most of Jakarta's landmarks, monuments and statues were built during the Sukarno era beginning in the 1960s, then completed in the Suharto era, while some originated in the colonial Dutch East Indies period. The most famous Jakarta's landmark that become the symbol of the city is the 132 m (433 ft) tall obelisk of National Monument (Monumen Nasional or Monas) right in the centre of Merdeka Square, Jakarta's Central Park. On its southwest corner stands a Mahabharata themed Arjuna Wijaya chariot statue and fountain. Further south through Jalan Thamrin, the main avenue of Jakarta, the Selamat Datang monument stands on the fountain in the centre of Hotel Indonesia roundabout. Other landmarks include the Istiqlal Mosque, the Jakarta Cathedral and Immanuel Church. The former Batavia Stadhuis in Jakarta Old Town is also the city's landmark. The Wisma 46 building in Central Jakarta is currently the second tallest building in Indonesia.

Some of statues and monuments in Jakarta are nationalist, such as the West Irian Liberation monument and Dirgantara statue. Several Indonesian national heroes are commemorated in statues, such as Diponegoro and Kartini statues in Merdeka Square, Sudirman and Thamrin statues located in each respectable avenues, also Sukarno and Hatta statues in Proclamation Monument also on the entrance of Soekarno–Hatta International Airport.


History

Pre-colonial era

The area in and around modern Jakarta was part of the fourth century Sundanese kingdom of Tarumanagara, one of the oldest Hindu kingdoms in Indonesia.Following the decline of Tarumanagara, its territories, including the Jakarta area, became part of the Kingdom of Sunda. From 7th to early 13th century port of Sunda was within the sphere of influence of the Srivijaya maritime empire. 

The first European fleet, four Portuguese ships from Malacca, arrived in 1513 when the Portuguese were looking for a route for spices. The Kingdom of Sunda made an alliance treaty with Portugal by allowing the Portuguese to build a port in 1522 to defend against the rising power of the Sultanate of Demak from central Java. In 1527, Fatahillah, a Javanese general from Demak attacked and conquered Sunda Kelapa, driving out the Portuguese. Sunda Kelapa was renamed Jayakarta, and became a fiefdom of the Sultanate of Banten which became a major Southeast Asia trading centre.

Through the relationship with Prince Jayawikarta from the Sultanate of Banten, Dutch ships arrived in Jayakarta in 1596. In 1602, the English East India Company's first voyage, commanded by Sir James Lancaster, arrived in Aceh and sailed on to Banten where they were allowed to build a trading post. This site became the centre of English trade in Indonesia until 1682.


Colonial era

When relations between Prince Jayawikarta and the Dutch deteriorated, Jayawikarta's soldiers attacked the Dutch fortress. Prince Jayawikarta's army and the English were defeated by the Dutch, in part owing to the timely arrival of Jan Pieterszoon Coen (J.P. Coen). The Dutch burned the English fort, and forced the English to retreat on their ships. The victory consolidated Dutch power and in 1619 they renamed the city Batavia.

Commercial opportunities in the capital of the Dutch colony attracted Indonesian and especially Chinese and Arab immigrants. This sudden population increase created burdens on the city. Tensions grew as the colonial government tried to restrict Chinese migration through deportations. Following a revolt, 5,000 Chinese were massacred by the Dutch and natives on 9 October 1740 and the following year, Chinese inhabitants were moved to Glodok outside the city walls.

The city began to expand further south as epidemics in 1835 and 1870 caused more people to move away from the port. The Koningsplein, now Merdeka Square was completed in 1818, the housing park of Menteng was started in 1913, and Kebayoran Baru was the last Dutch-built residential area.By 1930 Batavia had more than 500,000 inhabitants, including 37,067 Europeans.

After World War II, the city of Batavia was renamed "Jakarta" (short form of Jayakarta) by the Indonesian nationalists after achieving independence from the Dutch in 1946.


Independence era

Following World War II, Indonesian Republicans withdrew from Allied-occupied Jakarta during their fight for Indonesian independence and established their capital in Yogyakarta. In 1950, once independence was secured, Jakarta was once again made the national capital.

Indonesia's founding president, Sukarno, envisaged Jakarta as a great international city, and instigated large government-funded projects with openly nationalistic and modernist architecture. Projects included a clover-leaf highway, a major boulevard (Jalan MH Thamrin-Sudirman), monuments such as The National Monument, Hotel Indonesia, a shopping centre, and a new parliament building. In October 1965, Jakarta was the site of an abortive coup attempt in which 6 top generals were killed, precipitating a violent anti-communist purge in which half-a million people were killed, including many ethnic Chinese, and the beginning of Suharto's New Order. A monument stands where the generals' bodies were dumped.

In 1966, Jakarta was declared a "special capital city region" (daerah khusus ibukota), thus gaining a status approximately equivalent to that of a state or province. Lieutenant General Ali Sadikin served as Governor from the mid-1960s commencement of the "New Order" through to 1977; he rehabilitated roads and bridges, encouraged the arts, built several hospitals, and a large number of new schools. He also cleared out slum dwellers for new development projects—some for the benefit of the Suharto family. Foreign investment contributed to a real estate boom which changed the face of the city.

The boom ended with the 1997/98 East Asian Economic crisis putting Jakarta at the centre of violence, protest, and political manoeuvring. After 32 years in power, support for President Suharto began to wane. Tensions reached a peak in when four students were shot dead at Trisakti University by security forces; four days of riots and violence ensued that killed an estimated 1,200, and destroyed or damaged 6,000 buildings. Much of the rioting targeted Chinese Indonesians.Suharto resigned as president, and Jakarta has remained the focal point of democratic change in Indonesia. Jemaah Islamiah-connected bombings occurred almost annually in the city between 2000 and 2005, with another bombing in 2009.


Climate

Jakarta has a tropical monsoon climate.

Despite being located relatively close to the equator, the city has distinct wet and dry seasons.

The wet season in Jakarta covers the majority of the year, running from October through May.

The remaining four months (June through September) constitute the city's dry season (each of these 4 months has an average monthly rainfall of less than 100 mm).

Located in the western part of Java, Jakarta's wet season rainfall peak is January with average monthly rainfall of 389 millimetres (15.3 in), and its dry season low point is September with a monthly average of 30 mm (1.2 in).

ClimateJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
 
Daily highs (°C)303031323332323333333231
Nightly lows (°C)232324242323222223232323
Precipitation (mm)40228421913111390586164101128204
             
Indonesia's Meteorology, Climatology & Geophysics Department has a today & tomorrow forecast on its website in Indonesian


Geography

Jakarta is located on the northwest coast of Java, at the mouth of the Ciliwung River on Jakarta Bay, which is an inlet of the Java Sea. Officially, the area of the Jakarta Special District is 662 km2 (256 sq mi) of land area and 6,977 km2 (2,694 sq mi) of sea area. The Thousand Islands, which are administratively a part of Jakarta, are located in Jakarta Bay, north of the city.

Jakarta lies in a low, flat basin, ranged from −2 to 50 metres (−7 to 164 ft) with average elevation 8 metres (26 ft) above sea level. 40% of Jakarta, particularly the northern areas, is below sea level, while the southern parts are comparatively hilly. Rivers flow from the Puncak highlands to the south of the city, across the city northwards towards the Java Sea; the most important[clarification needed] is the Ciliwung River, which divides the city into the western and eastern principalities. Other rivers include the Pesanggrahan, and Sunter.

All these rivers, combined with the wet season rains and insufficient drainage due to clogging, make Jakarta prone to flooding. Moreover, Jakarta is sinking about 5 to 10 centimetres each year, even up to 20 centimetres in the northern coastal areas. To help cope with the threat from the sea, the Netherlands will give $4 million for a feasibility study to build a dike around Jakarta Bay. The ring dike will be equipped with a pumping system and retention areas to defend against seawater. Additionally, the dike will function as a toll road. The project will be built by 2025.


Economy

Jakarta generated about one-sixth of Indonesian GDP.

Jakarta's economy depends highly on service sectors, banking, trading, financial service, and manufacturing. Most of industries in Jakarta include electronics, automotive, chemicals, mechanical engineering and biomedical sciences manufacturing.

The cost of living in the city continues to rise. Land is expensive and rents are high. Industrial development and the construction of new housing are usually undertaken on the outskirts, while commerce and banking remain concentrated in the city centre.

Jakarta has a bustling luxury property market. The investment in the property sector, including offices, commercial buildings, new town development, and highrise apartments and hotels grew substantially. Knight Frank, a global real estate consultancy based in London, reported in 2014 that Jakarta offered the highest return on high-end property investment in the world in 2013, citing supply shortage and a sharply depreciated currency as reasons.


Subdivisions

Jakarta is divided into 5 municipalities:


Central Jakarta (Jakarta Pusat)

The heart of Jakarta's Administrative, Government and financial, an aptly named district and the site of Jakarta's symbol, the soaring Monas (Monumen Nasional) and also the world's largest city square "Lapangan Merdeka". The city is a part of the old Jakarta (Batavia), recognizable by the president's palace and the National Museum of Indonesia, both built in the 19th century. Now filled with modern high rises for office buildings, hotels, and shopping centers, this is where most of Jakarta's attractions are, such as the malls, the Tanah Abang garment complex, the Istiqlal and Cathedral, and the Bung Karno Sports Stadium.


West Jakarta (Jakarta Barat)

This site is also part of the Old Batavia. It is home to Jakarta's Chinatown called the Glodok" area that is not only rich in street hawker food, Chinese restaurant and temple complex, but the electronic promenade of Jakarta. There are a lot of shopping going on in this area as well, as it is home to a lane of upscale malls at S. Parman Avenue and cheap shopping lanes at Mangga Dua. This area is also home to Jakarta's biggest nightlife entertainment and red light district quarter "Mangga Besar".


South Jakarta (Jakarta Selatan)

Jakarta's middle upper class and elite's residential area and a part of Jakarta's business centre. Where you can find upscale shopping centres and malls, restaurants, hotels, bustling nightlife and entertainment centre, Blok M, Senayan sports complex, and affluent residential areas. The Kemang area is very popular amongst expats and locals for its nightlife and entertainment.


East Jakarta (Jakarta Timur)

The Industrial Quarter of the city, and the location of Taman Mini Indonesia Indah where you can see parts of Indonesia's multiethnic community in 1 park, also crafted good at Utan Kayu art community, Cibubur camping ground, and Jakarta's 2nd airport, Halim Perdanakusuma airport.


North Jakarta (Jakarta Utara)

Jakarta's main harbor area and the real home of the old Batavia. A small area consisting of Dutch buildings and harbor, its streets are thronged with hawker food, crafted goods, street performers, artists and Jakartan youths hanging around. This is also the location of The Ancol Bayfront City Asia's largest integrated tourism area. The beautiful Thousand Islands (Kepulauan Seribu), accessible by boat from North Jakarta's dock, is an instant escape from the hectic city with its beautiful beaches, marine parks and world-class resorts.


The Jakarta's mega metropolis of 30 million inhabitants includes Jakarta and the following satellite cities:

Bogor - Beautiful palace, world class botany garden, golf course.
Tangerang - Soekarno Hatta airport, golf course, industrial parks, Lippo Karawaci
Bekasi - Industrial parks.
Depok - Home to the University of Indonesia


Internet, Communication

Internet

If you have your own laptop you may be able to access networks at many of the capital's malls. Ask at the information desk for access codes. Free hotspots are also available at restaurants, coffee shops, and convenience stores. Most hotels also provide wifi hotspots in their public area or in their rooms, either free or paid - inquire before booking.

Internet cafes are available in most parts of the city, especially around universities, residential areas, and most shopping malls, for Rp4,000-10,000 per hour. While the cheap ones will have the slow dial-up connection, others offer broadband high speed capabilities that is usually used by the youngsters for online gaming. If you are keen on using the internet for long hours, try to get the "happy hour" deals, where for up to Rp30,000, you can browse the Internet as long as you want.

Jakarta is the trial area for Indonesia's upcoming 4G LTE network deployment. Most operators are yet to carry the service though. Bolt is the sole brand to join in the competition. It offers pocket Wi-Fi modem for Rp200,000 plus a rechargeable internet quota for a rate that is cheap by Western standards.


Telephone

The area code for Jakarta and the metropolitan area, is 021. You do not need to call the area code if you are calling to another number within the same area using a landline. Drop the 0 prefix when calling from other areas across Indonesia.

Wartel or telephone shops are ubiquitous on the streets of Jakarta, but gradually disappear because of the booming of mobile phones. If you wish to avoid the exorbitant roaming fees (and also need to do a numerous number of calls), you can buy a used phone in small stalls for $10 to $15 plus your mobile number's balance, while the card itself is relatively cheap or free. Coverage is generally great at most spots.

Public phones can still be commonly seen in sidewalks. If you see a public telephone, lift the receiver and check the number in the display near the keypad. If the number is not 000, don't insert coins, because the phone is broken. They usually are, but are very cheap (just Rp100 per minute) when they do work.


Post

Post is provided by the state-owned Pos Indonesia. They do not have mail boxes but have mobile counters in a van, or you can just go to the post office. Major freight companies such as FedEx, DH, and UPS also offer drop by package delivery, albeit through a third party service.


Emergency

Emergency services are the best in Indonesia, if you want to call it. Many hospitals have 24 hour emergency, but equipments may not be as advanced as its international counterparts. The international emergency number 112 does work and will channel you to the respective services you need.

Fire  113.
Ambulance.  118.
Police.  110.
Search and rescue team.  115.
Indonesian Police HQ: Jl. Trunojoyo 3, South Jakarta. +62 21 7218144.
Jakarta Police HQ: Jl. Jendral Sudirman No. 45, South Jakarta. +62 21 5709261.

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