LOMBOK

Introduction

Info Lombok


introduction

Lombok is an island in West Nusa Tenggara province,Indonesia. It forms part of the chain of the Lesser Sunda Islands, with the Lombok Strait separating it from Bali to the west and the Alas Straitbetween it and Sumbawa to the east. It is roughly circular, with a "tail" (Sekotong Peninsula) to the southwest, about 70 km across and a total area of about 4,514 km² (1,825 sq mi). The provincial capital and largest city on the island is Mataram. It is somewhat similar in size and density with neighboring Bali and shares some cultural heritage, but is administratively part of Nusa Tenggara Barat along with sparsely populated Sumbawa. It is surrounded by a number of smaller islands locally called Gili.

The island was home to some 3.17 million Indonesians as recorded in the decennial 2010 census; the latest estimate (for January 2014) gives the population as 3,311,044.


info

POPULATION :  3,311,044
FOUNDED : 
TIME ZONE :
LANGUAGE :
RELIGION :
AREA : 4,514.11 km2 (1,742.91 sq mi)
ELEVATION :
COORDINATES : 8.565°S 116.351°E
SEX RATIO : Male: 50.30
 Female: 49.70
ETHNIC :
AREA CODE :
POSTAL CODE :
DIALING CODE :
WEBSITE :


Tourism

Tourism is an important source of income on Lombok. The most developed tourism area of the island is on the west coast of the island and is centered about the township of Senggigi. The immediate surrounds of the township contain the most developed tourism facilities. The west coast coastal tourism strip is spread along a 30 km strip following the coastal road north fromMataram and the old airport at Ampenan. The principal tourism area extends to Tanjung in the northwest at the foot of Mount Rinjani and includes the Sire and Medana Peninsulas and the highly popular Gili Islands lying immediately offshore. These three small islands are most commonly accessed by boat from Bangsal near Pemenang, Teluk Nare a little to the south, or from further south at Senggigi and Mangsit beach. Many hotels and resorts offer accommodations ranging from budget to luxurious. Recently direct fast boat services have been running from Bali making a direct connection to the Gili islands. Although rapidly changing in character, the Gili islands still provide both a lay-back backpacker's retreat and a high class resort destination.

Other tourist destinations include Mount Rinjani, Gili Bidara, Gili Lawang,Narmada Park and Mayura Park and Kuta (distinctly different from Kuta, Bali). Sekotong, in southwest Lombok, is popular for its numerous and diverse scuba diving locations.

The Kuta area is also famous for its beautiful, largely deserted, white sand beaches. The Small town is rapidly developing since the opening of the International airport in Praya. Increasing amounts of surfers from around the globe come here seeking out perfect surf and the slow and rustic feel Lombok. South Lombok surfing is considered some of the best in the world. Large polar lows push up through the Indian Ocean directing long range, high period swell from as far south as Heard Island from late March through to September or later. This conicides with the dry season and South-East trade winds that blow like clock work. Lombok is famous for its diversity of breaks, which includes world-renowned Desert Point at Banko Banko in the southwest of the island.

The northern west coast near Tanjung has many new upmarket hotel and villa developments centreed about the Sire and Medana peninsular nearby to the Gili islands and a new boating marina at Medana bay. These new developments complement the already existing 5 star resorts and a large golf course already established there.


History

Little is known about the Lombok before the seventeenth century. Before this time it was made up of numerous competing and feuding petty states each of which were presided over by a Sasak 'prince'. This disunity was taken advantage of by the neighbouring Balinese who took control of western Lombok in the early seventeenth century. The Makassarese meanwhile invaded eastern Lombok from their colonies in neighbouring Sumbawa. The Dutch had first visited Lombok in 1674 and the Dutch East India Company concluded its first treaty with the Sasak Princess of Lombok. The Balinese had managed to take over the whole island by 1750, but Balinese infighting resulted in the island being split into four feuding Balinese kingdoms. In 1838, the Mataram kingdom brought its rivals under control.

Relations between the Sasak and Balinese in western Lombok were largely harmonious and intermarriage was common. In the island's east, however, relations were less cordial and the Balinese maintained control from garrisoned forts. While Sasak village government remained in place, the village head became little more than a tax collector for the Balinese. Villagers became a kind of serf and Sasak aristocracy lost much of its power and land holdings.

During one of the many Sasak peasant rebellions against the Balinese, Sasak chiefs sent envoys to the Dutch in Bali and invited them to rule Lombok. In June 1894, the governor general of the Dutch East Indies, Van der Wijck, signed a treaty with Sasak rebels in eastern Lombok. He sent a large army to Lombok and the Balinese raja capitulated to Dutch demands. The younger princes however overruled the raja and attacked and routed the Dutch. The Dutch counterattacked overrunning Mataram and the raja surrendered. The entire island was annexed to the Netherlands East Indiesin 1895. The Dutch ruled over Lombok's 500,000 people with a force of no more than 250 by cultivating the support of the Balinese and Sasak aristocracy. The Dutch are remembered in Lombok as liberators from Balinese hegemony.

During World War II a Japanese invasion force comprising elements of the2nd Southern Expeditionary Fleet invaded and occupied the Lesser Sunda Islands, including the island of Lombok. They sailed from Soerabajaharbour at 09:00 hrs on 8 March 1942 and proceeded towards Lombok Island. On 9 May 1942 at 17:00 hrs the fleet sailed into port of Ampenan on Lombok Island. The Dutch defenders were soon defeated and the island occupied.

Following the cessation of hostilities the Japanese forces occupying Indonesia were withdrawn and Lombok returned temporarily to Dutch control. Following the subsequent Indonesian independence from the Dutch, the Balinese and Sasak aristocracy continued to dominate Lombok. In 1958, the island was incorporated into the province of West Nusa Tenggara with Mataram becoming the provincial capital. Mass killings of communists occurred across the island following the abortive coup attempt in Jakarta and Central Java. During President Suharto's New Order administration, Lombok experienced a degree of stability and development but not to the extent of the boom and wealth in Java and Bali. Crop failures led to famine in 1966 and food shortages in 1973. The national government's transmigrasi program moved a lot of people out of Lombok. The 1980s saw external developers and speculators instigate a nascent tourism boom although local's share of earnings was limited. Indonesia's political and economic crises of the late 1990s hit Lombok hard. In January 2000, riots broke out across Mataram with Christians and ethnic Chinese the main victims, with alleged agents provocateur from outside Lombok. Tourism slumped, but in recent years has seen a renewed growth.


Climate

While tropical, hot and humid, Lombok is drier than neighbouring Bali, which makes it a particularly attractive option during the Oct-Apr rainy season (it rains on Lombok too, but rarely for more than an hour or two). The peak of the tourist season, though, is May-August.


Geography

The Lombok Strait lies to the immediate west of the island, marking the passage of the biogeographical division between the prolific fauna of the Indomalayan ecozone and the distinctly different, but similarly prolific, fauna of Australasia—this distinction is known as the "Wallace Line" (or "Wallace's Line") and is named after Alfred Russel Wallace. Wallace was the first person to comment on the division between the two regions, as well as the abrupt boundary between the two biomes.

To the east of Lombok lies the Alas Strait, a narrow body of water separating the island of Lombok from the nearby island of Sumbawato the east.

The island's topography is dominated by the centrally-located stratovolcanoMount Rinjani, the second highest volcano in Indonesia which rises to 3,726 m (12,224 ft). The most recent eruption of Rinjani was in May 2010 at Gunung Barujari. Ash was reported as rising two km into the atmosphere from the Barujari cone in Rinjani's caldera lake of Segara Anak. Lavaflowed into the caldera lake raising its temperature while crops on the slopes of Rinjani were damaged by ash fall. The volcano, and its crater lake, 'Segara Anak' (child of the sea), are protected by the Gunung Rinjani National Park established in 1997. Recent evidence indicates an ancient volcano, Mount Samalas, of which now only a caldera remains, was the source of one of the largest volcanic eruptions in recorded history, causing worldwide changes in weather.

The highlands of Lombok are forest clad and mostly undeveloped. Thelowlands are highly cultivated. Rice, soybeans, coffee, tobacco, cotton,cinnamon, cacao, cloves, cassava, corn, coconuts, copra, bananas andvanilla are the major crops grown in the fertile soils of the island. The southern part of the island is fertile but drier, especially toward the southern coastline.

The water supply in Lombok is stressed and this places strain upon both the water supply of the provincial capital, Mataram, and the island in general. The southern and central areas are reported to be the most critically affected. West Nusa Tenggara province in general is threatened with a water crisis caused by increasing forest and water table damage and degradation. 160 thousand hectares of a total of 1960 thousand hectares are thought to have been affected. The Head of Built Environment and Security Forest Service Forest West Nusa Tenggara Andi Pramari stated in Mataram on Wednesday, May 6, 2009 that, "If this situation is not addressed it can be expected that within five years it may be difficult for people to obtain water in this part of NTB (West Nusa Tenggara). Not only that, the productivity of agriculture in value added will fall, and the residents are experiencing water deficiency in their wells". High cases of timber theft in the region of NTB are contributing to this problem.

In September 2010, Central Lombok some villagers were reported to be walking for several hours to fetch a single pail of water. Nieleando, a small coastal village about 50 kilometers from the provincial capital, Mataram, has seen dry wells for years. It has been reported that occasionally the problem escalates sufficiently for disputes and fighting between villagers to occur. The problems have been reported to be most pronounced in the districts of Jonggat, Janapria, Praya Timur, Praya Barat, Praya Barat Daya and Pujut. In 2010 all six districts were declared drought areas by provincial authorities. Sumbawa, the other main island of the province, also experienced severe drought in 2010, making it a province-wide issue.


Economy

Many of the visitors to Lombok and much of the islands goods come across the Lombok Strait by sea or air links from Bali. Only 40 kilometres (25 mi) separate the two islands. Lombok is often marketed as “an unspoiled Bali,” or “Bali’s sister island.” Currently with support of the central government Lombok and Sumbawa are being developed as Indonesia 2nd destination for international and domestic tourism. Lombok has retained a more natural, uncrowded and undeveloped environment, which attract travelers who come to enjoy its relaxed pace and the opportunity to explore the island's unspoiled, spectacular natural beauty. The more contemporary marketing campaigns for Lombok/Sumbawa seek to differentiate from Bali and promote the island of Lombok as a standalone destination. The opening of the Lombok International Airport on 1 October 2011 assisted in this endeavour.

Nusa Tenggara Barat and Lombok may be considered economically depressed by First World standards and a large majority of the population live in poverty. Still, the island is fertile, has sufficient rainfall in most areas for agriculture, and possesses a variety of climate zones. Consequently, food in abundant quantity and variety is available inexpensively at local farmer's markets, though locals still suffer from famine due to drought and subsistence farming. A family of 4 can eat rice, vegetables, and fruit for as little as US$0.50. Even though a family's income may be as small as US$1.00 per day from fishing or farming, many families are able to live a contented and productive life on such astonishingly small incomes. However, the people of Lombok are coming under increasing pressure from rising food and fuel prices. Access to housing, education and health services remains difficult for many of the island's indigenous population.

The percentage of the population living in poverty in urban areas of Nusa Tenggara Barat in 2008 was 29.47% and in 2009 it was 28.84%. For those living in rural areas in 2008 it was 19.73% and in 2009 it reduced marginally to 18.40% For combined urban and village the figures were 23.81% and in 2009 it fell slightly to 22.78%.


Subdivisions

The island is administratively divided into four kabupaten(regencies) and one kota(city). They are as follows, with their areas and populations at the 2010 Census and according to the latest (January 2014) official estimates:

NameArea in
Sq. km
Population
2005 estimate
Population
2010 Census
Population
2014 estimate
Capital
North Lombok Regency
(Lombok Utara)
776.25(included in
West Lombok)
199,904209,060Tanjung
West Lombok Regency
(Lombok Barat)
862.62757,369599,609626,941Gerung
Central Lombok Regency
(Lombok Tengah)
1,208.39810,645859,309898,855Praya
East Lombok Regency
(Lombok Timur)
1,605.551,039,1951,105,6711,155,247Selong
Mataram City61.30342,896402,296420,941Mataram
Totals4,514.112,950,1053,166,7893,311,044

West Lombok (Bangsal, Lembar, Mataram, Tanjung, Senggigi.)
The administrative centre, well known beaches and the vast majority of the developed tourism infrastructure on the island and gateway to the famous Gili islands
North Lombok (Mount Rinjani, Senaru)
Mighty Mount Rinjani, waterfalls, glorious scenery and home to the Waktu Telu traditions.
South Lombok (Kuta, Sekotong, Tanjung Aan)
Magnificent remote beaches and surfing heaven
Central and East Lombok (Praya, Labuhan Lombok, Selong,Tetebatu)
Quiet rural villages and beaches and ferry departures eastward toSumbawa and onward to Flores.
Gili Islands (Gili Air, Gili Meno, Gili Trawangan)
Tiny islands of the west coast, popular with divers and a vital cog in the Asian backpacker circuit


Cities

  • Mataram — the capital city of West Nusa Tenggara province and the island's largest city
  • Ampenan — the capital city of the West Lombok Regency.
  • Praya — the captal city of the Central Lombok Regency, Lombok's second city and nearby to the site of the islands international airport, Bandara Internasional Lombok.
  • Selong — the capital city of the East Lombok Regency
  • Tanjung — the capital of the North Lombok Regency, small city in the northwest, lies at the foot of Mount Rinjai's slopes, the two nearby peninsulas of Medana and Sire are home to some of the best resort and luxury villa destinations on the island

Other destinations

  • Senggigi — the islands principal tourist strip with a wide range of hotel, resort and villa destinations. Includes the Senggigi township and the coastline from Senggigi beach to Mangsit beach in the immediate north and Batu Layar to the immediate south
  • Gili Islands — three islands off the west coast, popular with backpackers, perfect for snorkelling and bathing in crystal clear water
  • Kuta — a surfing mecca like its Bali namesake, but that's where the similarity ends
  • Bangsal — a small beach landing site serving the public ferries to the Gili Islands
  • Lembar — the islands principal commercial port, serves the larger passenger carrying vehicular ferries to Bali
  • Mount Rinjani — large, active volcano looming over the island and the 3rd highest peak in Indonesia; the Mount Rinjani National Park is a hugely dominant feature of the island
  • Senaru — gateway village area to Mount Rinjani, with some great waterfalls and other spectacular natural scenery
  • Sekotong — off the beaten path in West Lombok, this area is fast becoming a tourist destination.
  • Tanjung Aan — almost impossibly beautiful isolated bay in the southeast which is earmarked for high end resort development
  • Tetebatu — village on the southern edge of the Mount Rinjani National Park with wonderful scenery

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