Shiraz is the 6th most crowded city of Iran and the capital of Fars Province (Old Persian as Pârsâ). At the 2011 registration, the number of inhabitants in the city was 1,460,665 and its developed territory with "Shahr-e Jadid-e Sadra" (Sadra New Town) was home to 1,500,644 inhabitants. Shiraz is situated in the southwest of Iran on the "Roodkhaneye Khoshk" (The Dry River) occasional waterway. It has a moderate atmosphere and has been a territorial exchange community for over a thousand years. It is viewed as one of the most established urban areas of old Persia.
The most punctual reference to the city, as Tiraziš, is on Elamite dirt tablets dated to 2000 BC. In the thirteenth century, Shiraz turned into a main focus of expressions of the human experience and letters, because of the consolation of its ruler and the nearness of numerous Persian researchers and craftsmen. It was the capital ofPersia amid the Zand line from 1750 until 1800. Two well known writers of Iran, Hafez and Saadi, are from Shiraz, whose tombs are on the north side of the present city limits.
Shiraz is known as the city of writers, writing, wine and flowers. It is additionally considered by numerous Iranians to be the city of greenhouses, because of the numerous greenery enclosures and organic product trees that can be found in the city, for instance Eram Garden. Shiraz has had major Jewish and Christian people group. The specialties of Shiraz comprise of decorated mosaic work of triangular structure; silver-product; heap cover weaving and weaving of kilim, calledgilim and jajim in the towns and among the tribes. In Shiraz ventures, for example, bond creation, sugar, manures, material items, wood items, metalwork and floor coverings dominate. Shirāz likewise has a noteworthy oil refinery and is additionally a noteworthy community for Iran's electronic enterprises: 53% of Iran's electronic speculation has been focused in Shiraz. Shiraz is home to Iran's first sun based power plant. Recently the city's first breeze turbine has been introduced above Babakoohi mountain close to the city.
|TIME ZONE :||IRST (UTC+3:30)|
|LANGUAGE :||Persian and Persian dialects 58%, Turkic and Turkic dialects 26%, Kurdish 9%, Luri 2%, Balochi 1%, Arabic 1%, Turkish 1%, other 2%|
|RELIGION :||Muslim 98% (Shia 89%, Sunni 9%), other (includes Zoroastrian, Jewish, Christian, and Baha'i) 2%|
|AREA :||240 km2 (86.487 sq mi)|
|ELEVATION :||1,500 m (5,200 ft)|
|COORDINATES :||29°37′N 52°32′E|
|SEX RATIO :||• Male: 50.30
• Female: 49.70
|ETHNIC :||Persian 61%, Azeri 16%, Kurd 10%, Lur 6%, Baloch 2%, Arab 2%, Turkmen and Turkic tribes 2%, other 1%|
|AREA CODE :||0713|
|POSTAL CODE :|
|DIALING CODE :|
|WEBSITE :||Official Website|
Shiraz (شیراز) is the capital city of the Fars region and a fortune trove of Persian culture. It was the capital of Iran amid the Zand line's period (1747– 79), and is the praised origination of the incomparable Persian artists Hafiz and Saadi. The city has a populace of around 1,300,000.
- The tombs of Hafiz, Saadi, and Khaju e Kermani (whose tomb is inside a mountain over the city's old Qur'an Gate). Other lesser realized tombs are that of Shah Shoja' (the Mozafarid emir of Persia, and benefactor of Hafiz), and the Haft Tanan sepulcher, where 7 Sufi spiritualists are covered. The Tomb of Baba Kuhi sits on a mountain sitting above the city, and the tomb of Karim Khan Zand is at the Pars Museum of Shiraz.
- The most seasoned mosque is Atigh Jame' Mosque, which is one of the more seasoned mosques of Iran, trailed by Vakil Mosque and Nasir al-Mulk mosque. The Vakil Mosque is arranged west of the well known Vakil Bazaar. It covers a zone of 8,660 square meters and was worked in 1187 (AH) amid Zand Dynasty. On the opposite sides of the passageway entryway there are great tile-works and curves. The left and right passageways of the passageway entryway are associated with the principle room.
- The citadel of Arg of Karim Khan sits adjacent to the Vakil Bazaar and Vakil Bath at the city's central district. The most famous of houses are Zinat-ol-Molook House and Gahavam's House, both in the old quarters of the city.
- The Qur'an Gate is the entrance to Shiraz. It is located near the gorge of Allah-o-Akbar and is flanked by the Baba Kuhi and Chehel Maqam mountains. The gateway is where two copies of the Qurans known
- The Eram Garden (Bagh-e Eram) in Shiraz is a striking location for visitors with a variety of plants as well as a historic mansion. Although the exact date of the construction of the garden is not clear, historical evidence suggests it was constructed during the Seljuk Dynasty on the orders of the celebrated Seljuk monarch Sanjar. Other historical Persian gardens are Afifabad Garden and The Museum of Weapons, Delgosha Garden and Jahan Nama Garden.
Inside a generally short driving separation from Shiraz are the vestiges of Persepolis, Bishapur, Pasargadae, and Firouzabad. At Naqsh-e Rustam can be discovered the tombs of the Achaemenid lords and also the Ka'ba-ye Zartosht, which has been believed to be either a Zoroastrian fire sanctuary or conceivably even the genuine tomb of Cyrus the Great. Maharloo Lake is a prominent rearing ground for different winged animal species.
Naqsh-e Rostam site contains funerary related works having a place with the Elamite (second thousand years BCE), Achaemenid (550– 330 BCE) and Sassanid (226– 651 CE) times. Naqsh-e Rostam is a site accepted by archeologists to have been a burial ground for Persepolis, where Achaemenid, Parthian and Sassanid sovereignty were let go.
With in excess of 25 shopping centers and 10 bazaars, Shiraz is known as the most straightforward place for shopping in Iran and the Middle East.
The Persian Gulf Complex, situated at the north end of the city, is thelargest shopping center on the planet as far as the quantity of shops.
The Vakil Bazaar, one of the oldest bazaars on the planet, is situated in the old downtown area of Shiraz. Highlighting wonderful patios, caravansarais, and shower houses, its shops are regarded among the best places in Shiraz to purchase a wide range of Persian floor coverings, flavors, copper painstaking work and collectibles.
It is very likely that Shiraz is over 4000 years old. The name Shiraz is mentioned in the cuneiform inscriptions of about 2000 BC that are located in the southwest corner of the city. According to some Iranian mythological traditions, it was originally erected by Tahmuras Diveband, and then fell into ruin. The oldest wine sample in the world, dating back to about 7000 years ago, was discovered in clay pots recovered outside of Shiraz (reference article this discovery, a Neolithic mountain village was held at Hajji Firuz Tepe Zagros, in the north Iran, more than a thousand kilometers north of Shiraz).
At the time of Achaemenian, Shiraz was on the road from Susa to Persepolis and Pasargadae. In Ferdinand's Shāhnāma it has been said that Artabanus V, the emperor of Iran, has extended his control over Shiraz. Ghasre Abu-Nasr (which means "the palace of Abu Nasr"), which is originally from the Partica era, is found in this area. During the Sassanid era, Shiraz was in the middle of the road connecting Bishapur and Gur with Istakhr. Shiraz was an important regional center under the Sassanids.
The city became a provincial capital in 693, after the Arab invaders conquered Istakhr, the nearby Sassanid capital. When Istakhr fell into decline, Shiraz became important under the Arabs and several local dynasties. The Buwayhid empire (945-1055) made it its capital, building mosques, palaces, a library and extensive city walls. It was also ruled by the Seljuks and the Khwarezmians before the Mongol conquest.
The city was saved from the destruction of the Mongol invaders, when its local ruler offered tribute and submission to Genghis Khan. Shiraz was rescued again by Tamerlane, when in 1382 the local monarch, Shah Shoja, agreed to submit to the invader. In the 13th century, Shiraz became an important center of arts and literature, thanks to the encouragement of its ruler and the presence of many Persian scholars and artists. For this reason, the city was named by the classical geographers Dar al-'Elm, the House of Knowledge. Among the Iranian poets, mystics and philosophers born in Shiraz were the poets Sa'di and Hafiz, the mystic Roozbehan and the philosopher Mulla Sadra. Thus, Shiraz was nicknamed "The Athens of Iran". Already in the eleventh century, hundreds of thousands of people lived in Shiraz. In the fourteenth century Shiraz had sixty thousand inhabitants. During the 16th century it had a population of 200,000, which had fallen to only 50,000 by the middle of the eighteenth century.
In 1504, Shiraz was captured by the forces of Ismail I, the founder of the Safavid dynasty. Throughout the Safavid Empire (1501-1722), Shiraz remained a provincial capital and Emam Qoli Khan, the governor of the Fars under Shah Abbas I, built many palaces and buildings decorated in the same style as those built in the same period Isfahan, the capital. empire. After the fall of the Safavids, Shiraz suffered a period of decline, exacerbated by the incursions of the Afghans and the rebellion of their governor against Nader Shah; The latter sent troops to suppress the revolt. The city was besieged for many months and was finally sacked. At the time of the assassination of Nader Shah in 1747, most of the city's historic buildings were damaged or ruined, and its population fell to 50,000, a quarter of that in the sixteenth century.
Shiraz soon returned to prosperity under the rule of Karim Khan Zand, who made his capital in 1762. With more than 12,000 employees, he built a royal quarter with a fortress, many administrative buildings, a mosque and one of the best covered bazaars. I ran. He built a moat around the city, built an irrigation and drainage system and rebuilt the city walls. However, Karim Khan's heirs could not assure their profits. When Agha Mohammad Khan, the founder of the Qajar dynasty, finally came to power, he avenged Shiraz by destroying the city's fortifications and moving the national capital to Tehran. Although reduced to the status of provincial capital, Shiraz maintained a level of prosperity due to the continuing importance of the trade route to the Persian Gulf. His rule was a real prerogative throughout the Qajar dynasty. Many of the famous gardens, buildings and residences built during this period contribute to the city's current skyline.
Shiraz is the birthplace of the co-founder of the Bahá'í Faith, the Báb (Siyyid 'Ali-Muhammad, 1819-1850). In this city, on the afternoon of May 22, 1844, he declared for the first time his mission as bearer of a new divine revelation. For this reason, Shiraz is a holy city for the Bahá'ís, and the city, in particular the home of the Báb, has been identified as a place of pilgrimage. Due to the hostile climate towards the Bahá'ís in Iran, the house has been the object of repeated attacks; The house was destroyed in 1979, to be paved two years later and turned into a public square.
In 1910, a pogrom of the Jewish quarter began after false rumors that the Jews had ritually killed a Muslim girl. During the pogrom, 12 Jews were killed and about 50 wounded, and 6,000 Jews from Shiraz were robbed of all their property.
The city's role in commerce diminished considerably with the opening of the trans-Iranian railway in the 1930s, when trade routes moved to the Khuzestan ports. Much of Shiraz's architectural heritage, and especially the Royal Borough of Zands, has been neglected or destroyed as a result of irresponsible urban planning under the Pahlavi dynasty.
With no major industrial, religious or strategic importance, Shiraz became an administrative center, although its population has grown considerably since the 1979 revolution.
The municipality of the city and other related institutions have started restoration and reconstruction projects.
Some of the most recent projects have been the complete restoration of Karim Khan Arg and the Vakil Bath, as well as a complete plan for the preservation of the old neighborhoods of the city. Other important initiatives include the total renewal of the Koran Gate and the mausoleum of the poet Khwaju Kermani, both located in the Allah-u-Akbar gorge, as well as the restoration and expansion of the mausoleum of the famous poets born in Shiraz. Hafiz and Saadi.
Currently, several construction projects are underway that will modernize the city's infrastructure. The chain of the Shiraz 1400 project is destined to transform the city.
After the Iranian revolution, Shiraz was re-established as the capital of Iranian art and culture. Shiraz is known as the capital of art, culture and Persian literature.
The climate of Shiraz has different seasons and, in general, is classified as a semi-arid hot climate (Köppen: BSh), although it is a little less than a Mediterranean summer climate (CSA). Summers are hot, with a July average of 38.8 ° C (101.8 ° F). Winters are cold, with average low temperatures below freezing point in December and January. About 300 mm (12 in.) Of rain fall each year, almost entirely in the winter months, although in some cases as much as in a month (as in January 1965 and December 2004), while in the year of July Since 1965 as of June 1966, only 82.9 mm (3.3 inches) decreased. The wettest year was 1955/1956 with 857.2 mm (33.75 inches), although from 1959 the highest was about 590 millimeters (23.2 inches) in 1995/1996 and in 2004 / 2005.
Climate data for Shiraz
|Record high °C (°F)||22.4
|Average high °C (°F)||12.1
|Daily mean °C (°F)||5.3
|Average low °C (°F)||−0.4
|Record low °C (°F)||−14.0
|Source #1: NOAA|
|Source #2: Iran Meteorological Organization (records)|
Shiraz is located in the south of Iran and the northwest of Fars Province. It is built in a green plain at the foot of the Zagros Mountains 1,500 metres (4,900 feet) above sea level. Shiraz is 919 kilometres (571 mi) south of Tehran.
A seasonal river, Dry River, flows through the northern part of the city and on into Maharloo Lake. As of 1920, the area had a large forest of oak trees.
Shiraz is the economic center of southern Iran. The second half of the 19th century witnessed certain economic developments that greatly changed the economy of Shiraz. The opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 allowed the extensive import into southern Iran of inexpensive European factory-made goods, either directly from Europe or via India. Farmers in unprecedented numbers began planting cash crops such as opium poppy, tobacco, and cotton. Many of these export crops passed through Shiraz on their way to the Persian Gulf. Iranian long-distance merchants from Fars developed marketing networks for these commodities, establishing trading houses in Bombay, Calcutta, Port Said, Istanbul and even Hong Kong.
Shiraz's economic base is in its provincial products, which include grapes, citrus fruits, cotton and rice. Industries such as cement production, sugar, fertilizers, textile products, wood products, metalwork and rugs dominate.Shirāz also has a major oil refinery and is also a major center for Iran's electronic industries. 53% of Iran's electronic investment has been centered in Shiraz. Agriculture has always been a major part of the economy in and around Shiraz. This is partially due to a relative abundance of water compared to the surrounding deserts. Shirāz is famous for its carpet production and flowers as well. Viticulture has a long history in the region, and Shirazi wine used to be produced here. Shiraz is also an Iranian center for IT, communication, electronic industry, and transportation.
The Shiraz Special Economic Zone or the SEEZ was established in 2000 with the purpose of boosting manufacturing in electronics and communications.
List of neighbourhoods in Shiraz:
- Farhang Shahr
- Kooye Zahra
- Ma'ali Abad
- Molla Sadra
- kolbeh saadi
- Bagh-e Nari (Narvan)
- Siahatgar BLVD
- Abiari Ave
- Artesh square (Army Square)
- Kooye Jamaran(siman)
- Baskool nader
- Sare dozak
- Sange siah
- Amir kabir Blvd
- Darvazeh kazeron
- Darvaze Isfahan
- Bagh safa
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