TEHRAN

Introduction

Info Tehran

introduction

Tehran is the capital of Iran and of the province of Tehran. With a population of around 9 million in the city and 16 million in the wider metropolitan area, Tehran is the largest city and urban area of ​​Iran, the second largest city in Western Asia, and the third largest in the Middle East. . It is ranked 29th in the world by the population of its metropolitan area.

Tehran was chosen primarily as the capital of Iran by Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar Dynasty in 1796, in order to remain within the reach of the Iranian territories of the Caucasus, currently still part of Iran, and to avoid the vindicating factions of the former Iranian dynasties. The capital has been moved several times throughout history and Tehran is the 32nd national capital of Iran.

The city was the seat of qajars and pahlavis, the last two imperial dynasties of the country. It is home to numerous historical collections, such as the royal complex of Golestan, Sa'dabad and Niavaran and most important government buildings in the modern period of the country.

Most of the population of Tehran is made up of Persian-speaking people who identify themselves as Persians and about 99% of the population understand and speak Persian; but there are also large populations of other Iranian ethnic groups in the city, such as Azerbaijan, Armenian, Kurdish and Kurdish who speak Persian as a second language.

There are plans to transfer Iran's capital from Tehran to another area; mainly due to air pollution and exposure of the city to earthquakes. To date, no final plan has been approved.

info

POPULATION : City: 8,846,782  /  Metro: 15,232,564
FOUNDED : 
TIME ZONE : IRST (UTC+03:30) Summer:  IRDT (UTC+04:30)
LANGUAGE : Persian
RELIGION : Muslim 98% (Shia 89%, Sunni 9%), other (includes Zoroastrian, Jewish, Christian) 2%
AREA : 617.73 km2 (238.51 sq mi)
ELEVATION : 900 to 1,830 m (2,952 to 6,003 ft)
COORDINATES : 35°41′46″N 51°25′23″E
SEX RATIO : Male: 50.30%  
 Female: 49.70%
ETHNIC : Persian 65%Azeri 25%, Others (Kurds, Armenians etc.) 10%
AREA CODE : 21
POSTAL CODE :
DIALING CODE : +98 21
WEBSITE : Official Website

Tourism

Tehran is a cosmopolitan city with great museums, parks, restaurants and friendly people. It deserves at least a few days of your Iranian itinerary.

The city can be divided into two different parts: north and south. Teheran's northern districts are more prosperous, modern, cosmopolitan and expensive, while parts of the south are less attractive but less expensive.

Tehran, as one of Iran's main tourist attractions, has several cultural attractions. It is home to royal complexes built during the last two monarchical periods of the country, including the Golestan, Sa'dabad and Niavaran complexes.

Tehran has a large variety of shopping centers, from traditional bazaars to modern shopping centers. Tehran Grand Bazaar and Tajrish Bazaar are Tehran's largest ancient bazaars. Commercial districts such as Valiasr, Shariati and Mirdamad have a wide variety of different stores. Some of the known shopping centers throughout the city include Tiraje and Hyperstar, and small shopping centers like Tandis, Golestan, Palladium Mall and Safavie.

Most of the international brand stores and luxury shops are located in the north and west of the city, while the rest of the shopping centers are located throughout the city. Tehran's retail business is booming with several newly built shopping centers and shopping centers.

There are several historical, artistic and scientific museums in Tehran, such as the National Museum, Malek Museum, Ferdows Garden, Museum of Glass and Ceramics Museum of Qasr Prison, the Carpet Museum, Museum of Glass Painting (Vitrai art) and Safir. Museum of office machines. There is also the Museum of Contemporary Art in Tehran, where there are works by famous artists such as Van Gogh, Pablo Picasso and Andy Warhol.

Tehran is also the headquarters of the Imperial Crown Jewels of Iran, claimed as the largest collection of jewelry in the world. The collection consists of a series of crowns and thrones, about 30 diadems, numerous Aigrettes, swords and studded jewelry shields, a large amount of precious stones, as well as the largest collection of emeralds, rubies and diamonds in the world. It also includes other items collected by the Shah of Iran. The jewels of the imperial crown are displayed in the Central Bank of Iran.

The International Book Fair in Tehran is known in the world of international publishing as one of Asia's most important publishing events.

History

The origin of the name Tehran is uncertain. The Tehran settlement dates back more than 7,000 years. The present-day city of Tehran was a suburb of an important median city known as Rhaga in ancient Persia.

During the Sassanid era, in 641, Yazdgerd III issued his last appeal to the nation of King, before fleeing to Khorasan. Rey was dominated by the Mihran family of parties, and Siyavakhsh, son of Mihran, son of Bahram Chobin, who resisted the Muslim invasion. Because of this resistance, when the Arabs captured Rey, they ordered the city to be destroyed and ordered Farrukhzad to rebuild the city.

There is a temple in Rey, which is considered one of the temples of Anahita, a cosmological figure of Iranian mythology. After the Muslim invasion, the temple became dedicated to the eldest daughter of Yazdgerd III, Bibi Shahr Banou, who married Husayn ibn Ali, the fourth leader of the Shiite faith.

Tehran was a village known in the 9th century, but less known than the town of Rey, which was thriving nearby. Najm od Din Razi, known as Daya, stated that Rey's population was 500,000 before the Mongol invasion.

In the 13th century, the Mongols invaded Rey, devastated the city and massacred many of its inhabitants. After the invasion, many of the city's inhabitants fled to Tehran and the new residence assumed its role.


Early modern era

When the Italian traveler Pietro della Valle crossed the city during the night of 1618, he mentioned it as "Taheran" in his memoirs, while Thomas Herbert mentioned it as "Tyroan". Herbert declared that the city had 3000 houses in 1627.

In the early eighteenth century, Karim Khan of the Zand dynasty ordered the construction of a palace and a government office in Tehran, perhaps to declare the city its capital, but later transferred his government to Shiraz. In the end, King Qajar Agha Mohammad Khan was the first to choose Tehran as the capital of Iran in 1776.

The choice of his capital by Agha Mohammad Khan was based on a similar concern for the control of the northern and southern regions of Iran. He was aware of the loyalty of the inhabitants to the former capitals, Isfahan and Shiraz, respectively to the Safavida and Zand dynasties and distrusted of the power of the important people in these cities. He probably considered the lack of a substantial urban structure in Tehran as a blessing since it minimized the chances of resistance to his rule by notables and the general public. After 50 years of domination of Qajar, the city still had little more than 80,000 inhabitants.

Until 1870, Tehran consisted of a fortified citadel, a covered and sharestan bazaar, where the majority of the population resided in the three main districts of Udlajan, Chale Meydan and Sangelaj. Tehran's first development plan of 1855 emphasized the traditional spatial structure. Architecture, however, has found an eclectic expression to reflect the new lifestyle.

The second major planning exercise in Tehran came under the supervision of Dar ol Fonun. The 1878 map included new city walls in the form of a perfect octagon with an area of ​​19 square kilometers that mimicked the Renaissance cities of Europe.


Late modern era

In response to the growing social awareness of civil rights, on June 2, 1907, the first parliament of the Persian constitutional revolution passed a law on local government known as the Baladie law. The second and third articles of the EU Baladie Act (or city council), provided a detailed picture on issues such as the role of councils in the city, members' qualifications, the electoral process and the requirements for the right to vote.

After World War I, Reza Shah immediately suspended the Baladie Act of 1907 and the decentralized and autonomous municipal councils were replaced by a centralized approach to governance and planning.

From the 1920s to the 1930s, the city was essentially rebuilt from scratch under the reign of Reza Shah Pahlavi. Reza Shah believes that the ancient buildings, like much of the Golestan Palace, Tekye Dowlat, the Toopkhane square, the city fortifications and the old citadel, among others, should not be part of a modern city. They were systematically demolished and in its place were built modern buildings in pre-Islamic Islamic style, such as the National Bank, the police headquarters, the Telegraph office and the Military Academy. Tehran Grand Bazaar was divided in half and many historic buildings were demolished to build wide avenues in the capital. Many Persian gardens also fell victim to new construction projects.

During the Second World War, Soviet and British troops entered the city. Teheran was the site of the Tehran Conference in 1943, with the presence of the American president Franklin D. Roosevelt, of the Soviet prime minister Joseph Stalin and of the British Prime Minister Winston Churchill.

The establishment of Iranian planning planning in 1948 led to the first socio-economic development plan to cover 1949 to 1955. These plans not only failed to slow down the unbalanced growth of Tehran, but with the 1962 agrarian reforms that Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi called the White Revolution, Tehran's chaotic growth was even more pronounced.

Tehran's most famous landmark, the Azadi Tower, was built by order of the Shah in 1971. It was designed by Hossein Amanat, an architect who won a monument design competition using Sassanid and Achaemenid elements. Formerly known as the Shahyad Tower, it was built to commemorate the 2500th anniversary of the Persian Empire.

During the Iran-Iraq war of 1980-88, Teheran was targeted by repeated Scud missile attacks and air strikes.

Climate

Tehran has a semi-arid climate with continental weather characteristics and a precipitation model of the Mediterranean climate.

Tehran's climate is largely defined by its geographic location, with the towering mountains of Alborz to the north and the central desert to the south. Usually can be described as light in spring and autumn, hot and dry in summer, cold and wet in winter.

Summer is long, hot and dry, with little rainfall, but relative humidity is generally low. The average high temperatures are between 35 and 40 ° C (95 and 104 ° F) and, at night, rarely fall below 23 ° C (73 ° F).

Most annual rains occur from late fall through mid-spring, but no month is particularly humid. The warmest month is July, with a minimum average temperature of 26 ° C (79 ° F) and a maximum average temperature of 36 ° C (97 ° F), and the coldest is January, with a minimum average temperature of - 1 ° C (30 ° F) and a maximum average temperature of 8 ° C (46 ° F).

Geography

Tehran County borders Shemiranat County to the north, Damavand County to the east, Eslamshahr, Pakdasht and Rey counties to the south, and the counties of Karaj and Shahriar to the west.

The city of Tehran is divided into 22 municipalities, each with its own administrative center. 20 of the 22 municipalities are located in the central district of Tehran County, while districts 1 and 20 are respectively in the districts of Shemiranat and Ray.

Internet, Comunication

Internet

You need to use a proxy server, VPN or software such as Freegate to access Facebook, Twitter, YouTube and some websites; otherwise you will see the page showing that the site you want to access is filtered and blocked by the court system. You should also use Freegate to check the balance of your bank account, otherwise your account may be blocked due to sanctions against Iran.

Internet Cafes
-Ferdosi Coffee Net - Enghelab Ave, (a few doors east of Ferdosi Square) is hard to find (look for the small sign plastered to a building) has two banks of computers.
-Pars Net - one of south Tehran's hottest coffee nets, dishing up reasonable speed. It is on the eastern side of Ferdosi St, between Jomhuiyeh Eslami Ave and Enghelab Ave, across from the British embassy. They also provide fax and long distance phone services.
-Coffee Net Firouzeh - In Tehran's south in the nice and very friendly Firouzeh Hotel
-Iranian Trade Centre - around Valiasr Square offers several Internet cafes (coffee nets).
In addition to the above caffes, there are many others in all parts of the city.

3G and 4G internet connections

With a copy of the information page of your passport and a copy of the page with Iranian entrance seal and also, your visa, you can buy SIM cards and access the internet with GPRS, EDGE, 3G and 4G technologies. SIM cards are available in places like post and government e-services offices and also in big shops. You might also find them at the airport.

Wireless portable internet connection
Irancell Wimax is one of the wireless internet networks available. MobinNet ISP Company is another service provider which provides wireless portable internet connection.

FLIGHTS & HOTELS

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