MALACCA CITY

Introduction

Info Malacca City

introduction

Malacca City , is the capital city of the Malaysian state of Malacca. As of 2010 it has a population of 484,885. It is the oldest Malaysian cities in the Straits of Malacca, having become a successful entrepôt in the era of the Malacca Sultanate. The present-day city was founded by Parameswara, a Sumatran prince who escaped to the Malay Peninsula when Srivijaya fell to the Majapahit. Following the establishment of the Malacca Sultanate, the city drew the attention of traders from the Middle East, South Asia, and East Asia, as well as the Portuguese, who intended to dominate the trade route in Asia. After Malacca was conquered by Portugal, the city became an area of conflict when the sultanates of Aceh and Johor attempted to take control from the Portuguese.

Following a number of wars between these territories, Aceh declined in influence while Johor survived and expanded its influence over territory previously lost to Aceh in Sumatra when Johor co-operated with the Dutch who arrived to establish dominance over Java and Maluku Islands. However, due to royal internal strife between the Malay and Bugis, the Johor-Riau Empire was divided into the sultanates of Johor and Riau-Lingga. This separation became permanent when the British arrived to establish their presence in the Malay Peninsula. The Dutch, who already felt threatened in the presence of the British, began conquering the Riau-Lingga Sultanate along with the rest of Sumatra, while Johor came under British influence following the signing of the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824.

When the British succeeded in extending their influence over the Malay Peninsula, the city soon became an area of development under the Straits Settlements as part of the British Empire. The development and burgeoning prosperity were, however, halted when the Japanese arrived in World War II and occupied the area from 1942 to 1945. During the occupation, many of the city's residents were taken and forced to construct the Death Railway in Burma (present-day Myanmar). After the war, the city was returned to the British and remained as the capital of Malacca. The status as a capital remained until the formation of Malaysia in 1963, and in 2008 it was listed, together with George Town of Penang, as a UNESCO World Heritage Site for its long history.

The economy of the city of Malacca is largely based on tourism. As the economic centre of the state of Malacca, it also hosts several international conferences and trade fairs. The city is located along the Maritime Silk Road, proposed by China in 2013. Among the tourist attractions in and nearby the Malacca city are: A Famosa, Jonker Walk, Little India,Portugese Settlement, Stadthuys, Maritime Museum, Christ Church,Malacca Sultanate Palace Museum, Malacca Zoo, and Taming Sari Tower.

info

POPULATION : 484,885
FOUNDED : Founded 1396
Granted city status 2003
TIME ZONE : MST (UTC+8)
LANGUAGE :
RELIGION :
AREA :• City and State Capital 277 km2 (107 sq mi)
• Metro 307.86 km2 (118.87 sq mi)
ELEVATION : 6 m (20 ft)
COORDINATES : 2°12′20.49″N 102°15′22.09″E
SEX RATIO : Male: 
 Female: 
ETHNIC :
AREA CODE : 06
POSTAL CODE : 75xxx to 78xxx
DIALING CODE :  +60 6
WEBSITE :  www.mbmb.gov.my

Tourism

Modern-day Malacca is a vibrant old city with a unique historical and cultural background from being the capital of a powerful Malay kingdom before the colonial era, as well as subsequent Portuguese, Dutch and British rule. The city centre was listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site in July 2008, along with Georgetown, Penang.

History

Before the arrival of the first Sultan, Malacca was a simple fishing village inhabited by local Malays. The Malacca Sultanate was founded by Parameswara, also called Iskandar Shah or Sri Majara, the last Raja of Singapura (the Malay name of Singapore) following a Majapahit attack in 1377. Parameswara found his way to Malacca in 1400 where he found a port, accessible in all seasons and on the strategically located narrowest point of the Malacca Strait. This later became Malacca.

There are some interesting legends surrounding the foundation and naming of Malacca. According to the 16th century Malay Annals, the city was founded by Parameswara. Some believe it more likely that he was a Hindu prince and political fugitive from nearby Java. The legend goes that Parameswara was out on a hunt in the region and had stopped to refresh himself near what is now the Malacca River. Standing near a melaka(Indian gooseberry) tree he was surprised to witness one of his hunting dogs so startled by a mouse deer that it fell into the river. Parameswara took this as a propitious sign of the weak overcoming the powerful and decided to build the capital of his new kingdom where he stood, naming it for the tree under which he had been resting. Another account says Malacca is derived from the Arabic word Malakat, meaning market. Malacca had a navigable harbor sheltered by nearby Sumatra across the narrow straits. The location was supplied with an ample quantity of fresh water, enjoyed a prime location relative to the shifting monsoon winds, and had a central location in regional trade patterns, all of which soon made it a prosperous trading town. Its fortunes increased with its official adoption of Islam in the 14th century. The Sultans of Malacca were soon attracting Arab traders from far afield. However, Malacca continued to trade with merchants of all races and religions.

After the visit of the Chinese Muslim Admiral Cheng Ho in the mid-15th century, contact between China and Malacca intensified. In exchange for protection against Siam, Malacca became a vassal state to Ming China. To ensure Malacca's safety, a new and powerful kingdom was founded by the Sultan of Samudra-Pasai.

The power of the Malays began to rise through the 15th century. In the Malay Annals, Sultan Mansur Shah was mentioned as having six wives, and the fifth was stated to be a daughter of the Ming Emperor. However, in the Chinese chronicles, no such event was recorded.

Things started to change with the arrival of the Portuguese in 1509. They were at first welcomed, but Indian traders soon turned the sultan against the Portuguese and they had to flee. In 1511 the Portuguese returned, and at their second attempt seized the city. This marked the start of the formation of a large Eurasian community. The Portuguese turned the city into a massive walled fortress complete with a tower bristling with cannon. It was believed that such fortifications could withstand the encroachments of other European powers eager for a slice of the Asian luxury goods trade.

An alliance between the Dutch and the Sultan of Johor saw the loss much of Malacca's power. In 1641 the Dutch navy put a blockade on Malacca and they seized the city after six months. During the siege much of the Portuguese city was destroyed.

Only after 150 years did the Dutch lose their hold on Malacca. In 1795 The Netherlands was conquered by the French, and the British were keen to take over the Dutch holdings in Malacca. By that time, Malacca had lost most of its former importance, although it remained an important part of Asian trade routes.

The A Famosa gate is all that remains of the old Portuguese and Dutch forts. As the Napoleonic Wars wound down the British knew Malacca would be returned to Dutch control. In order to make the city indefensible the city walls were blown down. A last minute intervention by a British officer, the young Sir Stamford Raffles (founder of British Singapore) saved the gate. Shortly after its return to Dutch rule, the Dutch and British governments swapped colonies - British Bencoolen in Sumatra for Dutch Malacca.

Malacca is a centre of Peranakan culture. When Chinese settlers originally came to Malacca as miners, traders and coolies, they took local brides (of Javanese, Batak, Achenese, etc. descent) and adopted many local customs. The result of this is an interesting fusion of local and Chinese cultures. The men are addressed as Babas and the women Nonyas by their servants meaning Master and Mistress.

A small group of Eurasians of Portuguese descent continue to speak their unique creole, known as Cristão or Kristang.

Climate

Malacca's weather is hot and humid throughout the year with rainfall, the intensity of which depends on the time of the year. It is one of the driest cities in Malaysia, receiving just under 2,000 mm (79 in) of rainfall while most areas in Peninsular Malaysia receive an average of around 2,500 mm (98 in) of rainfall annually. However, Malacca has no dry season as average rainfall is more than 100 mm (3.9 in) for each month. Malacca is classified as having a tropical rainforest climate (Af) under the Köppen climate classification system. The relatively stable weather allows Malacca to be visited year-round. Temperatures generally range from 30 °C (86 °F) to 35 °C (95 °F) during the day and from 27 °C (81 °F) to 29 °C (84 °F) at night, although the temperature may fall after periods of heavy rainfall. Generally, Malacca's annual rainfall is below the annual rainfall of Malaysia as a whole. It usually rains in the evening after a hot and humid afternoon.

Climate data for Malacca

MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)35.2
(95.4)
37.3
(99.1)
37.2
(99)
37.3
(99.1)
38.0
(100.4)
34.7
(94.5)
35.7
(96.3)
35.0
(95)
35.6
(96.1)
35.6
(96.1)
34.0
(93.2)
34.3
(93.7)
38.0
(100.4)
Average high °C (°F)31.4
(88.5)
32.6
(90.7)
32.6
(90.7)
32.4
(90.3)
31.8
(89.2)
31.4
(88.5)
31.0
(87.8)
30.9
(87.6)
31.0
(87.8)
31.3
(88.3)
31.0
(87.8)
30.9
(87.6)
31.5
(88.7)
Daily mean °C (°F)26.1
(79)
26.7
(80.1)
27.0
(80.6)
27.0
(80.6)
27.1
(80.8)
26.8
(80.2)
26.4
(79.5)
26.4
(79.5)
26.4
(79.5)
26.4
(79.5)
26.1
(79)
26.0
(78.8)
26.5
(79.7)
Average low °C (°F)22.5
(72.5)
22.9
(73.2)
23.1
(73.6)
23.4
(74.1)
23.4
(74.1)
23.0
(73.4)
22.7
(72.9)
22.7
(72.9)
22.7
(72.9)
22.9
(73.2)
22.9
(73.2)
22.6
(72.7)
22.9
(73.2)
Record low °C (°F)19.0
(66.2)
20.0
(68)
20.0
(68)
19.0
(66.2)
20.0
(68)
20.0
(68)
19.0
(66.2)
20.0
(68)
21.0
(69.8)
21.0
(69.8)
21.0
(69.8)
20.0
(68)
19.0
(66.2)
              
Source #1: NOAA

Geography

The city is located on both sides of the Malacca River near its mouth, flowing into the Straits of Malacca. The city is approximately 152 kilometres  from Malaysia's capital city, Kuala Lumpur and 245 kilometres from Singapore. Due to large-scale land reclamation, it has grown in size, especially in the south.  Its physical features are characterised by flat and gently undulating land stretching from its coast.

The historic central area of the city is located near the old coastline; it includes St Paul's Hill with the ruins of the Portuguese fortress, A Famosaand the Dutch Square on the right (eastern) bank of the river, and the old Chinatown on the left (western) bank. The Chinese Hill (Bukit Cina), where a large old Chinese cemetery is located, was formerly located to the northeast of the city, but is now surrounded by new buildings on all sides.

Economy

Since the era of Malacca Sultanate, the city has prospered as a successful entrepôt, putting it in the same position as Venice, Cairo and Canton.When the European conquest begin, Malacca had developed into a cosmopolitan city with a long-standing European heritage. The arrival of Chinese traders and coolie during the sultanate era and European colonisation saw a large boost to the economy, especially during the administration of Dutch and the British. In modern times, the tourism is more dominant than the primary-based industry due to its historical riches with the melting pots of cultural influences which attracted many local and foreign tourists to visiting the city, which also became part of the state economy income. In addition to its strategic location in the maritime Silk Road, the city benefited from the rise of China and India as world economic powers. Malacca City has hosted numerous national, regional and international conferences, congresses and trade fairs in the Malacca International Trade Centre. In early 2016, the Malacca state government has start to develop a new economic development area in the central city centre which will be known as the Hang Tuah Trade Centre that will encompassing trade centres, higher education, hospitality and business.

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