Cebu City, officially the City of Cebu , is the capital city of the province of Cebu and is the "second city" of the Philippines, being the center of Metro Cebu, the second most populous metropolitan area in the Philippines after Metro Manila. Cebu is a first income class highly urbanized city where political governance is independent and separate from the province of Cebu, and according to the 2015 census, it has a population of 922,611 – making it the fifth most populated city in the country. In the 2016 election, it had 630,003 registered voters. Cebu City is a significant center of commerce, trade and education in the Visayas region.
The city is located on the mid-eastern side of Cebu island. It is the first Spanish settlement, the country's oldest city, and the first capital of the Philippines. It is considered as the Fount of Christianity in the Far-East.
Cebu is the Philippines' main domestic shipping port and is home to about 80% of the country's domestic shipping companies. Cebu City is bordered to the northeast by Mandaue and the town of Consolacion, to the west are Toledo City, and the towns of Balamban and Asturias, to the south are Talisay City and the town of Minglanilla. Across Mactan Strait to the east is Mactan Island.
It is the center of a metropolitan area called Metro Cebu, which includes the cities of Carcar, Danao, Lapu-Lapu, Mandaue, Naga and Talisay; and the municipalities (towns) of Compostela, Consolacion,Cordova, Liloan, Minglanilla and San Fernando. Metro Cebu has a total population of about 2.55 million people (2010 census)
|POPULATION :||• City 922,611|
• Metro 2,551,100
|TIME ZONE :||PST (UTC+8)|
|RELIGION :||Roman Catholic 90%,Others 10%|
|AREA :||• City 315.00 km2 (121.62 sq mi)|
• Metro 1,163.36 km2 (449.18 sq mi)
|ELEVATION :||17 m (56 ft)|
|SEX RATIO :||• Male: 51%|
• Female: 49%
|ETHNIC :||Cebuano 691,204|
Not Reported 2,935
|AREA CODE :||32|
|POSTAL CODE :||6000|
|DIALING CODE :||+63 (0)32|
Tourism is a thriving industry in Cebu. It hosted the 1998 ASEAN Tourism Forum. The city also hosted the East Asian Tourism Forum on August 2002, in which the province of Cebu is a member and signatory.
There are significant number of Filipino-Spanish heritage buildings in Cebu City which includes the Basilica Minore del Santo Niño, Fort San Pedro, Casa Gorordo Museum and Magellan's Cross, among others.
The Cebu Reggae Festival is a popular Filipino Reggae and Rootsmusic festival, it now has become one of the Philippines' largest annual Reggae Festivals. On Cebuano musical heritage, the Jose R. Gullas Halad Museum in V. Gullas St. (former Manalili) corner D. Jakosalem St. in Cebu City, holds musical memorabilia of Cebuano composers in the early 20th century, the likes of Ben Zubiri (composer of Matud Nila), Inting Rubi (Kasadya Ning Taknaa) and Minggoy Lopez (Rosas Pandan). The Cebu City Sports Complex exhibits sporting and festival events.
Within the city is the Cebu Taoist Temple, a Taoist temple located in Beverly Hills. Views of Cebu City and its skyline can also be seen from villages and numerous gated communities located on its mountainsides.
Ayala Center Cebu is a shopping mall at the Cebu Business Park, and is currently undergoing a massive expansion. On average, more than 85,000 people visit this mall every day, with the figure increasing to 135,000 on weekends.
Before the arrival of the Spaniards, Cebu city was part of the island-rajahnate and trade center of Pulua Kang Dayang or Kangdaya (literally "[the islands] which belong to Daya"), now better known as theRajahnate of Cebu. It was founded by a prince of the Hindu Chola dynasty of Sumatra, the half-Malay and half-Tamil, Sri Lumay. The name Sugbo (shortened form of Kang Sri Lumaying Sugbo, literally "that of Sri Lumay's great fire") refers to Sri Lumay's scorched earth tactics against Muslim Moro raiders(Magalos).
On April 7, 1521, Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan landed in Cebu. He was welcomed by Rajah Humabon (also known as Sri Humabon or Rajah Humabara), the grandson of Sri Lumay, together with his wife and about 700 native islanders. Magellan, however, was killed in the Battle of Mactan, and the remaining members of his expedition left Cebu soon after several of them were poisoned by Humabon due to threats of foreign occupation. The last ruler of Sugbo, prior to Spanish colonization, was Rajah Humabon's nephew, Rajah Tupas (d. 1565).
On February 13, 1565, Spanish conquistadors led by Miguel López de Legazpi together with Augustinian friars, whose prior was Andrés de Urdaneta, arrived in Samar, taking possession of the island thereafter. They Christianized some natives and Spanish remnants in Cebu. Afterwards, the expedition visited Leyte, Cabalian, Mazaua, Camiguin andBohol where the famous Sandugo or blood compact was performed between López de Legazpi and Datu Sikatuna, the chieftain of Bohol on 16 March 1565. The Spanish arrived in Cebu on 15 April 1565. They then attempted to parley with the local ruler, Rajah Tupas, but found that he and the local population had abandoned the town. Rajah Tupas presented himself at their camp on 8 May, feast of the Apparition of Saint Michael the Archangel, when the island was taken possession of on behalf of the Spanish King. The Treaty of Cebu was formalized on 3 July 1565. López de Legazpi's party named the new city "Villa de San Miguel de Cebú" (later renamed "Villa del Santísimo Nombre de Jesús)." In 1567 the Cebu garrison was reinforced with the arrival of 2,100 soldiers from New Spain(Mexico). The growing colony was then fortified by Fort San Pedro.
By 1569 the Spanish settlement in Cebu had become important as a safe port for ships from Mexico and as a jumping-off point for further exploration of the archipelago. Small expeditions led by Juan de Salcedo went toMindoro and Luzon, where he and Martín de Goiti played a leading role in the subjugation of the Kingdoms of Tundun and Seludong in 1570. One year later, López de Legazpi departed Cebu to discuss a peace pact with the defeated Rajahs. An agreement between the conquistadors and the Rajahs to form a city council paved the way for the establishment of a new settlement and the construction of the Christian walled city of Intramuros on the razed remains of Islamic Manila, then a satellite state of the Bruneian Empire.
On 1571, the Spanish carried over infantry from Mexico and then raised an army of Christian Visayan warriors from Cebu and Iloilo as well as mercenaries from the Tagalog region and assaulted the Sultanate of Brunei, in what is known as the Castille War. The war also started the Spanish–Moro Wars waged between the Christian Visayans and Muslim Mindanao, wherein Moros burned towns and conducted slave raids in the Visayas islands and selling the slaves to the Sultanates of the Malay Archipelago and the Visayans fought-back by establishing Christian fort-cities in Mindanao, cities such as Zamboanga City.
On 14 August 1595, Pope Clement VIII created the diocese of Cebu as a suffragan to the Archdiocese of Manila.
On 3 April 1898, local revolutionaries led by the Negrense Leon Kilat rose up against the Spanish colonial authorities and took control of the urban center after three days of fighting. The uprising was only ended by the treacherous murder of Leon Kilat and the arrival of soldiers from Iloilo. On 26 December 1898, the Spanish Governor, General Montero, evacuated his troops to Zamboanga, turning over government property to Pablo Mejia. The next day, a provincial government was formed under Luis Flores as president, General Juan Climaco as military chief of staff, and Julio Llorente as mayor.
The signing of the Treaty of Paris at the end of the Spanish–American War provided for the cession of Cebu along with the rest of the Philippine islands to the United States until the formation of the Commonwealth Era (1935–46). On 21 February 1899, the USS Petrel (PG-2) deployed a landing party of 40 marines on the shores of Cebu. Cebu's transfer to the Commonwealth government was signed by Luis Flores although others, most notably General Arcadio Maxilom and Juan Climaco, offered resistance until 1901. Governor W. H. Taft visited Cebu on 17 April 1901, and appointed Julio Llorento as the first provincial governor. Juan Climaco was elected to that office in January 1904.
After having remained a town since its original founding in 1565, Cebu became a chartered city on 24 February 1937. Many other Philippine cities such as Dansalan (now Marawi), Iloilo City, and Bacolod City were also incorporated at that time .
Along with the rest of the country, Cebu came under Japanese occupation during WWII. The Japanese encountered some opposition there from guerrillas led by Col. James Cushing and the Cebu Area Command. It was finally liberated with the Battle for Cebu City in March and April 1945. The military general headquarters of the Philippine Commonwealth Army and 8th Infantry Regiment of the Philippine Constabulary, active from 1942 to 1946, was stationed in Cebu City during World War II.
Colon Street, the oldest national road in the Philippines, is the center of a dense and compact area in downtown Cebu City that was once the heart of Cebu City's shopping and business activity, with fashionable shops, restaurants and movie houses. In the early 1990s, much of this activity shifted to the more modern and more diverse business districts located in almost all of the urban areas of the city, including in what was considered residential and leisure neighborhoods. Colon also serves as a transit point for public utility jeepneys (PUJ) covering arterial routes within the city.
Climate data for Cebu City
|Average high °C (°F)||30.3|
|Daily mean °C (°F)||26.4|
|Average low °C (°F)||22.6|
Cebu City has a land area of 315 square kilometres (122 sq mi). To the northeast of the city is Mandaue City and the town of Consolacion; to the west is Toledo City and the towns of Balamban and Asturias; to the south isTalisay City and the town of Minglanilla.
Across Mactan Strait to the east is Mactan Island where Lapu-Lapu is located. Further east across the Cebu Strait is the Island of Bohol.
Ceboom, a portmanteau of Cebu and Boom, has been used to refer to the rapid economic development of both Cebu City and Cebu Province in the early 1990s.
With Cebu city's proximity to many islands, beaches, hotel and resorts, diving locations and heritage sites, high domestic and foreign tourist arrivals have fueled the city's tourism industry. Due to its geographic location, accessibility by air, land and sea transportation, Cebu City has become the tourist gateway to Central and Southern Philippines.
The city is a major hub for the business process outsourcing industry of the Philippines. In 2013, Cebu ranked 8th worldwide in the "Top 100 BPO Destinations Report" by global advisory firm, Tholons. In 2012, the growth in IT-BPO revenues in Cebu grew 26.9 percent at $484 million, while nationally, the industry grew 18.2 percent at $13 billion.
Aboitiz Equity Ventures, formerly known as Cebu Pan Asian Holdings, is the first holding company from Cebu City publicly listed in the Philippine Stock Exchange.
Ayala Corporation, through its subsidiary Cebu Holdings, Inc. and Cebu Property, both publicly in the PSE Index, developed the Cebu Park District where the mixed-used development zones of the Cebu Business Park and Cebu IT Park are located. Both master planned areas are host to regional headquarters for various companies in the banking, finance, IT and tourism sectors among others.
Shipbuilding companies in Cebu have manufactured bulk carriers of up to 70,000 metric tons deadweight (DWT) and double-hulled fast craft as well. This industry made the Philippines the 4th largest shipbuilding country in the world.
With a revenue growth rate of 18.8 percent in 2012, the real estate industry is the fastest growing sector in Cebu. With the strong economic indicators and high investors' confidence level, more condominium projects and hypermarkets are being developed in the locality.
The South Road Properties (SRP) is a 300-hectare (740-acre) prime property development project on a reclaimed land located a few metres off the coast of Cebu's central business district. It is a mixed-use development that will feature entertainment, leisure, residential and business-processing industries. It is registered with the Philippine Economic Zone Authority (PEZA) and is funded by the Japan Bank for International Cooperation(JBIC). Traversing the property is a 12-kilometre (7.5 mi), four-lane highway known as the Cebu Coastal Road that provides the motorists with a good view of Cebu's south coast and the nearby island of Bohol.