Busan ,romanized as Pusan before 2000, is South Korea's second largest city after Seoul, with a population of approximately 3.6 million. The population of the metropolitan area, including the adjacent cities of Gimhae and Yangsan, is approximately 4.6 million. The city is located on the southeastern-most tip of the Korean peninsula.
Located within South Korea's largest industrial area, "The Southeast Economic Zone" (which includes Busan, Ulsan and South Gyeongsang Province), the city is the cultural, educational and economic center of the region. It is the largest portcity in South Korea and the world's fifth busiest seaport by cargo tonnage. The most densely built up areas of the city are situated in a number of narrow valleys between the Nakdong River and the Suyeong River, with mountains separating most of the districts. Administratively, it is designated as a Metropolitan City. The Busan metropolitan area is divided into 15 major administrative districts and a single county.
Busan was the host city of the 2002 Asian Games and the APEC 2005 Korea. It was also one of the host cities for the 2002 FIFA World Cup, and is a center for international conventions in Korea. On November 14, 2005, the city authorities officially announced its bid to host the 2020 Summer Olympics Games. After Pyeongchang's successful bid for the 2018 Winter Olympics, Busan is considering bidding to host the 2028 or 2032 Summer Olympics.
Busan has Korea's largest beach and longest river, and is home to the world's largest department store, the Shinsegae Centum City.
|POPULATION :||• Metropolitan City 3,525,913|
• Metro 8,202,239
|TIME ZONE :|
|LANGUAGE :||Korean, English widely taught in junior high and high school|
|RELIGION :||Christian 26.3% (Protestant 19.7%, Roman Catholic 6.6%), Buddhist 23.2%, other or unknown 1.3%, none 49.3%|
|AREA :||767.35 km2 (296.28 sq mi)|
|COORDINATES :||35°10′N 129°04′E|
|SEX RATIO :||• Male: 49%|
• Female: 51%
|AREA CODE :|
|POSTAL CODE :||600-010, 619-963|
|DIALING CODE :||(+82) 051|
|WEBSITE :||Official Website|
Busan not only features a variety of antique and souvenir shops, but also unique restaurants, attractions and accommodations.
Parks, beaches, and highlights
Nampo-dong is a popular central shopping and cafe district. The area around Pukyong National Universityand Kyungsung University also has many cafes, bars, and restaurants attracting college students and youth.
Busan is called the summer capital of Korea since it attracts tourists from all over the country to its six beaches. Luxury hotels and a carnival boardwalk line the beach at Haeundae. Gwangalli Beach has cafes, bars, and restaurants along the beach, and the Grand Gwangan Bridge. Other beaches include Dadaepo Beach on the west edge of the city and Songdo Beach, which is south-central.
Geumjeongsan to the west is a popular weekend hiking spot for Busan residents. To the north, the neighborhoods around Pusan National University (also known as PNU, which is one of the most highly recognized national institutes of higher education in Korea) have student theaters, cafes, bars and restaurants, as well as open-air cultural street performances on weekend nights. Nearby is Beomeosa, the city's main Korean Buddhist temple.
Yongdusan Park occupies 69,000 square meters/17 acres (7 ha) and is home to the Busan Tower, Yongdusan Art Gallery, and the Busan Aquarium. The park supports approximately seventy different species of trees and is a favorite tourist destination, with various cultural events throughout the year.
Dongnae-gu is a wealthy and traditional residential area. Dongnae Oncheon is a natural spa area with many baths, tourist hotels, restaurants, clubs and shopping areas. Many restaurants in the area use family recipes. Chungnyeolsa is a Confucian shrine for soldiers who died during the 16th century battle against the Japanese at Dongnae Fortress.
Taejongdae is a natural park with magnificent cliffs facing the open sea on the island of Yeongdo.
The area known as the "Foreigners' Shopping Street", but commonly referred to as "Texas Street" near part of the Port of Busan, and adjacent to the front entrance to the Busan Train Station (부산역) has many businesses that cater to the local Russian population, as well as the crews of foreign ships. The area was originally the location of the local Chinatown and still contains a Chinese school.
Busan Aquarium, located in Haeundae Beach, is the largest aquarium in South Korea. Haedong Yonggung temple is one of three sacred places related to the Goddess Buddha. It is located right next to the sea. It lies in a mountain in the front and the sea at the back.
Gamcheon-dong, located west of Nampo-dong, is a hidden hillside area within the city with high, sweeping views of the ocean and brightly painted houses.
Busan Citizens Park (formerly Camp Hialeah) is a former Imperial Japanese Army base and United States Army camp located in the Busanjin District.
Temples, religious and historical sites
- Beomeosa Temple
- Busanjinjiseong Fortress (or Jaseongdae)
- Chungnyeolsa Shrine
- Dongnae Hyanggyo Confucian shrine-school
- Dongnaebu Dongheon
- Dongsam-dong Shell Mound
- Fortress site of Jwasuyeong
- Haedongyonggungsa Temple
- Jeongongdan Altar
- Samgwangsa Temple
- Songgongdan Altar
- Tumuli in Bokcheon-dong, Dongnae
- United Nations Memorial Cemetery
- Waeseong in Jukseong-ri, Gijang
- Yeongdo Bridge
- Yeonggadae Pavilion
- Yungongdan Altar
Busan hosts the Busan International Film Festival(BIFF)—one of the most popular international film festivals in Asia—at the Busan Cinema Center every fall. It is also the home of the Busan Biennale, an international contemporary art biennale which takes place every two years.
It also hosted the 2nd Asia Song Festival, organised by Korea Foundation for International Culture Exchange, in 2005.
In 2012 German artist Hendrik Beikirch, along with Public Delivery, painted Asia and the world's tallest mural.
Geochilsan-guk existed in the second and 3rd and 4th centuries as a chiefdom of Jinhan. It was absorbed by Silla and renamed Geochilsan-gun. The word Geochilsan means rough mountain, probably referring to Hwangnyeongsan, located at the center of the city.
The grave goods excavated from mounded burials at Bokcheon-dongindicate that a complex chiefdomruled by powerful individuals was present in the Busan area just as the Three Kingdoms of Korea were forming, c. AD 300–400. The mounded burials of Bokcheon-dong were built along the top of a ridge that overlooks a wide area that makes up parts of modern-day Dongnae-gu and Yeonje-gu. Archaeologists excavated more than 250 iron weapons and ingots from Burial No. 38, a wooden chamber tomb at Bokcheon-dong.
In 757, Geochilsan-gun was again renamed Dongnae, which it is still called.
From the beginning of the 15th century, the Korean government designated Busan as a trading port with the Japanese and allowed their settlement. Other Japanese settlements in Ulsan and Jinhae diminished later, but the Busan settlement, called Waegwan at the time, continued until Japan invaded Korea in 1592. After the war, diplomatic relations with the new shogunate in Japan were established in 1607, and Busan Waegwan was permitted to be reconstructed. The Japanese settlement, though relocated into Choryang later, continued to exist until Korea was exposed to modern diplomacy in 1876. In 1876, Busan became the first international port in Korea.
During the Japanese rule, Busan (known in Japanese also as Fusan) developed into a hub trading port with Japan. Busan was the only city in Korea to adopt the steam tramway before electrification was introduced in 1924.
During the Korean War, Busan was one of only two cities in South Korea not captured by the North Korean army within the first three months of the War. As a result, the city became a refugee camp site for Koreans during the war, along with Daegu.
As Busan was one of the few areas in Korea that remained under the control of South Korea throughout the Korean War, for some time it served as a temporary capital of the Republic of Korea. UN troops established a defensive perimeter around the city known as the Pusan Perimeter in the summer and autumn of 1950. Since then, like Seoul, the city has been a self-governing metropolis and has built a strong urban character.
In 1963, Busan separated from Gyeongsangnam-do to become a Directly Governed City (Jikhalsi). In 1983, the provincial capitol of Gyeongsangnam-do was moved from Busan to Changwon.
In 1995, Busan became a Metropolitan City (Gwangyeoksi).
Located on the southeasternmost tip of the Korean Peninsula, Busan has a cooler version of a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cwa). Extremely high or low temperatures are rare. May to July, late Springs and early Summers, are usually cooler than inland regions because of the ocean effect. Late Summer and early Autumn, August and September, are generally hot and humid and the city may experiencetyphoons at that time and be generally rainy. On September 15, 1959, Super Typhoon Sarah passed by the coast of the city and caused catastrophic damage. An unusually severe storm on September 12, 2003, Typhoon Maemi, also caused damage to ships and buildings and resulted in over 48 fatalities.
October and November are generally the most comfortable, with clear skies and pleasant temperatures. Winters are cold and comparatively dry with high winds, but much milder than other parts of Korea except Jeju-do and several islands off the southern coast. Busan and the nearby area has the least amount of snow compared to other regions of Korea due to its location. Snow falls on an average of only about 6 days per year. Even a little accumulation of snow can effectively shut down this seaport city because of the hilly terrain and unfamiliarity of motorists with driving on snow.
Climate data for Busan
|Average high °C (°F)||7.8|
|Daily mean °C (°F)||3.2|
|Average low °C (°F)||−0.6|
|Source: Korea Meteorological Administration|
Busan is located on the Southeastern tip of the Korean Peninsula. It is located on the coast, which determined the development of the whole city itself. It is the nearest of South Korea's six largest cities to Japan. The distance as the crow flies from Busan to Tsushima Island, Japan, is about 49.5 km (31 mi), to Fukuoka, Japan, about 180 km (112 mi), and by contrast, to Seoul about 314 km (195 mi). Busan borders low mountains on the north and west, and the seas on the south and east. The Nakdong River Delta is located on the west side of the city, and Geumjeongsan, the highest mountain in the city, on the north. The Nakdong River, South Korea's longest river, flows through the west and empties into the Korea Strait. The southeastern region, called Yeongnam in Korea, encompasses both Gyeongsang Provinces and 3 metropolitan cities of Busan, Daegu and Ulsan. Ulsan lies northeast of Busan. Combined population exceeds 13 million.
Busan is an international business and financial center and renowned for its machinery, steel, ship building and marine industries, fashion, tourism and trade fairs. Busan is the fifth busiest seaport in the world, with transportation and shipping among the most high profile aspects of the local economy. Since 1978, Busan has opened three container ports including Jaseungdae, Shinsundae, and Gamman. Busan has one of the world's largest ports and can handle up to 13.2 million TEU shipping containers per year.
The Busan-Jinhae Free Economic Zone Authority, one of two such administrations in Korea, was created to reassert Busan's status as a traditional international trading centre. The port attracts ships from all over the globe and the surrounding area aspires to become a regional financial centre.
Korea Exchange (KRX), Korea's sole securities exchange operator, is headquartered in Busan.
Busan is the home of the headquarters of Renault Samsung Motors, Hanjin Heavy Industries, Busan Bank, Air Busan, Hi Investment & Securities, Woori Aviva Life Insurance, Korea Technology Finance Corporation, Korea Asset Management Corporation, Korea Housing-Finance Corporation, Korea Securities Depository, Korea Housing Guarantee Company, Korea Southern Power Company, BNK Financial Group.
Jagalchi Fish Market is the largest fish market in Korea.
Busan is ranked the fourth best city after Singapore, Seoul and Tokyo among Asia's top convention cities in a 2011 global ranking by theInternational Congress and Convention Association (ICCA).
Busan was ranked the 27th among 83 cities and top 8 Asia/Pacific centres of the Global Financial Centres Index (GFCI) published by UK-based Z/Yen Group in March 2014.
|Buk District||북구; 北區||39.44||313,553|
|Busanjin District||부산진구; 釜山鎭區||29.69||398,174|
|Dong District||동구; 東區||9.78||102,859|
|Dongnae District||동래구; 東萊區||16.63||283,636|
|Gangseo District||강서구; 江西區||180.24||66,269|
|Geumjeong District||금정구; 金井區||65.17||257,662|
|Haeundae District||해운대구; 海雲臺區||51.46||429,477|
|Jung District||중구; 中區||2.82||50,555|
|Nam District||남구; 南區||26.77||301,904|
|Saha District||사하구; 沙下區||40.96||362,697|
|Sasang District||사상구; 沙上區||36.06||261,673|
|Seo District||서구; 西區||13.88||127,068|
|Suyeong District||수영구; 水營區||10.20||179,208|
|Yeongdo District||영도구; 影島區||14.13||148,431|
|Yeonje District||연제구; 蓮堤區||12.08||213,453|
|Gijang County||기장군; 機張郡)||218.04||103,762|
- Emergency Numbers
- Police: 112
- Fire Department: 119
- Tourist information Center: 051-253-8253 or 1330
- Gimhae International Airport: 051-463-9457
- Busan Station: 1544-7788
- KTX Reservations: 1544-8545
- Busan Ferry Terminal: 051-465-3471
- Busan Coastal Ferry Terminal: 051-400-3399
- Busan Express Bus Terminal: 051-508-9955