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Sydney is the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania.
Located on Australia's east coast, the metropolis surrounds the world's largest natural harbour, and sprawls towards the Blue Mountains to the west. Residents of Sydney are known as "Sydneysiders". Sydney is the second official seat and second official residence of the Governor-General of Australia, the Prime Minister of Australia and the Cabinet of Australia.
Sidney is the largest, oldest and most cosmopolitan city in Australia with an enviable reputation as one of the world's most beautiful and liveable cities. Brimming with history, nature, culture, art, fashion, cuisine, design, it is set next to miles of ocean coastline and sandy surf beaches. The city is also home to the Sydney Opera House and the Sydney Harbour Bridge, two of the most iconic structures on the planet.
Sydney is a major global city and one of the most important cities for finance in the Asia-Pacific. Sydney hosted the 2000 Olympic Games, and continues to attract and host large international events. The city is surrounded by nature and national parks, which extend through the suburbs and right to the shores of the harbour.
The Sydney area has been inhabited by indigenous Australians since the Upper Paleolithic period. The first British settlers arrived in 1788 to found Sydney as a penal colony, the first European settlement in Australia. Since convict transportation ended in the mid-19th century, the city has transformed from a colonial outpost into a major global cultural and economic centre. Sydney has an advanced market economy with strengths in finance, manufacturing and tourism.
The population of Sydney at the time of the 2011 census was 4.39 million, 1.5 million of which were born overseas, representing many different nationalities and making Sydney one of the most multicultural cities in the world.There are more than 250 different languages spoken in Sydney and about one-third of residents speak a language other than English at home.
|POPULATION :||City: 4,840,600|
|FOUNDED :||Established 26 January 1788|
|TIME ZONE :||AEST (UTC+10) Summer: AEDT (UTC+11)|
|AREA :||12,367.7 km2 (4,775.2 sq mi)|
|COORDINATES :||33°51′54″S 151°12′34″E|
|SEX RATIO :||• Male: 49.76% |
• Female: 50.24%
|AREA CODE :|
|POSTAL CODE :|
|DIALING CODE :|
Sydney hosted over 2.8 million international visitors in 2013 or nearly half of all international visits to Australia. These visitors spent 59 million nights in the city and a total of $5.9 billion. The countries of origin in descending order were China, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, the United States, South Korea, Japan, Singapore, Germany, Hong Kong, and India. The city also received 8.3 million domestic overnight visitors in 2013 who spent a total of $6 billion.
Sydney has been ranked amongst the top fifteen cities in the world for tourism every year since 2000. On average, the tourism industry contributes $36 million to the city's economy per day.
Popular destinations include the Sydney Opera House, the Sydney Harbour Bridge, Watsons Bay, The Rocks, Sydney Tower, Darling Harbour, the Royal Botanic Gardens, the Royal National Park, the Australian Museum, the Museum of Contemporary Art, the Art Gallery of New South Wales, the Queen Victoria Building, Taronga Zoo, Bondi Beach, the Blue Mountains, and Sydney Olympic Park.
Port Jackson is the natural harbour of Sydney. It is known for its spectacular natural beauty, and in particular as the location of the Sydney Opera House and Sydney Harbour Bridge. The area around the harbour foreshore contains pockets of bushland which was once common around Sydney, containing a surprising range of native animals.
Sydney Opera House
The Sydney Opera House is one of the most distinctive and famous 20th-century buildings, and one of the most famous performing arts venues in the world. Situated on Bennelong Point in Sydney Harbour, with parkland to its south and close to the equally famous Sydney Harbour Bridge, the building and its surroundings form an iconic Australian image.
The building was included in the Olympic Torch route in 2000 to the Olympic stadium. It was the backdrop of some events for the Sydney 2000 Olympics, including the triathlon—which began at the Opera House—and the yachting events on Sydney Harbour. The dramatic exteriors have not been matched with technically superior interiors, and the Opera House's reputation as a music venue has suffered as a result.
Sydney Harbour Bridge
The Sydney Harbour Bridge is the main crossing of Sydney Harbour carrying rail, vehicular, and pedestrian traffic between the Sydney central business district (CBD) and the North Shore. The dramatic water vista of the bridge together with the nearby Sydney Opera House is an iconic image of both Sydney and Australia. The South-east pylon for many years operated as lookout and tourist attraction, containing a number of telescopes and antiquated arcade games which operated on pennies, long after that currency had gone out of operation. The pylon has recently been renovated and returned to its tourist function.
Watsons Bay sits on the end of the South Head peninsula and takes its name from the sheltered bay and anchorage on its western side, in Port Jackson. It provides some of the best views across the harbour to the city of Sydney and the Harbour Bridge. The Gap is an ocean cliff on the eastern side with views to Manly, North Head, and the Pacific Ocean.
Watsons Bay is a mostly residential area with some recreational areas and beaches, including one legal nude beach. Some restaurants, cafes and the Watsons Bay Hotel are located here, with Doyles on the Beach, one of the Sydney's most famous seafood restaurants, located on the foreshore of Watsons Bay. The naval base HMAS Watson is located nearby at South Head.
The shores of Sydney Harbour are home to a number of historic batteries, bunkers and forts, many of which are now heritage listed. Some of these forts date back to 1871 and were part of Sydney Harbours defence system that was designed to withstand a seaborn attack. There are four historical fortifications located between Bradleys Head and Middle Head on the north side of the harbour; the Middle Head Fortifications, the Georges Head Battery, the Lower Georges Heights Commanding Position and a small fort located on Bradleys Head. The forts were constructed from mostly large sandstone blocks and consist of many tunnels, catacombs and underground rooms.
City of Sydney
he Rocks is an inner-city suburb, tourist precinct and historic area of Sydney. It is located on the southern shore of Sydney Harbour adjacent to the city centre, close to where Sydney was first settled in 1788. The close proximity to Circular Quay and the views of the iconic Harbour Bridge, as well as the historic nature of many of the buildings, mean that the Rocks is very popular with tourists. It features a variety of souvenir and craft shops, and many themed and historic pubs. The Rocks Market operates each weekend, with around 100 stalls. There are numerous historic walks through the area, visiting historical buildings such as Cadman's Cottage, Sydney Observatory, and the Dawes Point Battery, which was the first fortified position in New South Wales.
Sydney Tower is Sydney's tallest free-standing structure, and the second tallest in Australia, the Q1 building on the Gold Coast being the tallest.
Sydney Tower Skywalk, or just Skywalk, is an open-air, glass-floored platform circling Sydney Tower at a height of 260m above ground level. The moving viewing platform extends out over the edge of the main structure of Sydney Tower. This attraction is more than twice as high as the popular BridgeClimb walk to the top of Sydney Harbour Bridge. From the platform the seaward horizon is 58 kilometres away, although inland features such as the Blue Mountains can be seen at further distances. See Sydney Attractions Group.
Darling Harbour was redeveloped from an industrial wharf to a major tourist and retail precinct in 1988, and is home to a number of major public facilities and attractions, including:
- Sydney Entertainment Centre
- Sydney's Chinese Gardens
- Tumbalong Park
- Sydney Convention and Exhibition Centre
- Australian National Maritime Museum (featuring museum ships including HMAS Vampire)
- The Star casino
- Sydney Aquarium
- the IMAX theatre
- Wildlife World
The Kings Cross area is infamous in Australia as being a red light district, similar to Kings Cross, London with numerous strip clubs and "girlie" bars along Darlinghurst Road, although the demographics have changed in recent years and gentrification of the area has led to clashes between new and established elements. Kings Cross is also known for its Neon signs and advertising posters, the most famous being the iconic Coca-Cola sign. It is often affectionately referred to by Sydneysiders by the colloquialism "the Cross".
The Kings Cross district was the City of Sydney's bohemian heartland from the early decades of the 20th Century, but due its proximity to the naval docking area at Garden Island it also came to serve as the city's main tourist accommodation and entertainment centre, as well as its red-light district. The drugs and crime associated with this trade led to Kings Cross achieving a high level of notoriety.
The first people to inhabit the area now known as Sydney were indigenous Australians having migrated from northern Australia and before that from south east Asia. Radiocarbon dating suggests human activity occurred in and around Sydney for at least 30,000 years.However, numerous Aboriginal stone tools found in Western Sydney's gravel sediments were dated from 45,000 to 50,000 years BP, which would indicate that there was human settlement in Sydney earlier than thought.
The earliest British settlers called them Eora people. "Eora" is the term the indigenous population used to explain their origins upon first contact with the British. Its literal meaning is "from this place". Prior to the arrival of the British there were 4,000 to 8,000 native people in Sydney from as many as 29 different clans.
Development has destroyed much of the city's history including that of the first inhabitants. There continues to be examples of rock art and engravings located in the protected Ku-ring-gai Chase National Park. The first meeting between the native people and the British occurred on 29 April 1770 when Lieutenant James Cook landed at Botany Bay on the Kurnell Peninsula and encountered the Gweagal clan. He noted in his journal that they were confused and somewhat hostile towards the foreign visitors. Cook was on a mission of exploration and was not commissioned to start a settlement. He spent a short time collecting food and conducting scientific observations before continuing further north along the east coast of Australia and claiming the new land he had discovered for Britain.
Establishment of the Colony
The United Kingdom had for a long time been sending its convicts across the Atlantic to the American colonies. That trade was ended with the Declaration of Independence by the United States in 1776. Overrun with prisoners, Britain decided in 1786 to found a new penal outpost in the territory discovered by Cook some 16 years earlier. The colony was at first to be titled "New Albion", but Phillip decided on "Sydney" in recognition of Thomas Townshend, Lord Sydney and his role in authorising the establishment of the settlement.
Captain Arthur Phillip was charged with establishing the new colony. He led a fleet (known as the First Fleet) of 11 ships and about 850 convicts into Botany Bay on 18 January 1788, though deemed the location unsuitable due to poor soil and a lack of fresh water. He travelled a short way further north and arrived at Port Jackson on 26 January 1788. This was to be the location for the new colony. The official proclamation and naming of the colony happened on 7 February 1788.
Between 1788 and 1792 about 4,300 convicts were landed at Sydney. The colony was not founded on the principles of freedom and prosperity. Maps from this time show no prison buildings; the punishment for convicts was transportation rather than incarceration, but serious offences were penalised by flogging and hanging.
The year 1850 was the final year of convict transportation to Sydney, which by this time had a population of 35,000. The municipal council of Sydney was incorporated in 1842 and became Australia's first city. Gold was discovered in the colony in 1851 and with it came thousands of people seeking a to make money. Sydney's population reached 200,000 by 1871.
Following the depression of the 1890s, the six colonies agreed to form a federated nation of The Commonwealth of Australia. Under the reign of Queen Victoria federation of the six colonies occurred on 1 January 1901. Sydney, with a population of 481,000, then became the state capital of New South Wales. The Great Depression of the 1930s had a severe effect on Sydney's economy, as it did with most cities throughout the industrial world. For much of the 1930s up to one in three breadwinners was unemployed. Construction of the Sydney Harbour Bridge served to alleviate some of the effects of the economic downturn by employing 1,400 men between 1924 and 1932. The population continued to boom despite the Depression and reached 1 million in 1925.
When Britain declared war in 1939, Australia too entered. During the war Sydney experienced a surge in industrial development to meet the needs of a wartime economy. Far from mass unemployment, there were now labour shortages and women becoming active in male roles. Sydney's harbour was attacked by the Japanese in May and June 1942 with a direct attack from Japanese submarines with some loss of life. Households throughout the city had built air raid shelters and performed drills.
Following the end of the war the city continued to expand. There were 1.7 million people living in Sydney at 1950 and almost 3 million by 1975. The people of Sydney warmly welcomed Queen Elizabeth II in 1954 when the a reigning monarch stepped onto Australian soil for the first time to commence her Australian Royal Tour. Having arrived on the Royal Yacht Britannia through Sydney Heads, Her Majesty came ashore at Farm Cove. Sydney's iconic Opera House was opened in 1973 by Her Majesty.
The Opera House became a World Heritage Site in 2007. The 2000 Summer Olympics were held in Sydney and became known as the "best Olympic Games ever" by the President of the International Olympic Committee. A strong rivalry between Sydney and Melbourne that began in the 1850s still exists to this day. Sydney exceeded Melbourne's population in the early twentieth century and remains Australia's largest city.
Sydney has a temperate climate with rainfall spread throughout the year. The weather is moderated by proximity to the ocean, and more extreme temperatures are recorded in the inland western suburbs.
Rainfall is fairly evenly spread through the year, but is slightly higher during the first half of the year. The average annual rainfall, with moderate to low variability, is 1,213 mm (47.76 in), with rain falling on an average of 143.8 days a year.
The city is rarely affected by cyclones, although remnants of ex-cyclones do affect the city. The El Niño–Southern Oscillation plays an important role in determining Sydney's weather patterns: drought and bushfire on the one hand, and storms and flooding on the other, associated with the opposite phases of the oscillation. Many areas of the city bordering bushland have experienced bushfires, these tend to occur during the spring and summer. The city is also prone to severe hail storms and wind storms.
The average annual temperature of the sea is above 21 °C (70 °F), and the monthly average ranges from 18 °C (64 °F) in July to 24 °C (75 °F) in January.
- Summer (December to February) is the best time to enjoy Sydney's beachside outdoor lifestyle. Temperatures usually reach around 26°C (about 79°F) but it can be very hot, with temperatures climbing to over 40°C (104°F) for a few days each summer. Summer days can be humid, and sometimes have searing dry winds, but hot days frequently end with a "southerly buster", a cold front sweeping up from the south, bringing a clearly noticeable drop in temperature, as wells as rain and thunder. Within hours, the storm can pass and the evening continues cooler. Hot, windy days can create a risk of bushfire, and on days of severe risk national parks and walking trails may be closed. Occasionally low pressure systems drift down from the tropics, giving periods of more unstable weather. You won't need to pack much more than T-shirts to visit Sydney in summer, but remember your hat and sunglasses.
- Autumn (March to May) is still warm with mild nights. There can be good days for the beach in March, but you can't count on it. It is a good time for visiting attractions, going to the zoo, catching ferries around the harbour without the summer crowds. You may need a warm top for the evenings, especially for May.
- Winter (June to August) is cool, not cold. Average July maximum temperatures are 17°C, and daytime temperatures rarely drop below 14°C, but night-time temperatures can fall to below 10°C. Most rain falls as a result of a few off-shore low pressure systems, which usually result in two or three rainy weeks during winter. The Bondi Icebergs will be in the ocean doing their morning laps, but most of Sydney will be well away from the beach. It does not snow in Sydney, and unless you intend spending long periods outside, you can usually get by with just a warm top. Sydney is a year-round city, and only the outdoor water-parks close for the winter. If the beach isn't your scene, and you don't like the heat, winter may be your time to visit.
- Spring (September to November). Spring days are great for exploring Sydney's attractions, bushwalking, cycling, and the outdoors. Beaches are generally patrolled from the end of October, and Sydneysiders start flocking to the beaches in November.
|Record high °C (°F)||45.8|
|Average high °C (°F)||25.9|
|Daily mean °C (°F)||22.3|
|Average low °C (°F)||18.7|
|Record low °C (°F)||10.6|
|Source #1: Bureau of Meteorology|
|Source #2: Bureau of Meteorology, Sydney Airport|
Captain Arthur Phillip, in one of his first reports back to Britain, described Sydney Cove as being "without exception the finest harbour in the world". Sydney is a coastal basin with the Tasman Sea to the east, the Blue Mountains to the west, the Hawkesbury River to the north, and the Woronora Plateau to the south. The inner city measures 25 square kilometres (10 square miles), the Greater Sydney region covers 12,367 square kilometres (4,775 square miles), and the city's urban area is 1,687 square kilometres (651 square miles) in size.
Deep river valleys known as rias were carved during the Triassic period in the Hawkesbury sandstone of the coastal region where Sydney now lies. The rising sea level between 18,000 and 6,000 years ago flooded the rias to form estuaries and deep harbours. Port Jackson, better known as Sydney Harbour, is one such ria. 70 beaches can be found along its coastline with Bondi Beach being one of the most famous.
Sydney spans two geographic regions. The Cumberland Plain lies to the south and west of the Harbour and is relatively flat. The Hornsby Plateau is located to the north and is dissected by steep valleys. The flat areas of the south were the first to be developed as the city grew. It was not until the construction of the Sydney Harbour Bridge that the northern reaches of the coast became more heavily populated.
The Nepean River wraps around the western edge of the city and becomes the Hawkesbury River before reaching Broken Bay. Most of Sydney's water storages can be found on tributaries of the Nepean River. The Parramatta River is mostly industrial and drains a large area of Sydney's western suburbs into Port Jackson. The southern parts of the city are drained by the Georges River and the Cooks River into Botany Bay.
Sydney is made up of mostly Triassic rock with some recent igneous dykes and volcanic necks. The Sydney Basin was formed when the Earth's crust expanded, subsided, and filled with sediment in the early Triassic period. Almost all of the exposed rocks around Sydney are sandstone that is some 200 metres (656 feet) thick and has shale lenses and fossil riverbeds dotted throughout. The sand that was to become this sandstone was washed from Broken Hill and laid down about 200 million years ago. The Basin's sedimentary rocks have been subject to uplift with gentle folding and minor faulting during the formation of the Great Dividing Range. Erosion by coastal streams has created a landscape of deep gorges and remnant plateaus. The Sydney Basin bioregion includes coastal features of cliffs, beaches, and estuaries.
Researchers from Loughborough University have awarded Sydney status amongst the top ten world cities that are highly integrated into the global economy. The Global Economic Power Index ranks Sydney number eleven in the world. The city has been ranked eleventh in the world for economic opportunity.
There were 451,000 businesses based in Sydney in 2011, including 48% of the top 500 companies in Australia and two-thirds of the regional headquarters of multinational corporations. Global companies are attracted to the city in part because its time zone spans the closing of business in North America and the opening of business in Europe. Most foreign companies in Sydney maintain significant sales and service functions but comparably less production, research, and development capabilities.
Australian companies based in Sydney include Woolworths, Westpac, Qantas, Coca-Cola Amatil, the Australian Securities Exchange, AMP, Caltex, Fairfax Media, the Commonwealth Bank, Optus, Macquarie Group, Westfield, Origin Energy, Cochlear, and David Jones. Multinational companies with regional offices in Sydney include Pfizer, Cathay Pacific, Boeing, Merck & Co, Parmalat, Rolls-Royce, Intel, Cisco Systems, American Express, Yahoo!, Computer Associates, IBM, Philips, and Vodafone.
Sydney has been ranked between the fifteenth and the fifth most expensive city in the world and is the most expensive city in Australia. To compensate, workers receive the seventh highest wage levels of any city in the world. Sydney ranks tenth in the world in terms of quality of living and its residents possess the highest purchasing power of any city after Zürich. Working residents of Sydney work an average of 1,846 hours per annum with 15 days of leave. Sydney is the location of 31 of the top 50 best places to work in Australia.
In 1985 the Federal Government granted 16 banking licences to foreign banks and now 40 of the 43 foreign banks operating in Australia are based in Sydney, including the People's Bank of China, Bank of America, Citigroup, UBS, Mizuho Bank, Bank of China, Banco Santander, Credit Suisse, State Street, HSBC, Deutsche Bank, Barclays, Royal Bank of Canada, Société Générale, Royal Bank of Scotland, Sumitomo Mitsui, ING Group, BNP Paribas, and Investec.
Sydney has been a manufacturing city since the protectionist policies of the 1920s. By 1961 the industry accounted for 39% of all employment and by 1970 over 30% of all Australian manufacturing jobs were in Sydney. Its status has declined in more recent decades, making up 12.6% of employment in 2001 and 8.5% in 2011. The city is still the largest manufacturing centre in Australia. Its manufacturing output of $21.7 billion in 2013 was greater than that of Melbourne with $18.9 billion.
Sydney hosted over 2.8 million international visitors in 2013 or nearly half of all international visits to Australia. These visitors spent 59 million nights in the city and a total of $5.9 billion. Sydney has been ranked amongst the top fifteen cities in the world for tourism every year since 2000.
Prices in Sydney
MARKET / SUPERMARKET
|Beer (domestic)||0.5 l||$3.10|
|Bottle of Wine||1 bottle||$14.00|
|Dinner (Low-range)||for 2||$33.00|
|Dinner (Mid-range)||for 2||$55.00|
|Dinner (High-range)||for 2||$74.00|
|Mac Meal or similar||1 meal||$7.00|
|Beer (Imported)||0.33 l||$5.70|
|Beer (domestic)||0.5 l||$5.00|
|Coctail drink||1 drink||$12.00|
|Men’s Haircut||1 haircut||$15.00|
|Mobile (prepaid)||1 min.||$0.50|
|Pack of Marlboro||1 pack||$13.00|
|Toilet paper||4 rolls||$|
CLOTHES / SHOES
|Jeans (Levis 501 or similar)||1||$77.00|
|Dress summer (Zara, H&M)||1||$50.00|
|Sport shoes (Nike, Adidas)||1||$95.00|
|Local Transport||1 ticket||$2.50|
60 $ per day
Estimated cost per 1 day including:
- meals in cheap restaurant
- public transport
- cheap hotel
245 $ per day
Estimated cost per 1 day including:
- mid-range meals and drinks
Transportation - Get In
Sydney Kingsford Smith International Airport (IATA:SYD) is Australia's busiest airport and the main gateway to Australia. It is located 9 km from the City centre in Southern Sydney on the northern shores of Botany Bay. Sydney Airport is the oldest continually operated commercial airport anywhere in the world. There are direct flights to Sydney from all the other inhabited continents. The main ways to get into the city are by train (about $17 one-way on the Airport & East Hills line), or by taxi ($40-50 to the Rocks).
The other closest (domestic) airports are in Newcastle and Canberra, both a few hours drive away from Sydney.
It is possible (but not recommended) to drive to Sydney from Brisbane or Melbourne in a full day, around 10 hours non-stop to Melbourne or 11.5 hours to Brisbane. A comfortable drive would allow two days from Melbourne or Brisbane, and three to Adelaide. The Melbourne drive is mostly dual carriageway high quality road. The same can't be said for the Brisbane drive, which while it has high quality sections, it also has some very narrow winding sections, carries high traffic volumes, and has many stoppages from roadworks.
- Melbourne - Sydney = 862 km via Albury-Wodonga (Hume Highway).
- Adelaide - Sydney = 1422 km via Mildura or 1659km via Broken Hill(National Highway 32).
- Brisbane - Sydney = 938 km via the coast (Pacific Highway) or 961 km via Armidale (New England Highway). The Pacific Highway passes through more towns, attractions, and has more facilities compared with the New England Highway, but it can get congested moving through the towns around holiday times. Although the Pacific Highway route follows the coast, you won't see the ocean except for some brief glimpses. There are rivers all the way up the coast, and the river mouths are wide, causing the road bridges and the towns to be a little inland. If you have time, look for the tourist route diversions to see more of the Mid-North Coast and Northern Rivers on the way down (the beaches will be less crowded than Sydney!).
If you are renting a car, check the daily distance allowances and any one-way charge that may apply when driving from less popular destinations to major cities. Cars may be rented at the airport and elsewhere from major rental companies, or at smaller, less conveniently located, cheaper companies.
Ride-sharing can be arranged with other travelers. You can find a wide range of carpool offers on the Internet or in hostel noticeboards, etc. Usual warnings apply.
There are tolls applicable to most motorways coming into Sydney, and you can't pay by cash. See "Tolls" section below.
Coach companies operate to Sydney from all capital cities, and many New South Wales regional centres. The Sydney coach terminal is located adjacent to Sydney Central train station in the City South. Follow the signs.
Coach travel to Sydney is usually quicker, cheaper and more frequent than train travel. Online and advance booking specials are usually available.
Taking long distance trains from any other major city in Australia to Sydney is not a popular option, with flying or driving often being preferred for being faster and cheaper. Nevertheless Australia does have a functioning, albeit slow, network that may be worth considering if you are not in a hurry or want to get to some remote locations.
The New South Wales long distance train service NSW Trainlink Regional, (13 22 32 within Australia) runs at least daily services to Sydney from Brisbane, Melbourne,Canberra and many regions of New South Wales including the Mid-North Coast, New England, the Central West and the Southern Highlands. It also services Broken Hill weekly. Travelling time from Melbourne and Brisbane is around 12 hours. Fares range between $50 and $120 for standard class seats, and reservations tickets can be purchased online, by phone, or at the station. The long distance trains between Melbourne and Sydney, and Brisbane and Sydney can be a less stressful (but not necessarily quicker) alternative to driving. It is often possible to get a discount airfare around the same price or cheaper than the adult train fare.
The Indian Pacific (13 21 47 within Australia or +61 8 8213 4592 internationally) train service runs from Perth to Sydney via Adelaide and Broken Hill. Adult fares from Perth are $1250 for a sleeper cabin and $513 for a seat. Children's fares are $805 for a sleeper cabin and $139 for a seat. The train departs from Perth on Wednesdays and arrives at Sydney on Saturdays. These fares are much higher than return plane fares to Perth, this journey is really for train journey enthusiasts who want to see the interior of Australia. It also gives you the ability to take your car on the train for an additional fee.
All long distance (NSW Trainlink and Great Southern Railway) trains to Sydney terminate at Sydney's Central Station in the south of the CBD area. Travellers can transfer to Sydney Trains, the light rail service to Darling Harbour, city buses, as well as taxis. It is also easy to transfer to other long distance trains and coaches. There is short term metered parking so you can meet the trains on the platform. There are ATM's, a small choice of food outlets, cafes open until late, and a railway heritage society display and bookshop in the terminal.
The NSW Trainlink Intercity run relatively frequent services throughout the day from close regional areas: Newcastle via the Central Coast, Moss Vale via the Southern Highlands, Nowra via the Illawarra and Lithgow via the Blue Mountains. Limited services operate from Goulburn and Bathurst. Intercity trains do not require a reservation.
Cruise ships visiting Sydney generally dock at the Overseas Passenger Terminal, renovated 2014, at Circular Quay or at the newer White Bay Cruise Terminal.
Circular Quay is a spectacular place to dock, right by the Harbour Bridge and across Sydney Cove from the Opera House, and you can walk off the ship into the city at The Rocks and then to the City Centre.
White Bay in the Inner West is a newer (Dec 2013) wharf, but inaccessible to very large ships that cannot fit under the Harbour Bridge. White Bay is not easy walking distance to anywhere, and there is no convenient public transportation and no long term parking or hire car facilities available at White Bay Cruise Terminal. Cruisers embarking from White Bay have a spectacular sail away, first going under the Harbour Bridge and then passing by the Opera House.
Recently some cruises have been anchored off Taronga Zoo (Athol Buoy, west of Bradleys Head) and the passengers tendered to shore. If this happens to you, your tender will drop you at Circular Quay passenger terminal to complete immigration, etc.
One cruise line will trial (beginning October 2016) Wollongong's Port Kembla, 80 km south of the Sydney CBD, as an alternative to the congestion in Sydney Harbour.
Transportation - Get Around
By Public Transport
The public transport system consists of trains, buses, ferries and light rail (Sydney's city monorail line was dismantled in 2013), and can get you virtually anywhere in the city as well as much of the outer regions.
- Transport Infoline, . 24 hours. Information on fares and route planning for all public transport in Sydney. Available online and by telephone.
- TransitShops, Circular Quay (cnr of Loftus & Alfred Sts), Wynyard under Wynyard Park, QVB west. Information on fares and route planning for all public transport in Sydney, all ticket sales, accepts credit cards.
Officially endorsed smartphone applications such as TripView, TripGo and Arrivo Sydney use live GPS tracking for all modes of transport are very useful for public transport trips within the Sydney region. These apps are available on iOS and Android. Google Maps also has integrated point to point trip planning and timetable information for public transport.
The easiest way to use public transport is by using the Opal card. This can be used on all Sydney trains, buses, public ferries and light rail lines in Sydney, Newcastle, Wollongong and the surrounding regions.
The card is free and is available at most newsagents and convenience stores or wherever you see the logo, but you will need to add credit onto the card before you can use it. You can not buy Opal cards at railway stations (except the airport stations). The retailers that offer the card also provide top-up facilities. Top-up machines accepting Visa and MasterCard with a PIN are available at major railway stations and ferry wharves.
In order to add credit (or 'top up') your card, you can go online, at any shop with the Opal logo or with a special machine. You can not top-up at the ticket windows at stations or on the bus/ferry/train during your journey.
|Opal card teething problems|
The Opal card system is fairly new, and there are quite a few issues in the system. When passing through gates ensure that your card worked, otherwise you will be charged the maximum cost of your journey. Additionally the Opal card readers on buses are notoriously unreliable and it is normal for bus drivers to give you a free trip if there are technical issues.
To use an Opal card, simply hold the card up to a reader to tap-on at the start of your trip, and tap-off at the end. This applies to all transport except for the Manly ferry, when you only need to tap-on. You must tap on before you board trains, light rail and ferries. For buses, the readers are located by the entry and exit doors of the bus. Not all wharves and stations have barriers, so you'll need to remember to tap off at the Opal poles at the end or you'll be charged the maximum fare for your route. The readers on buses activate as you are approaching the stop, or soon after the bus has halted. You can check how much credit remains on your card every time you tap on or off - just look at the screens attached to the reader or ticket barrier.
Opal card readers sometimes do not work. The gate will open but your exit will not be recorded, resulting in your card being charged the highest possible fare! (over $8). Check that the Opal card reader screen shows a successful green 'tick'. If you see a red 'cross' then keep swiping until successful, or use another gate.
Single trips are slightly cheaper using an Opal card, but the main benefit for visitors is that daily fares are capped at $15 from Monday to Saturday and $2.50 on Sundays. Additionally, there is no need to worry about zone boundaries or having the right ticket because the system will automatically calculate the fare for each trip. Other benefits include weekly journey caps, and off-peak discounts for trains (on weekends and after 9 AM and before 4:30 PM weekdays). There are no off-peak fares for buses or ferries, and this can make train journeys cheaper than the bus off-peak. No matter how much you travel, Opal card users will never be charged more than $60 in any Monday to Sunday week.
|On the cheap|
If you are really on a budget, then you can take advantage of the '8 journey rule' and make as many short journeys as possible early in the week until you reach the eight journey cap. Your Opal card journeys are counted from Monday to Sunday, with all journeys after the eighth journey absolutely free! Note that any trip made within 1 hour of the previous trip is considered a continuation of a journey, so a one hour gap between journeys is required to build up your weekly journey count. Alternatively you can plan lengthy excursions for Sundays when travel is capped at just $2.50.
Paper tickets are also available. These are generally more expensive than using an Opal card and you will need to purchase individual tickets to access each mode of transport.
Children aged 15 years and under are entitled to a discount on most public transport. The child age for Matilda ferries is 14 years and under. Children 3 years and under travel free (5 years and under for light rail, and 4 years and under on Matilda ferries).
On Sydney Ferries, buses, and trains, you pay for only the first child when accompanied by a parent or grandparent, the other children in the same family allowed for free. No family identification is required so anything that resembles a family unit will be able to get away with only having to pay for the first child. This is not available on light rail, Matilda and Manly Fast Ferries.
Student and other concessions are only available to those issued with a NSW transport student identification card. This card is only issued to students enrolled and resident in NSW or the ACT. Student fares are not available on the light rail, Matilda or Manly Fast Ferries.
Seniors fares are available to anyone with an Australian Seniors Card. Accordingly, overseas visitors are not entitled to student or senior concessions.
Sydney has a vast suburban rail network operated by Sydney Trains, covering 882 km of track and 176 stations. The train network will take passengers to most of the metropolitan area, with the exception of the north-west and northern beaches. Trains service every station in the metropolitan area at least every 30 minutes (except for the Carlingford line) Frequency is higher in the city, and major centres (Chatswood, Parramatta, Bondi Junction, the Airport, etc) usually see a train every 10 minutes or so. Peak times (7AM-9:30AM and 4:30PM-7PM) have more frequent and also crowded trains, as well as some express services that skip more stations. Expect congestion around Central and Town Hall.
There are different styles and ages of trains running on the network. You may get a clean modern train, comfortable seating and clear station announcements. Alternatively, you could get a train full of people packed in like sardines, with station announcements that are barely audible, if at all. Prepare yourself with a network map, just in case. Most Sydney Trains are air-conditioned. The non-air-conditioned trains can be very hot in summer and very cold in the early mornings and at night during winter.
Most train services do not stop at every station and do not travel to the furthest extent of the line. Look at the departure screens at the station concourse which indicate when the next train will arrive, its destination, the platform it will depart from, and the stations it will stop at. Alternatively, you can also listen to announcements that will regularly play before and when a train arrives at the platform. Or if you have mobile Internet services use the Transport Info trip planner.
Outside of operating hours, between midnight (1AM on Fridays and Saturdays) and 5AM, NightRide buses run at least every hour. Any return portion of a paper train ticket, or Opal Card is valid for the NightRide bus. If you have no ticket or card you must buy a NightRide single from the driver that has a different fare structure to the train. NightRide buses stop at most stations and a few additional stops, but they do not travel on the same routes. If you intend catching a NightRide bus home, check the NightRide route map. Buses can be crowded on Friday and Saturday nights.
Exercise caution whilst travelling on trains after 8pm, particularly if the carriage is mostly deserted and if travelling to greater western Sydney, as it is not uncommon for undesirables to be found on trains during these times. 99% of the time they will not cause you any more trouble other than being loud, vulgar and obnoxious, but it is best to avoid them as unwanted altercations may follow. Moving to other carriages would be a good idea. The more modern trains have Emergency Help Points in every carriage, allowing contact with the train guard. Otherwise, travel in the middle carriages, near the guard's compartment (marked with a blue light). The guard has contact with police and the driver if there is any trouble on the train. Emergency Help Points are also available at every station.
Check for trackwork before leaving for the station; Sydney Trains shut down part of the network most weekends and will transfer passengers to buses if lines are closed for trackwork. The process will add at least half an hour to a typical journey. Trackwork is usually on weekends or late at night on weekdays and the trackwork timetable is available on the Sydney trains website well in advance (check before you leave home for the days you are visiting). You need the same Sydney Trains ticket for the trackwork buses as you would for the train.
If you don't have an Opal card, you will need to purchase a paper ticket for the entire journey at your originbefore boarding a train. Simply tell the person at the ticket office your destination station, or press the correct station button on the ticket machine. The City is considered a single destination for the City Circle, Martin Place and Kings Cross Stations. Tickets are available as single or return. Fares are distance based, between $3.20 and $6.00 for a single within Sydney. Short train rides using paper tickets (for example one or two stations in the City) can get quite expensive.
Ticket offices have limited opening hours at suburban stations and outside of these hours you will need to use a ticket machine. The ticket machines accept up to $50 notes but will give only $19.90 in change (in coins) and accept only 10 coins and 6 notes. Some ticket machines also accept Visa or Mastercard at most stations, but only if you have a PIN. Ticket offices also accept Visa or Mastercard, and allow you to have a PIN or sign. Ticket inspectors fine you $200 if you are caught on a train or platform without a ticket. Concession tickets can't be purchased from ticket machines when the ticket window is open.
Sydney has an extensive bus network. Some buses run from distant suburbs such as those on the Northern Beaches and North West all the way to the city, but there are also shorter feeders to suburban rail stations from surrounding suburbs.
It is a good idea to plan your bus trips in advance where possible. Transportnsw.info has a helpful trip planner feature to assist you, as well as route maps and schedules to print. Most bus stops have timetables posted, as well as a route map for the routes servicing that bus stop.
You must flag down buses with an outstretched hand if you want them to stop for you and you must press the STOP button on board to disembark. They will not automatically stop unless they are signalled to do so.
On most buses there is nothing on the bus to tell you which stop you are approaching or which stop you are at. There are no poster maps on the bus either. If you are not sure where you are getting off, pick up or print out the timetable, which has a route map on it and watch for landmarks as you pass. Also, if you take a bus marked "Limited Stops" or "Express" (the route number will start with an L or an X), make sure that the bus stops where you want it to. Limited stops services stop only at major stops so they may make you walk around 750 metres or so if they skip your stop. However, express services can run very far from the city without stopping at all, before resuming a normal stopping pattern (express buses only operate during peak hours). All normally numbered buses stop at all stops, so missing your stop or getting off one stop early is a less serious mistake. Red Metrobuses (routes numbers starting with M) are longer route, cross city buses, running at 10-20 minute frequencies during their operational hours. These buses sometimes have a screen displaying the next stop and onboard announcements as well. Metrobus stops usually have a name on top of the stand which easily indicates a Metrobus services the particular stop.
There are two main bus termination points in the CBD, at Wynyard and Circular Quay. These two points are separated by a one-stop commuter train trip. You will need to make this trip if connecting from buses arriving from north of the harbour bridge to buses heading east or west, or vice versa. Bus information centres are located at both Wynyard and Circular Quay.
If you don't have an Opal card, you can buy single paper tickets. Return tickets are not available.
You must buy your ticket before boarding the bus if you are in the City area, Bondi Junction, Parramatta Rd, Norton Street, Anzac Parade, Military Road or on most of the limited stop services or M10, M20, M30, M40, and M50 Metrobus routes that run through the city to help buses run on time. Otherwise, you have the option to buy your ticket in advance or you can pay cash to the driver. Single and ten-trip tickets can only be bought in advance, and can't be bought on buses. You can buy as many tickets in advance as you like, and validate them as you board the bus (either dip them in the green machine on entry, or if there is no machine the driver will mark them on the front). Ten trip tickets can be used for multiple passengers in a group, simply dip the ticket once for each person in the group. Tickets can be bought in advance from 7-Eleven, some newsagents/convenience stores and transit shops. Look for the yellow or purple flags outside the shop.
There are three distance based fare bands, MyBus1, MyBus2 and MyBus3. If buying a ticket for cash from the driver just state your destination. If you are buying a ticket in advance, you need to know which fare band you need. You can call the transport infoline, ask at a transit shop, check the route maps online or on the timetable for your route, or guess. Trips under 3km are usually MyBus1, 3-6km MyBus2, and any further is a MyBus3. All trips within the Sydney CBD are a MyBus1.
Children 15 and under are half-price, and you only pay for the first child in any family group.
Drivers in non-prepay buses in may be able to give change for a $20 note, but it is best to use only coins and lower-denomination notes.
Some buses are GPS equipped, you can use an app like TripView to track arrival times in real time.
A few trunk routes run to the Eastern Suburbs and to Newtown 24 hours a day. Additional services operate late Friday and Saturday night to the Northern Beaches and to the North West.
The public Sydney Ferries central hub is at Circular Quay at the north edge of the CBD. Ferries run up the Parramatta River via Balmain and Olympic Park, around to Darling Harbour, across to Luna Park, across to the Zoo, out to Manly, and out to Watsons Bay. They also go to Garden island and Cockatoo Island. They run only within Sydney harbour, so you can't get a ferry to Bondi. Ferries run to most destinations at least every hour, with additional peak services, and half hourly services to Manly and Darling Harbour.
At Circular Quay and Darling Harbour, each wharf has a large screen showing ferry departures and general information. Find your destination on the screen, which shows when your ferry service is departing and from which wharf.
More than just a utilitarian means of transport, ferries are a great way to see Sydney harbour. The best ferry excursion for visitors is from Circular Quay eastward to Manly or, for a shorter and slightly cheaper trip, to Watsons Bay. Be prepared to take photographs of the Sydney Opera House and the Harbour Bridge as you leave Circular Quay. Ferries from Circular Quay westward to Balmain and Darling Harbour offer great excuses to experience sailing under the Harbour Bridge.
The Manly and inner-harbour ferries can get busy, but it is very rare that they reach capacity. Opal's $2.50 Sunday deal is very popular, especially on sunny 'beach' days, with the viewing decks becoming tightly packed and the queuing chaotic. If you're only in Sydney a short time, then you may wish to spend the extra to travel on weekday and avoid the associated hassles with crowds on a Sunday.
At peak periods, the Parramatta River ferries can and do fill to capacity, and you should ensure that you have an alternative way for completing your trip. Passenger counts are strictly enforced, and there is no effective queue: missing one ferry is no guarantee you will get on the next. Peak periods include: sunny Sundays from 10AM until 6PM at Parramatta, all points along the river, including Cockatoo Island; Saturday afternoons from 3PM until 6PM returning from Circular Quay and Darling Harbour up-river; School holiday; weekdays 4PM-6PM at Darling Harbour heading to Parramatta (you are okay if you board at Circular Quay where the ferry originates) as commuters, tourists, and daytrippers compete to get home.
If you don't have an Opal card, you can buy single or return paper tickets. There are two fare bands: MyFerry1 for trips under 9km and MyFerry2 for trips over 9km. You can buy paper tickets from ferry ticket machines, ferry ticket offices, and onboard the ferry. MyFerry1 will get you anywhere to the east of the Harbour Bridge, except Manly, which is a MyFerry2. Ferry wharves outside of the city and Manly do not have a ticket machine. Instead, you must purchase your ferry ticket onboard or on arrival, before the ticket barriers, at Circular Quay or Darling Harbour.
By private ferry
Matilda and Manly Fast Ferries run a competing services against the government owned Sydney Ferries. Manly Fast Ferries runs a service between Circular Quay and Manly. Matilda Ferries runs a Darling Harbour to Circular Quay, and services around the Harbour and to Harbour Islands. They also run a Zoo Express to Taronga Zoo wharf, with a combined entry pass the same price as the Sydney Ferries ferry. A nicer ferry and commentary on the way.
By light rail
There's a single light rail line in Sydney which is useful for travelling between Sydney City and western Darling Harbour, the casino, the Fish Markets, and Pyrmont, and runs from Central to Dulwich Hill.
If you don't have an Opal card, single and return paper tickets are available. Fares are based on two zones - the boundary is between the Convention and Pyrmont Bay stops. You buy your ticket on the Light Rail from the conductors, there are no machines or ticket offices. Unlike trains and ferries, return light rail tickets are cheaper than two single tickets and may also be cheaper than the Opal fare.
Some suburban train stations are easy access, with lifts to all platforms and ramps operated by station staff to allow wheelchair access to trains. Some buses have disabled access. All light rail stations have lifts and level access to the car. Station facilities and bus times are available from the transport infoline, online or by phone.
Taxis are a convenient way to get around Sydney. They can also be the only transport option available to some locations late at night when the trains and regular buses stop.
It is usually easy enough to flag a taxi down at the kerb in the CBD, or catch one at taxi ranks located in most suburban centres. The availability of a taxi is indicated by an illuminated "taxi" sign positioned on top of the vehicle. If the light is on, it is available for hire; if the light is off, the cab is occupied. You can also book a taxi by calling one of the taxi companies or booking online.
Beware the 3PM change over and the Friday evening rush. It can be almost impossible to get a taxi 2:30PM-3:15PM. It is just as difficult 2:30AM-3:30AM, as almost all of the drivers change over their shifts at the same time. They are similarly scarce on a Friday and Saturday evenings. Booking in advance is no guarantee, as these jobs are simply offered electronically to drivers, who may or may not accept the job. It is easily possible to wait an hour or more for a taxi booked 24 hours in advance on a Friday and Saturday evening. Ringing the taxi company back and complaining will often help (if the operators can relate to your problem, they have the ability to offer a taxi driver an incentive to take your fare). Cancelling your job and ringing another taxi company in frustration never helps as the taxi companies have handover systems that have seen your job handed over if another company had more capacity. You will just end up at the back of the queue again. Evenings other than Friday and Saturday are usually fine.
During busy times, some unscrupulous drivers may try to leave the door locked and ask where you are going through the window and drive off if the destination is too close or not on their way home, even though this is illegal. If you can, get in before you tell them your destination - by law, they have to take you.
There are two meter rates: a day rate (rate 1) with a flag fall of $3.30, a distance rate of $1.99/km, a "waiting" rate of $0.85/min, and a booking fee of $2.50; and a night rate (rate 2 - applicable to journeys commenced between 10PM-6AM), which adds a 20% surcharge to the distance rate. You can check the rate your taxi is using by looking for a 1 or a 2 next to the current charge: if it is set to 2, it is using the night rate. The so called "waiting" rate is charged whenever the speed drops below 25km/h. For trips in congested traffic, it is possible for large amounts of the trip to be charged at the "waiting" rate. All Sydney taxis are metered and taxi drivers will charge the metered rate, adding the charges for tolls manually. Silver Service taxis are more luxurious vehicles, but they are charged at the same rate as standard taxis.
Taxis accept all major credit cards. They charge an extra 5% on top of the fare for this.
Passengers are required to pay all tolls for their trip. In addition, passengers who are taken north over the Harbour Bridge, for which there is no toll, are required to pay the driver's southbound toll for the return into the city (Time of day tolling applies, and the toll varies between $2.50 and $4). Drivers will usually take the toll roads unless you ask them not to. If you are unsure why they are asking for an amount above that shown on the meter, just ask.
Passengers have the right to control the air conditioning and the radio so ask the driver. Whilst most taxi drivers behave acceptably, there have been reported incidences of taxi drivers behaving inappropriately towards women: it is always safer to sit in the back of the car.
Tipping is not required or generally expected. However, rounding up a taxi fare to the next dollar (or five or ten dollars, depending on the base fare) is fairly common. On the other hand, if the driver rounds the fare down to the nearest dollar, accept with grace.
As elsewhere in the world, ridesharing services such as Uber offer a convenient taxi-like service in Sydney. Uber offers considerable cost savings over a taxi when there is no surge. However, there are still many times when getting a Uber is difficult, and they are often not available in the suburbs or late at night.
If you are spending time in the city centre, and visiting attractions like Manly, Bondi, and Pyrmont, then a car may be more hassle than it's worth, with congestion, complex one-way schemes, and expensive and time-restricted parking.
Travel times and routes
Sydney traffic is always busy, but outside of peak weekday times travelling by car is usually at least as quick as any method of public transport. Congestion can be expected on roads to the city 6:30AM-9:30AM, and roads away from the city 4:30PM-6:30PM. Allow double the normal travel time during these periods - longer if you are using motorways. Congestion is considerably worse and longer in both directions during the Friday afternoon peak. Some roads experience congestion at other times and roads heading to shopping, sports, parks and beaches can be heavily congested on weekends also - particularly on Saturday mornings and Saturday evenings. Roads around Bondi Beach and the other eastern suburbs beaches experience gridlock on summer weekends, with buses often caught in the same traffic as cars.
Roads are generally well signposted to the next major suburb or suburbs along the route, and all (except freeways) have road names. A handful of cross-city roads are signposted by alphanumeric code. The airport is signposted from many major routes with an aeroplane symbol.
Travel times from the city centre to the Sydney outskirts can take around 45 minutes in good traffic.
Some motorways, tunnels and bridges charge tolls between $3 and $8 depending on the road and distance. There is no logic behind which ones charge and which ones don't - the reasons are all historical and political. Toll roads are indicated by the word toll on the signboard when joining the road. Tolls are charged on the Harbour Bridge and Tunnel (southbound), the Eastern Distributor (northbound), the Lane Cove Tunnel, Cross City Tunnel, M7 and the Falcon Street northbound motorway entrance.
If you want to plan a toll free route, you avoid the Cross City Tunnel, Lane Cove Tunnel, M7 or Falcon Street on-ramp fairly easily. However, it is hard to avoid the harbour crossings if you are going to Manly, the Northern Beaches or the zoo by car.
All tolls only use electronic tolling and if you use these you need to decide how you will pay the toll.
Your choice is to have a pass or a tag.
- A pass (also called an e-pass) is the simplest way to pay tolls. Just register your licence plate and credit card up to 48 hours after travelling on a toll road and tolls will be deducted automatically from your card. The Sydney Motorways website provides links to pass providers. The cost is $1.50 to register online, and 75c on top of each toll as a processing charge. Make sure you enter the dates you will be in charge of the car, so you don't end up paying for someone else's toll.
- A tag (also called an E-tag) is a transponder stuck to the inside of your windscreen. You can purchase a visitor's tag from any motor registry before travelling on a toll road for $5 and set up an account linked to your credit card. Allow about 30 minutes at the registry to sort it all out. It is worthwhile considering only if you are staying in Sydney for a while or travelling on toll roads in Melbourne and Brisbane as well. You will end up ahead only if you need to pay six or more toll charges.
A capital 'E' marked on the lane indicates it accepts a tag and a lower case 'e' indicates it accepts a pass.
Not paying a toll incurs a $10-$15 administration fee in additional to the toll. If you are in a rental car, the rental car company will charge an additional fee for this to your credit card.
Some rental car companies, for example Avis, supply an e-tag with each car, and a service fee for each day it is used. You have no option to buy your pass or tag. Others, for example Bayswater, give you an option to rent one from them for a fixed fee, and you have a choice to obtain your own pass as an alternative. Check with your rental company.
Parking your car in the City Centre in parking stations is always possible butvery expensive. Expect to pay up to $70 per day or $25 per hour at some central parking lots and around $30 even with specials on weekdays. Prices generally reduce significantly on weekends however, and you may only pay $15 - $20 or so for a full day's parking. Reduced parking charges are also made for early bird parking, where you must enter and leave within prescribed times. For example you can park all day at the Opera House for $16 provides you enter before 10AM and leave 3PM-7PM. There is no grace period, so you cannot get out even one minute before 3PM, and you will be charged the day parking rate of $42 if you are 10 seconds late. Most city parking lots offer reduced flat fees (around $15-$25) for evening and weekend parking. Booking parking online in advance can offer dramatic savings, with offers as low as $10 for all day parking available.
Street parking in the CBD is generally only possible before 8AM and after 6:30PM on weekdays and, even then, is almost invariably metered until 10PM at $2.20-3.30 per hour. On weekends, most parking spaces have a 4 hour limit, again metered at $1.10-2.20 per hour. All day street spots are sometimes available in the Domain/Mrs Macquarie's Chair and Hickson Road, but these spots are often taken up by commuters, and, since they are metered, an early bird deal may work out cheaper than the metered rate. Parking meters accept credit card payment. Similar prices are charged in North Sydney.
City hotels invariably charge for parking for the guests.
Parking in many major suburban centres and beaches can be a matter of spending time cruising and searching for parking spots. Usually parking within easy walking distance of these centres has a time limit restriction - often 2-3 hours. Shopping mall car parks usually have a similar restriction.
Some train stations have all day free commuter parking. At major stations, this can be full before 8AM. Smaller stations with less frequent train service tend to have better parking availability. On weekends it is easy to find a spot in the commuter parking lots. The stations with commuter parking are marked on the Sydney Trains maps.
Parking at some beaches, on summer weekends, can often be almost impossible. Some beaches are in suburban neighbourhoods, without large car parking facilities. Check the appropriate destination guides for more information.
Parking fines in Sydney are $88 if you exceed the allowed parking time or don't pay the fee in a legitimate parking space. Reloading the meter or moving your car within the same parking zone will not get you out of a fine. Parking in a no stopping zone will cost you more. If you park illegally and wait with your car, you may find you have the licence place photographed and fined before you have the chance to move on - don't expect a warning. If you park illegally in a disabled spot, the fine is $441. If you do get fined for exceeding time, you will not be fined again the same day so you might as well enjoy your parking spot.
Clearways are no-stopping zones on main roads during peak periods, marked with clearway signs and a broken yellow line on the kerb. Fines will be around $400 to reclaim your car after it is towed away. Clearways also offer parking opportunities if you want to park just after 10AM.
Sydney driving speeds
Speed limits can change frequently, even on the same road. Speed limits drop for areas of pedestrian activity, schools (40 km/h 8AM-9:30AM and 2:30PM-4PM on school days), roadwork, as well as driving conditions. Some roads have variable speed limits that change during busy traffic times. Every road in Sydney has a signposted speed limit and the only way to be sure of the limit is to pay attention to the signs. You cannot tell the speed limit just by looking at the road. The speed limit is usually 50km/h on residential streets, 60km/h to 80km/h on main roads, and sometimes higher on freeway sections.
If you are a fit and experienced urban cyclist, used to riding on multi-lane roads in heavy traffic, then just get on your bike. Cyclists are permitted just about everywhere on Sydney's roads, except for of some freeway tunnels where bicycle signs will usually direct you to the alternative route. Kerbside lanes are often narrow, so ride assertively, be seen, and take the full lane when you know there is insufficient room to be passed. Bikes are permitted in bus lanes (like the city streets), but not bus only lanes (like the harbour bridge, and T-ways).
The city centre is not particularly cyclist friendly traffic-wise. It is not flat either - you can expect regular hills but no marathon uphill climbs. The weather is, however, usually good for cycling.
If you are looking for a quieter ride, a number of quiet on-road and shared pedestrian/cycle paths are available, but can be hard to find. A good place to start is at Sydney Olympic Park where you can get your cycle legs on the extensive off-road trails; then, if you want to, you can follow off-road/quiet road trails out to Parramatta or following the Cooks River to Botany Bay in Southern Sydney. The Harbour Bridge has a dedicated cycle lane, suitable for all ages, but as soon as you get off the bridge you are back onto urban streets in Milsons Point.
The Bourke St cycleway is a north-south route in the the City East and a cruisy place to cycle between Woolloomooloo, Darlinghurst and Surry Hills. Lots of shade and cafes to break the trip. Some other separated cycleways have opened in the City centre, but they are yet to form a cohesive network, and your trip may easily end up on a busy and unforgiving city road if you haven't planned well in advance.
Other cycleways are often just converted footpaths, so be on the lookout for bollards, street signs, roots and branches strategically placed across cycle paths - as well as pedestrians. If cycling at night ensure you have lights bright enough to light your path.
It is illegal to ride bicycles on footpaths unless cycling with children under 12. In reality this is fairly weakly enforced out in the suburbs, but it is common for people to be fined for cycling through pedestrian malls in the city like Pitt St Mall or Martin Place. Out in the suburbs you can often follow quiet streets, and hop onto the footpath for a short stretch if things get too hairy. Bicycle helmets are required by law, as are lights and reflectors at night.
Bicycles can be taken on all trains. A child fare should be paid (for the bike) if any part of the journey is made before 9AM or after 3:30PM on weekdays and you have a paper ticket. If you have an Opal Card you can take your bike free at any time. In the city centre during the evening peak you will be lucky to fit your bike onto a train. Check trackwork schedules on weekends , when buses replace trains and make taking bicycles more challenging.
Bike hire is available in many locations in Sydney. Unfortunately, bike hire for two bikes for a day usually costs more than hiring a small car and petrol for the day (around $50 per bike). However, for shorter periods some places may be reasonably priced (for example Sydney Olympic Park) charges $15 per hour. Also, you have to consider the additional cost if the bikes are stolen or damaged. However, they are much easier to park, are greener and can be more fun.
If you just want to have a ride, most bicycle user groups around Sydney organise weekend rides for various levels of fitness. There is usually no charge to join in.
Sydney is quite pedestrian friendly, and as always you will see a lot more when moving around by foot than by wheels. On sunny days a long sleeved shirt, sunglasses, sunscreen and maybe even a hat is advisable. It takes some 45 minutes to walk from Central Station up through the city centre to the Opera House.
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Sydney's beaches are the perfect place to spend a warm summer day, where you can swim or lie on the sands to your heart's content. The most popular are Bondi Beach, Manly and Coogee, although many others have their own charms. They might not be miles of golden beaches like Queensland, but there's a great variety, ranging from ocean beaches nestled between towering headlands in the Eastern Suburbs to quiet bays facing the harbour in Mosman. Bondi and Coogee are backpacker haunts while Manly andCronulla feel like separate seaside towns. Soak in the crowded atmosphere amongst the other sunseekers in the eastern beaches, or be one of the few enjoying the solitude in the Northern Beaches and the Royal National Park. Brave the ocean waves, or splash about in the shallower rock pools. Even in winter, you can join the hardy souls keeping to their exercise regime in the cold waters.
Surf at one of Sydney's many surf beaches, a quintessentially Australian experience. The major beaches (Bondi, Manly,Cronulla) have surf schools and places where you can rent surfboards. Locals have their own secret favourites in the Northern Beaches and Maroubra, and can be fiercely territorial.
Most stores will accept VISA/Mastercard credit cards, and only a few take only cash. American Express is generally accepted only at larger stores.
As with the rest of Australia, currency exchange offices operate in a free market, and the small convenient exchange booth you pass on George Street, by the Opera House or at the airport can charge 15% or more over the best rate you can obtain elsewhere. As always, check rates and commission carefully. Know today's rate and be prepared to walk away if the amount of money they calculate isn't what you would expect. Banks typically offer much better rates, but are only open business hours on weekdays.
You may find it better to pay by credit card and use ATM withdrawals and have the certainty of getting the rate and fees provided by your bank.
Main department stores and speciality stores open around 9am and close around 6pm, staying open until 9pm on Thursday. On Sunday expect them to open around 10am in the suburbs, and around 11am in the city centre, and to close at 5pm. There are a few locations where you will find shops opening a little later, such as Darling Harbour which is open until 9pm every weeknight.
Large supermarkets will be open from 6am until midnight.
Many convenience stores, fast-food restaurants and petrol stations within the Sydney metro area are open 24 hours a day.
Banks will usually only open weekdays, with only an occasional branch opening Saturday morning. Travel agents (not including booking agents in tourist areas) close on Sundays.
Those quintessential Aussie souvenirs - stuffed koalas and kangaroos, various "Australiana" knick-knacks - can be found in any souvenir store around the city, as well as in airport shops. Authentic Aboriginal/indigenous arts and crafts, such as traditional paintings, hand-made didgeridoos, are expensive, and the range in Sydney is much smaller than in Alice Springs. For those who only wish to take home a replica, as a memento of their trip to Australia, head to Paddy's Markets [www] in the Haymarket area of the southern end of the city. The markets also sell a huge range of souvenirs at much better prices than regular souvenir stores. Dollar shops (see "Food and Essentials" below) also sell souvenirs at bargain-basement prices, albeit at a much reduced quality.
Australia's unique style and creativity means Sydney is developing on the international fashion circuit, as designs from Australians such as Wayne Cooper, Collette Dinnigan, Akira Isogawa, Lisa Ho, Oroton and Easton Pearson are seen around the globe. In fact, around 60 Australian labels are currently exporting their designs to boutiques and department stores in Asia, Europe and the United States.
The greatest concentration of clothing and accessories stores are to be found in the northern half of the CBD, starting from the Town Hall precinct, neat the Queen Victoria Building.
- Queen Victoria Building. In the City Centre is a renowned, beautifully maintained, 19th century sandstone building, home to over 400 stores. The stores in the building are laid out in a hierarchical style- literally. The basement level has cheap, casual-fashion stores with a food court, the street level mid-range brand-name chains and level 3 is where various Australian designers, some European labels and Italian shoe stores are located. It is one of Sydney's more photogenic pieces of architecture. Located on George St adjacent to Town Hall and Pitt St Mall.
- The Strand Arcade. In the City Centre remains a majestic beauty in the middle of the hustle and bustle of Sydney's CBD. Many retailers including The Nut Shop, Elie's Leather Repair and Strand Hatters have traded for decades, becoming well known Sydney institutions. Today the centre is a unique mix of Australian and International designer fashion (including Alex Perry, Akira, Lisa Ho and Alannah Hill) and speciality stores catering for a discerning, sophisticated clientele.
- Castlereagh Street in the City Centre is lined by many of Sydney's most expensive European-label boutiques and jewellery stores. It is also home to the flagship store of Australian department store chain David Jones.
- Department stores. There are only two of these in the City Centre, Myer [www] and David Jones [www], located practically next door to each other near the Pitt Street Mall, and joined by an above-ground covered pedestrian walkway. Both offer your standard department-store range of goods.
- Pitt Street Mall is a pedestrian mall in the City Centre. It is one block long between Market Street and King Street and is one of the world's most expensive shopping streets. The entire east side of the block comprises the Westfield Sydney mall (including Sydney Tower) and the west side is also a series of shopping centres.
- Oxford Street just east of the city is lined with shops, bars and nightclubs. The section between Taylor Square and Queen St, Woollahra is particularly good for mid-high end Australian fashion designers and boutiques. Some of these boutiques and other fashion retailers sell at Paddington Markets [www], which are held in the grounds of the Paddington public school every Saturday from 10am.
- Queen Street in Woollahra also east of the city is an upmarket shopping destination with high-end boutiques, food and homewares stores.
- King Street, Newtown in the inner west is a long strip of inexpensive boutiques, and the odd chain store, with plenty of places to stop for a coffee or wine along the way!
- Shopping centres. There are several large shopping malls around Sydney in Bondi Junction, Chatswood, Parramatta, Macquarie Park, Hurstville and Miranda, as well as Warringah Mall. The Bondi Westfield offers the most upmarket experience, with many European fashion labels available.
- Factory outlets. Birkenhead Point and DFO in the Inner West have brand name fashions at discount prices. Market City in Chinatown also has a few smaller factory outlets.
Food and essentials
Prices are inflated in convenience stores and in tourist areas, and it is worth seeking out the supermarkets - even in the city centre. The main Supermarket Chains in Sydney are Woolworths [www], Coles [www] and Aldi [www]. See the local guides for locations.
Postcards are least expensive at post offices (75c) or discount stores. Convenience and souvenir stores may sell a wider range of (more expensive) postcards, but generally they do not sell stamps. An overseas stamp for a postcard costs $2.60 [www].
Prices in Sydney's restaurants vary. Breakfast at a standard cafe (food plus a coffee or juice) can cost anywhere up to $20 for a full English breakfast or other substantial meal. A main meal in a mid-range restaurant is around $25 - $35. Upper mid-range averages around $35 - $45. At the real top-end places a dinner for two with wine can run up to $400-500 and beyond.
For the more budget-conscious, Sydney's multicultural demography means plenty of quality ethnic cuisine for cheap eats, particularly Asian restaurants in Chinatown where rock bottom priced food (but no less tasty) can be found. Plonk down at a laminate table shoulder to shoulder with hungry locals for some bubble tea and a sizzling plate of delicious Asian food. Many restaurants in the city will also offer "lunch specials". For example, a good Korean "set lunch" can be found for less than $15. A bowl of noodles in Chinatown will run you $8 or $9. Some Thai curry with rice at any of the many restaurants all over Sydney will cost about $10.
Newtown in Sydney's inner-west (approx 4km from the CBD) is renowned for its inexpensive cafes and restaurants on King St, in particular Thai food. It is highly popular among students from the nearby University of Sydney.
Sydney is also home to some of the world's best restaurants and their chefs. But if you want to try Sydney's finest rated restaurants during your visit, a booking must usually be made well in advance. There's Tetsuya’s and Est in the City Centre, Marque in the City East and Flying Fish Restaurant & Bar in Pyrmont. Another famous Sydney celebrity chef is Neil Perry, who runs Rockpool at The Rocks, as well as the Rockpool Bar and Grill in the city, not far from Circular Quay, with Spice Temple downstairs.
If you want to splurge on the location, try Quay in the The Rocks or Matt Moran's Aria, both of which have harbour and bridge views, but Guillaume at Bennelong has them beat handily, where you'll be dining in the Opera House itself. You may be lucky on a weekday and get a walk-up table at one of the restaurants in Campbells Cove in theThe Rocks.
For fine dining away from the central Sydney, try Jonah's in the far Northern Beaches- go for lunch, the view is stunning.
Take away food in Sydney can be as cheap as buying the ingredients and making it yourself, and many stores specialise in take-away food. There will usually be a picnic table, park or beach nearby to eat whatever you can select. Quintessential Aussie takeaways include the meat pie (minced beef with gravy sauce in a crusty pastry shell), sausage roll (sausage mince in a puff pastry casing), usually topped generously with tomato sauce/ketchup, and fish and chips (inherited from the British to be sure but loved by all Australians).
Most restaurants will do take-away food as well, but almost certainly at a premium to the cost of buying food from a take-away. Outside of the city an occasional restaurant may offer a 10% discount for take-away. There are few online services like EatNow that allow users to order food online from the variety of restaurants and take away in a particular area.
Just about every suburb in Sydney has a restaurant or two, a cafe or coffee shop, and a place that sells takeaway food. However, there are a number of places in Sydney where you can window shop through many restaurants and make your choice.
All of Darling Harbour is like this, there are restaurants of every variety all along the waterfront. East Circular Quay in the City Centre is similar, along with the International Passenger Terminal on the west of Circular Quay - however many of the restaurants in this area are expensive and loved more for the view than the quality of the food. There are (pricey) exceptions, such as Cafe Sydney, Aria and Sailors Thai.
In the east of the city, Victoria Street in Darlinghurst and Crown Street in Surry Hills (between Oxford and Cleveland Streets) has a large range of funky cafes, small bars, pubs, patisseries and restaurants. Darlinghurst and Surry Hills has it all, from cheap Asian take-aways to high end restaurants. Many trendy restaurants in this area don't take bookings; often you wait at the bar for a table. These suburbs are popular with hipsters, yuppies and the gay community.
Just east of the city is Woolloomooloo Wharf which boasts a fantastic view across the harbour and several upscale restaurants, including excellent steak, Chinese, Italian and seafood restaurants. Perfect for lunch on a sunny day.
King Street, Newtown, centred on the railway station, has a constantly changing selection of good value restaurants, pubs, cafes and bars. You can find many various types of cuisine here; mainly cheap Thai, but also Vietnamese, Italian, Turkish, Japanese and modern Australian. This area isn't touristy, but popular with students from the nearby Sydney University. The area has its own alternative style, which makes for great people watching.
On the Lower North Shore, Willoughby Road at Crows Nest has consistently good Indian, Japanese, Thai, steak, and a handful of small bars. Military Road through Cremorne and Neutral Bay have a smattering of decent restaurants, mostly Japanese. Kirribilli has a few nice cafes and restaurants, and a short after dinner stroll will take you by some of the best views of the Sydney Harbour Bridge.
In Macquarie Park, Rowe Street in Eastwood has built a reputation for some of the best East Asian food in Sydney. With everything from cheap eat Chinese noodle stands, smokey Korean BBQ houses and posh Japanese restaurants, Eastwood has something for every taste and budget. On Saturday nights there is a night market in the plaza with a number of stalls selling street food style snacks and treats.
Parramatta, to the west, has an eating strip, many with alfresco options. Harris Park nearby is Sydney's Little India with a good number of very affordable, authentic Indian restaurants.
In the North West district, Castle Hill has many restaurants on Terminus St as well as at "The Piazza" which is adjacent to Castle Towers shopping centre and features a pleasant, lively atmosphere with a fountain in the centre of the ring of restaurants.
Thanks to Sydney's (or rather, Australia's) multicultural mix, "modern Australian" is usually characterised by a fusion of cuisines. Think entrees spiced with a Thai-inspired chilli dressing, mains with a hint of a Chinese-style ginger-based marinade or sunny Tuscan flavours- all in the same menu. Many of Australia's celebrity chefs are of ethnic backgrounds, and many have trained overseas, bringing with them a world of experience back home.
- Visit the Sydney Fish Markets in Pyrmont (within walking distance of Darling Harbour) for a lunch of fresh seafood of almost any description. Sadly the cooked seafood on offer is overpriced, greasy and frankly an embarrassment. Avoid. For a proper seafood lunch at the fish markets, bypass these shops and go directly to one of the many fishmongers. Pick out the best freshly shucked oysters, cooked Balmain Bug or lobster tails, glistening prawns and sashimi. Take it out to tables outside and enjoy getting your hands dirty. Otherwise, head upstairs to Fisherman's Wharf Chinese Restaurant for some wonderful Cantonese seafood or yum cha.
- Hit a steakhouse and try Australia's world-famous prime Angus beef. Easily accessible upmarket Sydney city steakhouses include I'm Angus at Darling Harbour, Prime and Kingsley's in Woolloomoolloo in the City East. For a truly top end experience of some of Sydney's very best steak and seafood in luscious deco setting, try Neil Perry's Rockpool Bar and Grill in the CBD. Dress up and bring your Amex.
Alternatively, many CBD pubs offer $6 to $10 steak "meal deals", provided that you also order a particular alcoholic drink at the same time. You can also go to Phillip's Foote at The Rocks to cook your own steak on a BBQ.
For those who are after authentic multicultural culinary experiences, there are unique "food districts" scattered around the greater city. The range of food available is huge and isn't necessarily expensive. It is usually possible to find a restaurant of any nationality, specialising in almost any cuisine.
- Yum cha in Chinatown is very good, arguably even better than Hong Kong since many of their best chefs moved to Sydney in the 1990s. Yum cha is an entire meal comprising many small dishes called "dim sum" (Mandarin: dian xin). The food moves in roving, heated trolleys around the restaurants, although some places have now abandoned the trolleys and instead give you a menu to tick your items which will be brought to your table. Some only have trolleys for specials or on weekends. Expect queues on weekends and brusque service all days - it's all part of the charm of yum cha.
- Chinese (Cantonese) in Chinatown, Chatswood on the North Shore. For more northern Chinese flavours, including Shanghainese and Pekingnese, head toAshfield and Burwood. Some outer suburbs are particularly known for their Chinese restaurants - recommended examples are Eastwood in Macquarie Park, Parramatta (west) and Hurstville in Sydney's southern suburbs which all have a number of restaurants offering more home-style Chinese food. They are all accessible by public transport.
- Indian in one of the many restaurants in the Outer West with all types of Indian cuisine (North Indian, South Indian, vegetarian, meat, etc).
- Indonesian in Anzac Parade, Kensington, Kingsford & Maroubra.
- Italian in one of the restaurants in Leichhardt's Norton Street, or nearby Ramsay Street, Haberfield in the Inner West. Or in Stanley St in East Sydney - a walk from the CBD.
- Japanese in Neutral Bay or Crows Nest in the Lower North Shore and Eastwood in the Macquarie Park district.
- Korean in Liverpool & Pitt St in City, Strathfield, Eastwood and Campsie.
- Kosher in Bondi. Many great restaurants throughout the area.
- Lebanese in Cleveland Street. Baba Ghanouj, Lahem Begin and Baclawa here. For the very best Lebanese, head out to the Middle Eastern enclaves of Greenacre or Lakemba.
- Nepalese in Glebe Point Road, Glebe, in the Inner West.
- Portuguese in Petersham in the Inner West.
- Spanish in Liverpool Street in the city.
- Thai in one of the many low priced Thai outlets in Newtown's King Street in the Inner West.
- Turkish in Auburn. Closer to the city, there try Enmore Rd Enmore / South King St Newtown in the Inner West. Get your Sucuklu and Pastirmali here.
- Uyghur on Dixon Street, Haymarket (Chinatown)- fiery, flavour-bursting food originating from the Turkic regions of Central Asia.
- Vietnamese in Marrickville. The most authentic Vietnamese can be experienced in Cabramatta or Bankstown. If you have the time, Cabramatta particularly is a fascinating and worthwhile day trip. So awash is the suburb with Vietnamese restaurants, groceries, butchers, craft shops, clothing stores and restaurants - not to mention Vietnamese people - you'd swear you were walking around Saigon rather than Sydney.
Many of the areas mentioned above also sell produce related to the original nationality of the locals.
It always seems like there's a food festival occurring every weekend in one of the suburbs of Sydney. Usually the idea is that restaurants take part, providing smaller portions of their signature dishes around $7-$12 a plate. Some also focus on ethnic cuisine — a great opportunity to sample unfamiliar food. Look out for the Sydney International Food Festival [www], a major festival which showcases Sydney's food culture. It's held in October, and includes the night noodle markets operating in Hyde Park in the City Centre.
Vegetarian and special diets
Vegetarians are well catered for. Every restaurant will usually have at least one vegetarian dish. Indian restaurants can be relied upon to provide a wider selection. The trendy East Sydney and Inner West suburbs have many choices, Cabramatta in the western suburbs have many Asian Buddhist cuisine restaurants that are vegan and vegetarian.
There is an awareness of gluten-free and dairy-free diets in Sydney, and again the more trendier inner city suburbs are more likely to cater for these diets.
Cafés serving breakfast start opening at 6AM and breakfast is usually served until 11AM, or occasionally all day. Orders for lunch start at about noon and continue until about 3PM. Many cafes will start closing late afternoon, although a few may remain open for dinner.
Restaurants usually open for dinner around 5PM-6PM and while there are exceptions (usually concentrated in areas with active nightlife), last orders for dinner are typically taken around 10PM. Restaurants in business areas open for lunch as well. It is common for restaurants in suburban locations to sometimes be closed on Sunday, Monday or Tuesday nights.
It is more expensive to get a sit down meal in the evening, than it is for lunch.
Australians are casual. While most people make an effort to dress up for fancier restaurants, there is no requirement and both restaurants and diners alike are relaxed about dress standards. There are no restaurants in Sydney that require jackets for men for instance, and jeans (nice - no holes) are common in even the most expensive and posh Sydney restaurants. Wear whatever you feel comfortable in.
- The Good Food Guide, published by the Sydney Morning Herald, is a well-regarded restaurant guide on the Sydney food circuit. The guide uses a reviewing and scoring system similar to the Michelin publications overseas. While the majority of restaurants included are in Sydney, a number of regional NSW restaurants are also included. The GFG can be picked up at any good book store and is also available for download as an iPhone application, with monthly or yearly subscription options.
- Timeout Sydney has a regular section on eating out in Sydney, with emphasis on affordable destinations. There is a paper publication as well as a web site.
- For the well-heeled and truly gourmet, the glossy pages of Gourmet Traveller magazine cover the latest in Sydney food fashion and the upmarket restaurant scene.
- Eatability.com and Urbanspoon are websites similar to Yelp! in the USA, containing reviews and rankings of restaurants by the masses.
Sights & Landmarks
Most of the Sydney landmarks can be seen in the City Centre with the iconic Sydney Opera House as well as visiting the Art Gallery of New South Wales, Sydney Tower, St Mary's Cathedral, Royal Botanic Gardens and theState Library of New South Wales.
Right next to the centre is the historic district of The Rocks where you see Sydney's heritage as well as walk across the Sydney Harbour Bridge.
Darling Harbour is west of the City Centre and offers plenty of attractions such as the National Maritime Museum, Sydney Fish Market,Sydney Wildlife World, Sydney Aquarium and the Powerhouse Museum.
Cross the Harbour Bridge to reach the Lower North Shore where you can visit Luna Park.Taronga Zoo can be reached by a dedicated ferry from Circular Quay.
Take the ferry further out to Manly where you can visit the famous beach and walk to Middle Head passes many coastal artillery fortifications built into the cliffs of Sydney Harbour during the late nineteenth century.
Head out in the sun to visit the Eastern Suburbs where you can find the world famousBondi beach, as well as many other beaches and La Perouse.
Sydney offers many opportunities to discover indigenous heritage, with rock carvings, dancing and art galleries to explore.
Things to do
Kayak and canoe
Sydney's waterways offer great canoeing and kayaking, and you can explore Sydney's bushland, history, and exclusive waterfront properties. There are lots of places to hire them from, or to even go on a guided tour.
- The Spit or Manly to kayak the harbour.
- Lane Cove National Park and the Royal National Park have canoes and kayaks by the hour - see turtles and birdlife as you paddle
- You can paddle on the Georges River from Woronora, or the Port Hacking river from Bundeena.
- You can hire canoes at Rose Bay, a little bit east of the city.
Sydney offers decent fishing although it is not recommended to fish in Sydney Harbour to the west of the Harbour Bridge due to pollution and the fish are tainted with dioxin which is harmful to humans. You will nevertheless see local residents fishing on the harbour. You can sign up with a fishing charter to take you out of the Harbour into open water, Middle Harbour or Pittwater is a rewarding experience. You'll likely catch something of decent size and even if you don't, being out on a boat in Sydney is one of the great Sydney experiences in the warmer months.
Sydney has a huge amount of green space, much of it beside the sparkling harbour or ocean, so walking is a great way to experience the city's parks, reserves and remnant bushland. There are also great walks through the more built-up areas, allowing you to check out the city's modern architecture and its colonial heritage. The following are just a few of the better-known routes.
- Circular Quay and surrounds. Start underneath the Sydney Harbour Bridge, then walk with the harbour waters on your left, down through The Rocks, across Circular Quay, up to and around theSydney Opera House, down through theRoyal Botanic Gardens, and up to the magnificent view of the Opera House and the Harbour Bridge at Mrs Macquarie's Chair. Some variation of this spectacular walk is, for many, the epitome of the Sydney experience. For detailed information about a walking tour of the city centre, covering these sights (in the opposite direction) and other major sights.
- Across the Harbour Bridge from The Rocks on the south side to Milsons Point on the north side (or vice versa).
- Coogee Beach to Bondi. Following the eastern coastline past several of Sydney's beautiful beaches - stop off for a swim if you get too hot.
- Manly to the Spit. Along the foreshore of Sydney Harbour.
- Bradleys Head. Take a ferry to Taronga Zoo wharf and then head to your right along the promontory. There's pristine bushland (almost unchanged from the time of European colonisation), quiet beaches, and knockout views across the harbour, and in the warmer months you'll spot plenty of Eastern Water Dragons, a type of large lizard. Once you reach the tip of the headland, you can either amble back to the wharf or - if you're feeling more ambitious - follow the track several more kilometres to Clifton Gardens, ogling the gigantic houses along the way. From there, you can either hike all the way back to Taronga or get a bus to a ferry wharf.
Rugby/Footy in Winter
The winter rugby football season generally begins with trial matches in February, before the season proper kicks off in March and runs to late September or early October. Sydney's most popular football code is rugby league (often just called 'football' or 'footy' by locals - although never just 'rugby', which refers to rugby union). Nine teams from the national competition are based in Sydney and the sport is an important part of the city's culture - many teams play at least some of their games at intimate grounds in their suburban heartlands, and this can be a good way to experience the traditional heart of the sport.
Cricket in Summer
Sydney's primary summer sport is cricket, which you'll find being played (in somewhat modified form) on beaches and in backyards across the city. The professional stuff is largely based at the Sydney Cricket Ground close to the CBD: the traditional New Year's Test, between the Australian team and whichever foreign team is touring at the time, commences around the 3rd of January and runs for four to five days. Later in the summer, international one-day and/or Twenty20 matches are held at the SCG. The primary domestic tournaments, contested between Australian state teams, are the Sheffield Shield (first-class), Ford Ranger Cup (one-day) and KFC Big Bash (Twenty20): they are usually sparsely attended and so are much cheaper to attend than internationals. Some one-day and Twenty20 matches are played at ANZ Stadium at Olympic Park rather than at the SCG, but the cavernous stadium is far inferior to the grand old ground if you really want to get a feel for cricket culture.
Bike and skate
Cycle around Centennial Park in the Eastern Suburbs or Bicentennial Park at Sydney Olympic Park. Or mountain bike on the challenging hills around the parks, forests and waterways surrounding Sydney and through some spectacular countryside.
Sydney has many skate parks and bowls in its suburbs, and one of the most popular is the one next to Bondi Beach. Sydney also has three indoor ice skating centres, and the closest to the city centre is Macquarie Ice Rink in the Macquarie Park-Ryde area. The two others are near Canterbury station and next to Norwest in the Hills District.
Sydney has three major commercial theatres which show the big international musical productions, the Capitol Theatre in Haymarket, the Theatre Royal under the MLC Centre in the CBD and the Lyric Theatre in The Star casino complex at Pyrmont Bay.
The Sydney Theatre Company (artistically directed until 2013 by Kate Blanchett and now by her husband Andrew Upton) is the biggest professional theatre company in the city. It produces a large annual program using The Sydney Theatre and the two Wharf Theatres in Walsh Bay in The Rocks and sometimes the Sydney Opera House Drama Theatre as well.
The Belvoir St Theatre in Surry Hills in City East has long been the smaller cousin to the Sydney Theatre Company, a place where young actors and directors cut their teeth in the associated Company B troupe before going on to bigger things. It stages a number of plays every year and you can wander the foyer before the show and see how many Hollywood names you can pick out from the old production posters.
The Ensemble Theatre at Kirribilli in the Lower North Shore (just over the Harbour Bridge) is Sydney's oldest surviving professional company and also produces a full program of plays every year, often featuring Australia's locally famous thespians.
There are also a number of small drama theatres with companies in Sydney including the New Theatre in Newtown in the Inner West, the Griffin Theatre Company at the SBW Stables Theatre in Kings Cross in City East and the Darlinghurst Theatre in Potts Point in City East.
The Seymour Centre (part of Sydney University just off Broadway on City Road) is a complex of several medium sized theatres hired by many independent and touring productions through the year. It is also the home of the University Revues, usually around August to September, a series of comedy sketch and musical shows put on by the students of each faculty in the University. Sometimes a place to spot future talent, famous past writers and performers in the reviews have included Clive James and Germaine Greer.
Amateur theatre, especially musical theatre, proliferates in Sydney, with over 30 amateur musical theatre companies providing a fun night of theatre for around $20 per ticket out in the suburbs. Check the Riverside Theatre in Parramatta, the Zenith Theatre in Chatswood on the Lower North Shore, the Sutherland Entertainment Centre in Sutherland and the Glen Street Theatre in Belrose in the Northern Beaches. Most of these theatres also feature occasional travelling professional productions.
The Australian Chamber Orchestra also produces a large annual program, mostly at the Angel Place Recital Hall but sometimes also at the Sydney Opera House.
The Sydney Conservatorium of Music in Macquarie Street often hosts performances on a smaller scale in the Verbruggen Hall within the conservatorium.
If you're in Sydney in the summer month of January look out for the major outdoor concerts held by both the Sydney Symphony Orchestra and Opera Australia in the The Domain as part of the annual Sydney Festival. These free concerts are often attended by over 60,000 people.
Opera Australia, the national Opera company based in Sydney, performs an annual season at the Sydney Opera House in the City Centre.
The Australian Ballet is the Australian national ballet company. Although based in Melbourne it splits its annual season between that city and the Sydney Opera House.
The Basement nightclub near Circular Quay is Sydney's oldest and most pre-eminent jazz venue. It features other styles of music as well but has a reputation as the place all the big jazz acts perform when they're in town.
The Sydney Improvised Music Association (SIMA) features regular jazz in The Sound Lounge venue within the Seymour Centre (part of Sydney University just off Broadway on City Road). Venue 505 in Surry Hills features live jazz 6 nights a week and Foundry616 in Ultimo is another dedicated venue. Many of the small bars across the inner Sydney feature small jazz performances on any given night.
The major guide for performing arts in Sydney is the Spectrum liftout, which you'll find in the Sydney Morning Herald's voluminous Saturday edition. It contains reviews and features on all things cultural as well as comprehensive listings towards the back.
Sydney has mainstream movies showing on multi-screen cinema complexes all around Sydney, including the City Centre and Moore Park. The two main operators are Event Cinemas [www] and Hoyts [www]. For arthouse, or more obscure movies, try the Chauvel, Verona and Academy Twin cinemas on Oxford Street in the City East, or the Dendy near the Opera House in the City Centre or in Newtown, or Cinema Paris at the Entertainment Quarter at Fox Studios at Moore Park in the City East. Many of the larger cinema complexes offer premium seating and services for a premium price.
For a different experience, look out for open-air cinemas in the Royal Botanical Gardens or Centennial Park. There is one drive-in movie left open in Sydney, at Blacktown in the Outer West.
The IMAX Theatre, which provides a movie experience with the largest cinema screens in the southern hemisphere in Darling Harbour.
As one of the biggest and most famous gay capitals of the world, Sydney is the place to catch a drag show. If you’ve never experienced the glitz and glitter of professional drag acts, then you really shouldn’t leave town without heading to one of the top drag clubs in the city.
In Darlinghurst, drag queens like Polly’s Follies in the Stonewall Hotel or the spectacular Disgraceland in Nevermind are some of the best acts in town and you’ll marvel at the costume changes and the sheer amount of make up. However, make up aside, the transformation from men into women is incredible and these ladies sure know how to entertain. Drag shows are popular with hen nights and birthday parties, but really they’re great fun for anyone who wants a night of pure unadulterated entertainment. Some drag acts are part of cabaret clubs, so there's a wide variety of acts throughout the evening. Other clubs are solely dedicated to drag performances and it’s a whirlwind of costume changes, make-up and incredible dance moves.
Festivals and events
Sydney is home to a number of major and minor festivals and calendar events each year. Listed chronologically these are:
- Sydney Festival (Festival Of Sydney). An arts festival aiming to be international in reach, inviting acclaimed international artists to exhibit their work or perform in Sydney. A number of free outdoor events are held alongside the festival including the hugely popular Jazz in the Domain, Symphony in the Domain, and Festival First Night. Concerts held in the Domain and Hyde Park in the City Centre. The Bacardi Latin Festival in Darling Harbour is held in early January as part of the Sydney Festival, and contains a week of Latin dancing and music.
- Field Day Festival: 1 January annually . DAttracts the infamous Sydney NYE party-goers as well as rested Sydneysiders. The festival offers an exemplary cross section of leftfield bands, artists and DJ's for the true music lovers' delectation. Past artists have included The Presets and Kaskade.
- Big Day Out. An Australia-wide rock/alternative music festival with a side of dance, plays to up to 60,000 Sydneysiders at a time for one or two days in late January (normally on the January 26th public holiday). Past acts have included Nirvana, the Red Hot Chili Peppers, Rage Against The Machine, Muse, the Chemical Brothers and Marilyn Manson from overseas, and Powderfinger, Regurgitator and Gerling from Australia. It normally sells out the day of ticket release.
- St. Jerome's Laneway Festival. An alternative/indie music festival held in January/February each year (see website for upcoming dates), where bands play in laneways around the city, this festival a rather unique vibe and atmosphere. The Festival attracts both international and domestic artists, which has included such artists like Feist, Architecture in Helsinki and Born Ruffians. If you're interested in getting involved in the Sydney 'underground' or alternative/indie scene, this festival is a good start.
- Sydney Fringe Festival. Features fringe art in the form of film, TV, performance and sport.
- Soundwave Festival. An Australia-wide rock/alternative music festival that focuses primarily on heavy metal and punk rock. The festival is usually held in Sydney on the last Sunday of February. Previous headlining acts include System of a Down, Slipknot, Iron Maiden, Faith No More, Nine Inch Nails, The Offspring and Deftones.
- Good Vibrations Festival. A multi-genre festival held in February every year attracting major international acts like Fatboy Slim, Cypress Hill, Kanye West, Beastie Boys and Snoop Dogg.
- Future Music Festival. Held in late February every year, drawing in an enviable array of international and domestic artists like Paul Oakenfold, Basement Jaxx, N*E*R*D ft. Pharrell Williams, and CSS.
- Chinese New Year. Widely celebrated by Sydney's Chinese community, with the centre of festivities being at Chinatown. Look out for Lion dancing, Dragonboat races at Darling Harbour, and of course plenty of good food.
- Sydney Gay and Lesbian Mardi Gras. A festival organised by and for the gay community. It includes sports, cultural and arts events that run throughout February, culminating in the Mardi Gras parade in Darlinghurst on the first Saturday of March each year. The festival began as a street protest, and has grown into a huge celebration.
- Royal Easter Show. Is the major agricultural show in New South Wales, and is held around Easter each year at Sydney Olympic Park. Farmers from all over the state come to show their prize produce. But it isn't just an agricultural show: a huge number of amusement ride operators set up for the show as well, together with vendors of the worst kind of child baiting junk food: fairy floss and deep fried hot dogs (known as "dagwood dogs" or "pluto pups").
- Sydney French Film Festival (The Alliance Francaise French Film Festival).Offers an impressive and ambitious panoramic view of contemporary French cinema, screening the films at Palace Academy Twin in Oxford St, Darlinghurst, Verona in Paddington & Norton Street in Leichhardt.
- Cockatoo Island Festival. 25-27 March. Where lots of friendly people enjoy a fabulous mixture of music and culture while discovering one of Sydney's best kept secrets.
- Sydney German Film Festival (Audi Festival of German Films in Australia).Shows contemporary German films.
- Vivid Sydney. Sydney illuminated and on fire
- Biennale of Sydney. A contemporary arts and multimedia festival held in winter in even numbered years.
- Sydney Film Festival. Shows over 200 movies in 16 days, including an enormous number of Australian movies, most of which will premiere at the festival.
- Arabic Film Festival. Shows dozens of movies over a week at Parramatta.
- Lavazza Italian Film Festival. Showcases the finest that Italian cinema has to offer, picking contemporary films from the vibrant Rome International Film Festival to the more established events such as the prestigious Berlinale and the world-famous Cannes Film Festival; and a selection of Italian Classics from the archives of the Cinecittà Studios in Rome.
- Sydney Underground Film Festival. The festival programs unique, quality independent films that transgress the status quo and challenge the conservative conventions of film making. The festival is devoted to renewing local interest in independent and experimental film as part of an international underground film culture and aims to change an ingrained culture of cinematic complacency and revitalise an enthusiasm for cinema.
- Crave Sydney. Showcases the city's best restaurants, established and up-and-coming young chefs, food and wine culture. "Hats off dinners", the night noodle markets at Hyde Park, and hands-on cooking classes. Food festivals and markets all around Sydney
- Musica Viva Festival. Sydney's premier chamber music festival. The festival presents a rich feast of masterworks and musical treasures played by some of the world's finest practitioners, interspersed with music of different cultures.
- Sculpture by the Sea. Join tens of thousands of Sydneysiders as they take a leisurely walk between Bondi Beach and Tamarama Beach to admire the numerous larger than life sculptures set up at both beaches and along the walk. Bring a camera to take snaps of the weird and wonderful exhibits.
- Homebake. A rock/alternative/dance festival featuring only Australian acts. It is held in the Domain in the city centre.
- Carols in the Domain. Held annually in the Domain in the city centre on the last Saturday before Christmas. Attracts around 100,000 people (so plan to get in there early for a good spot) with candles sing along as night falls.
- New Year's Eve. Features massive displays of pyrotechnics around Sydney Harbour and the Harbour Bridge (including fireworks shot from the bridge itself). There are two shows, a "family show" at 9PM, and the major fireworks display at midnight. Immediately following the 9PM Family Fireworks, the spectacular Harbour of Light Parade begins. Over 50 vessels make a majestic passage on a 15km circuit around the Harbour, featuring illuminated emblems representing the Sydney New Year's Eve theme, glittering either on their hulls or masts. Many of the hotels and bars near the Harbour hold special parties with high cover charges, and boat cruises sell for a premium. Or get in early for the free alternative with some cheese, fruits, wine, picnic blanket and some friends on a warm summer night by the harbour. Save some sympathy for Northern Hemisphere cousins freezing in Times Square waiting for all the excitement of a ball dropping by a couple of metres.
Sydney has an enormous number of places to drink and party. Thanks to recent changes in legislation, there is now a burgeoning scene for quirky and unique small bars, and the city's cultural life has enjoyed a refreshing growth in night-time choices. There's a litany of clubs and venues for entertainment, and as with most Australian cities, Sydney has a strong live music scene. The majority of pubs and smaller clubs close before 3AM and some as early as 12AM, particularly if there are nearby residents. A limited number of venues have 24-hour licenses.
You cannot enter any venue in the Sydney CBD (that is, East to Woolloomooloo and Kings' Cross, West to Darling Harbour, North to the bridge or South to Central Station) after 1:30am, and last drinks will be called at 3:00am. However, there are lots of bars outside the lockout zone.
Busy venues will have door staff checking photo identification to determine that you are over 18. Admission is also commonly refused to those who seem visibly drunk. More popular venues have discriminatory door practices, the most common of which is refusing entry to groups of men who are not accompanied by women. Some pubs and most clubs will admit children accompanied by adults as long as they don't approach the bar or enter an area where there is gambling, particularly earlier in the evening. Check with staff at the venue. Some pubs don't provide a nice environment for children some nights.
Many places have at least a basic dress code, enforced all hours in the city, and usually after 7pm in the suburbs. For most generic pubs, men should wear closed toe shoes (not running sneakers), full-length pants, and a shirt with sleeves (not a singlet). For clubs, men should don neat business-style shoes. In almost all cases, women can dress more freely, but a small number of places require closed shoes or dressy sandals or high heels.
Many pubs are called hotels, but only very few can ever offer you a place to sleep. Hotel pubs are usually found on a street corner with at least one ground-floor bar, and are usually a few floors high (though not all floors may be open to the public).
Entry charges for live music or DJs are usual and range from $5 to $30 depending on clientèle. Entry charges are rare if you're going into a pub for a drink.
There is a taxi shift change at 3AM, and it is notoriously difficult to catch a taxi anywhere between 2:30AM and 3:30AM.
Some types of nightlife are concentrated in particular areas:
- Backpackers drink near the hostels, and will find a lot of fellow budget travellers in pubs in the Eastern Suburbs Beaches like Bondi Beach and Kings Cross in the City East
- In some ways Irish pubs are a global phenomenon, but they've certainly taken Sydney by storm. Irish pubs are concentrated in both The Rocks area and thesouthern area of the city. They are outrageously popular on the 17th March for St Patrick's Day.
- Sydney's large gay scene is concentrated on Oxford Street in City East although it still has a large range of pubs and clubs for all ranges of sexuality and is a prominent nightspot for many party-goers. Sydney's queer community also can often be found on King Street in Newtown which offers a more relaxed place to gather and far fewer yobs.
- Sydney's bohemians, artists, and students mostly hang about in the Inner West. King Street in Newtown is littered with great joints. Try the Midnight Shift or Corridor for awesome music and a low key vibe. Bloodwood is a must for killer Bloody Marys. The Courthouse is everyones local, either that or the Town Hall Hotel, which is open the latest on the strip. Hook round to Erskineville Rd. for even more choice of unique places. A meal at The Rose on a sunny afternoon is a must. Opposite the Hive Bar will have eccentric DJs spinning rare dub 45's. Surry Hills is also a hot spot, with many of the larger venues that host bigger events. The Oxford Arts Factory and The Standard, both on Oxford St., are two great venues where you'll catch larger touring bands and other acts. Yulli's on Crown St have excellent drinks. The Flinders host local bands and has an American dive bar flavour. Try student bars Manning at Sydney Uni, the Roundhouse at UNSW and the Loft at UTS which all offer pleasant, hassle free environments, and no one checks if you're a student. Manning Bar is also great for a meal as they have their Manning BBQ. The Clare opposite UTS on Broadway, though very ratty looking, is a similarly popular place for students. There are many great bars and pubs on Broadway, such as the Lansdowne Hotel which also offers cheap lunch meals for $5-6 on some days of the week.
- Nightclubs are mostly found in the Kings Cross area. This is the central party district for late club nights. In addition to this there are clubs in the CBD, Surry Hills (along Oxford St.), and Darling Harbour. Try The Kings Cross Hotel for many levels of local bands and DJs. Nearby the World Bar is a must for more great entertainment. GoodGod Small Bar and Danceteria in the CBD absolutely has the best vibe and music in town.
- Sydney has a big scene for microbreweries, including The Lord Nelson (The Rocks), The Schwartz Brewery (City), Young Henry's (Newtown) and the Local Taphouse (Surry Hills).
- Business pubs also cater to the city crowd: lawyers, financiers and brokers and are very busy Friday nights when the city workers are let loose for the week.
There are many great nightclubs in Sydney, unfortunately they are very spread out so it would be a good idea to get an idea of were you want to go. Check guides in Friday's newspapers, or the free guides available in music stores and youth clothing stores.
Things to know
Sydney is one of the most cosmopolitan cities on the planet, with one third of its population born overseas. European settlement rapidly displaced the Aboriginal people of the Sydney area with colonists largely coming from England, Ireland and Scotland. The Australian goldrush attracted more immigrants, including a significant number of Chinese, with about one in six Australians with convict descent also having some Chinese ancestry. In the early 20th century, Sydney continued to attract immigrants - mostly from the U.K. and Ireland, with the White Australia Policy preventing non-European peoples (and even Southern Europeans) from settling. Australia's immigration patterns, and consequently, that of Sydney, changed significantly after WWII, when migrants began to arrive from countries as diverse as Italy, Greece, Germany, Holland, China, New Zealand, India, the Philippines, Poland, Lebanon, Iraq, Vietnam, Thailand, South Africa and the Pacific Islands. Sydney's culture, food and general outlook well reflect these contributions to the majority Anglo-Celtic institutions and social establishment.
Sydney is recognised worldwide for its vibrant gay community. Every year, the Sydney Gay and Lesbian Mardi Gras is celebrated on the first weekend in March, drawing people from all over Australia and the world for the celebrations.
Sydney was the centre of the world's attention in September 2000 when the city hosted the Summer Olympics - officially announced by the IOC Chairman at the closing Ceremony to be the "the best games ever"! The Olympics saw a major building and renovation program take hold of Sydney, positioning it as one of the great world cities of the 21st century.
Sydney’s skyline is large and widely recognisable. Sydney also possesses a wide diversity of modern and old architectural styles. They range from the simple Francis Greenway's Georgian buildings to Jorn Utzon’s Expressionist Sydney Opera House. Sydney also has many Victorian buildings, such as the Sydney Town Hall and the Queen Victoria Building. The most architecturally significant structures include the Sydney Opera House and the Sydney Harbour Bridge. Skyscrapers in Sydney are also large and modern. The tallest building is the 300m tall Sydney Tower, seen rising clearly above the rest of the Sydney skyline.
There are also pockets of architecturally significant housing dotted around Sydney's suburbs. The inner-eastern suburb of Paddington is known for its terrace houses, while several inner-west suburbs contain streets lined with so-called federation houses (built around the time of Australian federation in 1901). A well preserved example of federation houses in Sydney is in the Inner West suburb of Burwood. Appian Way is a circular street built around a lawn tennis courts complete with pavilion house. The large houses are all architecturally unique and built on large expanses of land featuring old trees and lovely gardens. Further away on the lower North Shore, Castlecrag is a unique suburb, being planned by the architect Walter Burley Griffin in the 1930s.
Safety in Sydney
The Australia-wide emergency number is 000, with the ambulance service, fire department and police being available through this number.
Be on the lookout for the usual big city petty crime problems. Lock your car, and keep valuables safe or hidden. People begging may ask for money or cigarettes, but they are generally harmless. They will often make up the usual stories about needing a train fare etc. Simply say "Sorry, no" and they will usually leave you alone.
Sydney has some of the violent crime issues that plague major cities, however, in general, no special precautions are required visiting the typical tourist areas during the day.
Most assaults in Sydney take place in or near pubs and nightclubs at night, and involve alcohol. Most involve young males as perpetrators and victims. Most robberies occur in nearby quiet laneways, or parks close to pubs and nightclubs at night. The most common perpetrators or robberies are drug addicts. For this reason, take care around Kings Cross, The Rocks, Oxford St, and in George St between Town Hall and Central Station, especially late at night on Fridays and Saturday nights. Avoid Redfern station late at night. Even changing trains at night is best done at Central rather than Redfern. Women should take extra care at bars and keep an alert companion at hand, especially in the central hostel area, and take precautions against spiked drinks.
Some areas of south-western and western Sydney have a reputation, generally gained by news reports of motorcycle and other gang related violence. However, if you want to venture out into these areas during the day, there is no exceptional risk. If you're planning to head way off the tourist trail to some suburban pub or nightclub for a night out, seek some local advice. It may be a nice pub, but it pays to be informed. Areas around railway stations tend to be hang-outs for youth gangs in Western Sydney, particularly on Friday and Saturday nights. Stay in company, and don't engage.
Public transport after dark
After 9PM, smaller outer suburban stations can be very quiet, and many are totally unstaffed after this time. The trains can also be empty when they get towards the end of the line at this time. Don't expect a taxi to be waiting at every station - only the major ones will have a well patronised taxi rank. Drunk people are common on trains late at night, particularly on Friday and Saturday nights. In the city centre, trains tend to be busy into the evening, and obnoxious behaviour is more common than any actual danger.
The main thing to remember when swimming at any beach is to swim between the yellow and red flags. These flags are places by the lifeguards and indicate the safest place to swim at the beach away from dangerous currents.
Sydney has no really dangerous jellyfish. Bluebottles (Portuguese Man-Of-War) are blueish-purple stingers that hit the Sydney beaches a couple of days every summer, when the wind direction is right. They have an air-bladder that floats on the water, and stinging tentacles. Often the air-bladder can be no bigger than a coin. You will see the evidence of them with their air-bags washed up on the beach if they are present. They can give a painful sting - even when on the beach - but it won't keep everyone out of the water. Apply a heat pack if you can, or ice, or salt water. The best way to remove the pain is to run the affected area under the hottest water you can stand. Vinegar is useless. Sometimes small transparent jellyfish appear in the harbour and estuaries. You can usually avoid any groups of them, but they are mostly harmless. More rarely larger purple jellyfish are in the harbour and other estuaries. If you see these in the estuaries, best to stay out of their way. Probably more of an issue to water skiers than to swimmers.
Sydney ocean beaches all have shark mesh nets around 100 metres out to sea, and are regularly patrolled by air for sharks. A shark alarm will sound if any are sighted, and you should get out of the water. The risk of shark attack swimming on a patrolled beach between the flags is low. Shark attacks are rare on Sydney beaches, but they have occurred. Advice is to avoid swimming in murky water after storms, or at dusk or at dawn, and to swim in the netted enclosures within the harbour and other estuaries.
If you need an ambulance, call 000.
Medical centres with general practitioners are available for minor ailments without an appointment around the city and suburbs. Expect to wait around an hour or so to see a doctor. Upfront charges are usually around $50 for a standard consultation, and most centres accept credit cards. Many medical centres remain open until 10PM or so, and a few remain open 24-hours.
Most hospitals in Sydney have emergency departments, but check before attending as some do not. Those emergency departments are open 24-hours.
Many pharmacies stay open after normal business hours, often in proximity to medical centres, and there are a few that stay open 24-hours. You can call +61 2 9467 7100 to find the location of your closest after hours pharmacy.