BERLIN

Germany

Berlin is the capital of Germany and one of the 16 states of Germany. With a population of 3.5 million people, it is the second most populous city proper and the seventh most populous urban area in the European Union. Located in northeastern Germany on the banks of Rivers Spree and Havel, it is the centre of the Berlin-Brandenburg Metropolitan Region, which has about six million residents from over 180 nations.

Info Berlin

introduction

Berlin is the capital of Germany and one of the 16 states of Germany. With a population of 3.5 million people, it is the second most populous city proper and the seventh most populous urban area in the European Union. Located in northeastern Germany on the banks of Rivers Spree and Havel, it is the centre of the Berlin-Brandenburg Metropolitan Region, which has about six million residents from over 180 nations.

Due to its location in the European Plain, Berlin is influenced by a temperate seasonal climate. Around one-third of the city's area is composed of forests, parks, gardens, rivers and lakes.

First documented in the 13th century and situated at the crossing of two important historic trade routes, Berlin became the capital of the Margraviate of Brandenburg (1417-1701), the Kingdom of Prussia (1701–1918), the German Empire (1871–1918), the Weimar Republic (1919–1933) and the Third Reich (1933–1945). Berlin in the 1920s was the third largest municipality in the world. After World War II, the city was divided; East Berlin became the capital of East Germany while West Berlin became a de facto West German exclave, surrounded by the Berlin Wall (1961–1989) and East Germany territory. Following German reunification in 1990, Berlin was once again designated as the capital of united Germany.

Berlin is a world city of culture, politics, media and science. Its economy is based on high-tech firms and the service sector, encompassing a diverse range of creative industries, research facilities, media corporations and convention venues.The metropolis is a popular tourist destination. Significant industries also include IT, pharmaceuticals, biomedical engineering, clean tech, biotechnology, construction and electronics.

Modern Berlin is home to renowned universities, orchestras, museums, entertainment venues and is host to many sporting events. Its urban setting has made it a sought-after location for international film productions. The city is well known for its festivals, diverse architecture, nightlife, contemporary arts and a high quality of living. Over the last decade Berlin has seen the emergence of a cosmopolitan entrepreneurial scene.

info
POPULATION : City: 3,562,166 
FOUNDED :  1192
TIME ZONE : CET (UTC+1)  Summer: CEST (UTC+2)
LANGUAGE : German
RELIGION : Irreligious 60%, Protestants 18.7%, Roman Catholics 9.1, Muslims 8.1%
AREA : 891.85 km2 (344.35 sq mi)
ELEVATION : 34 m (112 ft)
COORDINATES : 52°31′N 13°23′E
SEX RATIO : Male: 49.08% 
 Female: 50.92%
ETHNIC : German 75%, Others (180 different nat.) 25%
AREA CODE : 030
POSTAL CODE : 10115–14199
DIALING CODE :
WEBSITE : www.berlin.de/en/

Tourism

Berlin is best known for its historical associations as the German capital, internationalism and tolerance, lively nightlife, its many cafés, clubs, and bars, street art, and numerous museums, palaces, and other sites of historic interest. Berlin's architecture is quite varied. Although badly damaged in the final years of World War II and broken apart during the Cold War, Berlin has reconstructed itself greatly, especially with the reunification push after the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989.It is now possible to see representatives of many different historic periods in a short time within the city centre, from a few surviving medieval buildings near Alexanderplatz, to the ultra modern glass and steel structures at Potsdamer Platz. Because of its tumultuous history, Berlin remains a city with many distinctive neighbourhoods. And due to its long history as a cosmopolitan capital (first of Prussia later of Germany) it has attracted immigrants from all over the world for more than three hundred years now and many of them have left and continue to leave a distinctive mark on the city.

The city recorded 28.7 million overnight hotel stays and 11.9 million hotel guests in 2014.Tourism figures have more than doubled within the last ten years and Berlin has become the third most-visited city destination in Europe. The largest visitor groups are from Germany, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Italy, Spain and the United States.

Berlin is among the top three congress cities in the world. The Messe Berlin is the main convention organizing company in the city. Its main exhibition area covers more than 160,000 square metres. Several large-scale trade fairs like the consumer electronics trade fair IFA, the ILA Berlin Air Show, the Berlin Fashion Week (including the Bread and Butter tradeshow), the Green Week, the transport fair InnoTrans, the tourism fair ITB and the adult entertainment and erotic fair Venus are held annually in the city, attracting a significant number of business visitors.

Berlin is — at least in many parts — a beautiful city, so allow enough time to get to see the sights. A good map is highly recommended. While the public transport system is superb, it can be confusing to visitors, due to a lack of directional signs in some of the larger stations, so a good transit map is also essential. Be sure to note the final station/stop of the S-bahn or U-bahn, since that is usually the way direction of travel is indicated. Roads into Berlin can also be confusing, so study your route and drive carefully. Signs point to city boroughs or districts rather than indicating compass directions, so it's a good idea to get to know where the various boroughs or districts lie in relation to each other. This also applies to cyclists.

Berlin's Tourist Information Office is an excellent resource for finding out more about Berlin, providing a wealth of practical information and useful hyperlinks.

History

12th to 16th centuries

The earliest evidence of settlements in the area of today's Berlin are a wooden rod dated from approximately 1192 and leftovers of wooden houseparts dated to 1174 found in a 2012 excavation in Berlin Mitte.The first written records of towns in the area of present-day Berlin date from the late 12th century. Spandau is first mentioned in 1197 and Köpenick in 1209, although these areas did not join Berlin until 1920.The central part of Berlin can be traced back to two towns. Cölln on the Fischerinsel is first mentioned in a 1237 document, and Berlin, across the Spree in what is now called the Nikolaiviertel, is referenced in a document from 1244. 1237 is considered the founding date of the city. The two towns over time formed close economic and social ties, and profited from the staple right on the two important trade routes Via Imperii and from Brügge to Novgorod. In 1307, they formed an alliance with a common external policy, their internal administrations still being separated.

In 1415, Frederick I became the elector of the Margraviate of Brandenburg, which he ruled until 1440. During the 15th century, his successors established Berlin-Cölln as capital of the margraviate, and subsequent members of the Hohenzollern family ruled in Berlin until 1918, first as electors of Brandenburg, then as kings of Prussia, and eventually as German emperors. In 1443, Frederick II Irontooth started the construction of a new royal palace in the twin city Berlin-Cölln. The protests of the town citizens against the building culminated in 1448, in the "Berlin Indignation" ("Berliner Unwille"). This protest was not successful and the citizenry lost many of its political and economic privileges. After the royal palace was finished in 1451, it gradually came into use. From 1470, with the new elector Albrecht III Achilles, Berlin-Cölln became the new royal residence. Officially, the Berlin-Cölln palace became permanent residence of the Brandenburg electors of the Hohenzollerns from 1486, when John Cicero came to power.Berlin-Cölln, however, had to give up its status as a free Hanseatic city. In 1539, the electors and the city officially became Lutheran.


17th to 19th centuries

The Thirty Years' War between 1618 and 1648 devastated Berlin. One third of its houses were damaged or destroyed, and the city lost half of its population. Frederick William, known as the "Great Elector", who had succeeded his father George William as ruler in 1640, initiated a policy of promoting immigration and religious tolerance. With the Edict of Potsdam in 1685, Frederick William offered asylum to the FrenchHuguenots. By 1700, approximately 30 percent of Berlin's residents were French, because of the Huguenot immigration. Many other immigrants came from Bohemia, Poland, and Salzburg.

Since 1618, the Margraviate of Brandenburg had been in personal union with the Duchy of Prussia. In 1701, the dual state formed the Kingdom of Prussia, as Frederick III, Elector of Brandenburg crowned himself as king Frederick I in Prussia. Berlin became the capital of the new Kingdom. This was a successful attempt to centralise the capital in the very outspread state, and it was the first time the city began to grow. In 1709, Berlin merged with the four cities of Cölln, Friedrichswerder, Friedrichstadt and Dorotheenstadt under the name Berlin, "Haupt- und Residenzstadt Berlin".

In 1740, Frederick II, known as Frederick the Great (1740–1786), came to power. Under the rule of Frederick II, Berlin became a center of the Enlightenment, but also, was briefly occupied during the Seven Years' War by the Russian army.Following France's victory in the War of the Fourth Coalition, Napoleon Bonaparte marched into Berlin in 1806, but granted self-government to the city. In 1815, the city became part of the new Province of Brandenburg.

The Industrial Revolution transformed Berlin during the 19th century; the city's economy and population expanded dramatically, and it became the main railway hub and economic centre of Germany. Additional suburbs soon developed and increased the area and population of Berlin. In 1861, neighbouring suburbs including Wedding, Moabit and several others were incorporated into Berlin. In 1871, Berlin became capital of the newly founded German Empire. In 1881, it became a city district separate from Brandenburg.


20th to 21st centuries

In the early 20th century, Berlin had become a fertile ground for the German Expressionist movement. In fields such as architecture,painting and cinema new forms of artistic styles were invented. At the end of the First World War in 1918, a republic was proclaimed by Philipp Scheidemann at the Reichstag building. In 1920, the Greater Berlin Act incorporated dozens of suburban cities, villages and estates around Berlin into an expanded city. The act increased the area of Berlin from 66 to 883 km2 (25 to 341 sq mi). The population almost doubled and Berlin had a population of around four million. During the Weimar era, Berlin underwent political unrest due to economic uncertainties, but also became a renowned centre of the Roaring Twenties. The metropolis experienced its heyday as a major world capital and was known for its leadership roles in science, technology, arts, the humanities, city planning, film, higher education, government and industries. Albert Einstein rose to public prominence during his years in Berlin, being awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1921.

In 1933, Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Partycame to power. NSDAP rule diminished Berlin's Jewish community from 160,000 (one-third of all Jews in the country) to about 80,000 as a result of emigration between 1933 and 1939. AfterKristallnacht in 1938, thousands of the city's Jews were imprisoned in the nearby Sachsenhausen concentration camp. Starting in early 1943, many were shipped to death camps, such as Auschwitz. During World War II, large parts of Berlin were destroyed in the 1943–45 air raids and during the Battle of Berlin. Around 125,000 civilians were killed. After the end of the war in Europe in May 1945, Berlin received large numbers of refugees from the Eastern provinces. The victorious powers divided the city into four sectors, analogous to the occupation zones into which Germany was divided. The sectors of the Western Allies (the United States, the United Kingdom and France) formed West Berlin, while the Soviet sector formed East Berlin.

All four Allies shared administrative responsibilities for Berlin. However, in 1948, when the Western Allies extended the currency reform in the Western zones of Germany to the three western sectors of Berlin, the Soviet Union imposed a blockade on the access routes to and from West Berlin, which lay entirely inside Soviet-controlled territory. The Berlin airlift, conducted by the three western Allies, overcame this blockade by supplying food and other supplies to the city from June 1948 to May 1949. In 1949, the Federal Republic of Germany was founded in West Germany and eventually included all of the American, British and French zones, excluding those three countries' zones in Berlin, while the Marxist-Leninist German Democratic Republic was proclaimed in East Germany. West Berlin officially remained an occupied city, but it politically was aligned with the Federal Republic of Germany despite West Berlin's geographic isolation. Airline service to West Berlin was granted only to American, British and French airlines.

The founding of the two German states increased Cold War tensions. West Berlin was surrounded by East German territory, and East Germany proclaimed the Eastern part as its capital, a move that was not recognised by the western powers. East Berlin included most of the historic centre of the city. The West German government established itself in Bonn. In 1961, East Germany began the building of the Berlin Wall between East and West Berlin, and events escalated to a tank standoff at Checkpoint Charlie. West Berlin was now de facto a part of West Germany with a unique legal status, while East Berlin was de facto a part of East Germany.John F. Kennedy gave his "Ich bin ein Berliner" – speech in 1963 underlining the US support for the Western part of the city. Berlin was completely divided. Although it was possible for Westerners to pass from one to the other side through strictly controlled checkpoints, for most Easterners travel to West Berlin or West Germany was prohibited by the government of East Germany. In 1971, a Four-Power agreement guaranteed access to and from West Berlin by car or train through East Germany.

In 1989, with the end of the Cold War and pressure from the East German population, the Berlin Wall fell on 9 November and was subsequently mostly demolished. Today, the East Side Gallery preserves a large portion of the wall. On 3 October 1990, the two parts of Germany were reunified as the Federal Republic of Germany and Berlin again became the official German capital. In 1991, the German Parliament, the Bundestag, voted to move the seat of the German capital from Bonn to Berlin, which was completed in 1999. On 18 June 1994, soldiers from the United States, France and Britain marched in a parade which was part of the ceremonies to mark the final withdrawal of foreign troops allowing a reunified Berlin. Berlin's 2001 administrative reform merged several districts. The number of boroughs was reduced from 23 to 12. In 2006, the FIFA World Cup Final was held in Berlin.

Climate

Berlin has a Maritime temperate climate.

There are significant influences of mild continental climate due to its inland position, with frosts being common in winter and there being larger temperature differences between seasons than typical for many oceanic climates.

Summers are warm and sometimes humid with average high temperatures of 22–25 °C (72–77 °F) and lows of 12–14 °C (54–57 °F).

Winters are cool with average high temperatures of 3 °C (37 °F) and lows of −2 to 0 °C (28 to 32 °F).

Spring and autumn are generally chilly to mild. Berlin's built-up area creates a microclimate, with heat stored by the city's buildings. Temperatures can be 4 °C (7 °F) higher in the city than in the surrounding areas.

Climate data for Berlin

MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)15.5
(59.9)
18.7
(65.7)
24.8
(76.6)
31.3
(88.3)
35.5
(95.9)
35.9
(96.6)
38.1
(100.6)
38.0
(100.4)
34.2
(93.6)
28.1
(82.6)
20.5
(68.9)
16.0
(60.8)
38.1
(100.6)
Average high °C (°F)2.9
(37.2)
4.2
(39.6)
8.5
(47.3)
13.2
(55.8)
18.9
(66)
21.6
(70.9)
23.7
(74.7)
23.6
(74.5)
18.8
(65.8)
13.4
(56.1)
7.1
(44.8)
4.4
(39.9)
13.36
(56.05)
Daily mean °C (°F)0.6
(33.1)
1.4
(34.5)
4.8
(40.6)
8.9
(48)
14.3
(57.7)
17.1
(62.8)
19.2
(66.6)
18.9
(66)
14.5
(58.1)
9.7
(49.5)
4.7
(40.5)
2.0
(35.6)
9.67
(49.42)
Average low °C (°F)−1.9
(28.6)
−1.5
(29.3)
1.3
(34.3)
4.2
(39.6)
9.0
(48.2)
12.3
(54.1)
14.3
(57.7)
14.1
(57.4)
10.6
(51.1)
6.4
(43.5)
2.2
(36)
−0.4
(31.3)
5.88
(42.59)
Record low °C (°F)−23.1
(−9.6)
−26.0
(−14.8)
−16.5
(2.3)
−8.1
(17.4)
−4.0
(24.8)
1.5
(34.7)
5.4
(41.7)
3.5
(38.3)
−1.5
(29.3)
−9.6
(14.7)
−16.0
(3.2)
−20.5
(−4.9)
−26.0
(−14.8)
              
Source: World Meteorological Organization (UN)

Geography

Berlin is situated in northeastern Germany, in an area of low-lying marshy woodlands with a mainly flat topography, part of the vast Northern European Plainwhich stretches all the way from northern France to western Russia. TheBerliner Urstromtal (an ice age glacial valley), between the low Barnim Plateau to the north and the Teltow Plateau to the south, was formed by meltwater flowing from ice sheets at the end of the last Weichselian glaciation. The Spree follows this valley now. In Spandau, a borough in the west of Berlin, the Spree empties into the river Havel, which flows from north to south through western Berlin. The course of the Havel is more like a chain of lakes, the largest being the Tegeler See and the Großer Wannsee. A series of lakes also feeds into the upper Spree, which flows through the Großer Müggelsee in eastern Berlin.

Substantial parts of present-day Berlin extend onto the low plateaus on both sides of the Spree Valley. Large parts of the boroughs Reinickendorf and Pankow lie on the Barnim Plateau, while most of the boroughs ofCharlottenburg-Wilmersdorf, Steglitz-Zehlendorf, Tempelhof-Schöneberg, andNeukölln lie on the Teltow Plateau.

The borough of Spandau lies partly within the Berlin Glacial Valley and partly on the Nauen Plain, which stretches to the west of Berlin. Since 2015, the highest elevation in Berlin is found on the Arkenberge hills in Pankow, at 122 m (400 ft). Through the dumping of construction debris, they surpassed Teufelsberg(120.1 m), a hill made of rubble from the ruins of the Second World War. The highest natural elevation is found on the Müggelberge at 114.7 m, and the lowest at the Spektesee in Spandau, at 28.1 m (92 ft).

Economy

In 2015, the nominal GDP of the citystate Berlin totaled €124.16 (~$142) billion compared to €117.75 in 2014, an increase of about 5.4%. Berlin's economy is dominated by the service sector, with around 84% of all companies doing business in services. In 2015, the total labour force in Berlin was 1.85 million. The unemployment rate reached a 24-year low in November 2015 and stood at 10.0% . From 2012–2015 Berlin as a German state had the highest annual employment growth rate. Around 130.000 jobs were added in this period.

Important economic sectors in Berlin include life sciences, transportation, information and communication technologies, media and music, advertising and design, biotechnology, environmental services, construction, e-commerce, retail, hotel business, and medical engineering.

Research and development have economic significance for the city. The metropolitan region ranks among the top-3 innovative locations in the EU. The Science and Business Park in Adlershof is the largest technology park in Germany measured by revenue. Within the Eurozone, Berlin has become a center for business relocation and international investments.


Companies

Many German and international companies have business or service centers in the city. For several years Berlin has been recognized as a major center of business founders. In 2015, Berlin generated the most venture capital for young startup companies in Europe.

Among the 10 largest employers in Berlin are the City-State of Berlin, Deutsche Bahn, the hospital provider Charité and Vivantes, the local public transport provider BVG, and Deutsche Telekom.

Daimler manufactures cars, and BMW builds motorcycles in Berlin. Bayer Health Care and Berlin Chemie are major pharmaceutical companies headquartered in the city. The second largest German airline Air Berlin is based there as well.

Siemens, a Global 500 and DAX-listed company is partly headquartered in Berlin. The national railway operator Deutsche Bahn and the MDAX-listed firms Axel Springer SE and Zalando have their headquarters in the central districts. Berlin has a cluster of rail technology companies and is the German headquarter or site to Bombardier Transportation, Siemens Mobility, Stadler Rail and Thales Transportation.

Subdivisions

The city is divided into 12 districts( boroughs):

Charlottenburg-Wilmersdorf 
Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg 
Lichtenberg 
Marzahn-Hellersdorf 
Mitte 
Neukölln 
Pankow 
Reinickendorf 
Spandau 
Steglitz-Zehlendorf 
Tempelhof-Schöneberg 
Treptow-Köpenick 


Berlin can be seen as a cluster of centres. Berlin has many boroughs (Bezirke), and each borough is composed of several localities (Kiez or Viertel) — each of these boroughs and localities have their unique style. Some boroughs of Berlin are more worthy of a visitor's attention than others. In January 2001, the number of boroughs was reduced from 23 to 12 for administrative purposes - mostly by fusing old boroughs together - sometimes across the former inner-Berlin border. The boroughs can roughly be grouped into six districts:

Mitte (Mitte)
The historical centre of Berlin, the nucleus of the former East Berlin, and the emerging city centre. Cafés, restaurants, museums, galleries, and clubs are abundant throughout the district, along with many sites of historic interest.
 City West (Charlottenburg, Wilmersdorf, Schöneberg, Tiergarten)
Ku'Damm (short for Kurfürstendamm) is, along with Tauentzienstraße, one of the main shopping streets in former West Berlin, especially for luxury goods. Many great restaurants and hotels are here and also on the side roads. The district also contains the Schloss Charlottenburg, Tiergarten and the Olympic Stadium. Schöneberg is generally a cosy area for ageing hippies, young families, and LGBT people.
 East Central (Friedrichshain, Kreuzberg, Prenzlauer Berg)
Associated with the left wing youth culture, artists, and Turkish immigrants, this district is somewhat noisier than most, packed with lots of cafés, bars, clubs, and trendy shops, but also with some museums in Kreuzberg near the border to Mitte. These districts are undergoing gentrification as they are popular with students, artists and media professionals.
 North (Spandau, Reinickendorf, Weißensee, Pankow, Wedding)
Spandau and Reinickendorf are beautiful old towns, which feel much more spacious than the inner city. Pankow was once synonymous with the East German government, and the villas the East German "socialist" leaders inhabited still exist.
 East (Lichtenberg, Hohenschönhausen, Marzahn, Hellersdorf)
The museum at the site of the 1945 surrender to the Soviet army is of interest, as is the former Stasi prison, an essential visit for anyone interested in East German history. Marzahn-Hellersdorf's reputation for being a vast collection of dull high-rise apartment blocks is undeserved because it is the home of the "Gardens of the World" , a large park where various ethnic styles of garden design are explored.
 South (Steglitz, Zehlendorf, Tempelhof, Neukölln, Treptow, Köpenick)
The South is a mixed bag of different boroughs. Zehlendorf is one of the greenest and wealthiest boroughs in Berlin, while Neukölln is one of the city's poorest. The Northern part of Neukölln (sometimes labeled "Kreuzkölln") is becoming gentrified. Köpenick's swaths of forest around Berlin's largest lake, Müggelsee, and the nice old town of Köpenick itself beg to be discovered on bikes and using the S-Bahn.

Internet, Comunication

You can find internet cafes and telephone shops all around Berlin. Do a bit of research with the telephone shops because most have a focus region in the world. Many bars, restaurants and cafes offer free wi-fi for their guests. The ubiquitous Einstein Coffee offers 30 minutes of free wifi for all patrons.

The mobile network (3G/GPRS/GSM) covers the whole city. If you are coming from a non-GSM standard country (e.g. the United States) check your mobile phone for GSM compatibility. Note: The GSM iPhone, which works with AT&T and T-Mobile in the U.S., works perfectly in Berlin.

A free wireless network covers parts of Berlin, but requires special software on your computer. More information including maps of Berlin with coverage is available online.

Prices in Berlin

PRICES LIST - USD

MARKET / SUPERMARKET

Milk1 liter€0.74
Tomatoes1 kg€2.05
Cheese0.5 kg€8.90
Apples1 kg€1.90
Oranges1 kg€2.10
Beer (domestic)0.5 l€0.85
Bottle of Wine1 bottle€5.00
Coca-Cola2 liters€1.70
Bread1 piece€1.15
Water1.5 l€0.40

PRICES LIST - USD

RESTAURANTS

Dinner (Low-range)for 2€25.00
Dinner (Mid-range)for 2€40.00
Dinner (High-range)for 2€50.00
Mac Meal or similar1 meal€7.00
Water0.33 l€1.45
Cappuccino1 cup€2.40
Beer (Imported)0.33 l€3.10
Beer (domestic)0.5 l€2.90
Coca-Cola0.33 l€1.70
Coctail drink1 drink€7.00

PRICES LIST - USD

ENTERTAINMENT

Cinema2 tickets€18.00
Gym1 month€42.00
Men’s Haircut1 haircut€17.00
Theatar2 tickets€110.00
Mobile (prepaid)1 min.€0.09
Pack of Marlboro1 pack€5.85

PRICES LIST - USD

PERSONAL CARE

Antibiotics1 pack€7.00
Tampons32 pieces€2.85
Deodorant50 ml.€2.55
Shampoo400 ml.€2.30
Toilet paper4 rolls€1.35
Toothpaste1 tube€1.50

PRICES LIST - USD

CLOTHES / SHOES

Jeans (Levis 501 or similar)1€74.00
Dress summer (Zara, H&M)1€29.00
Sport shoes (Nike, Adidas)1€79.00
Leather shoes1€95.00

PRICES LIST - USD

TRANSPORTATION

Gasoline1 liter€1.40
TaxiStart€3.80
Taxi1 km€2.00
Local Transport1 ticket€2.60

Tourist (Backpacker)  

51 € per day

Estimated cost per 1 day including:

  • meals in cheap restaurant
  • public transport
  • cheap hotel

Tourist (business/regular)  

191 € per day

Estimated cost per 1 day including:

  • mid-range meals and drinks
  • transportation
  • hotel

Transportation - Get In

As the city was divided into two during the Cold War, many major parts of Berlin's infrastructure — such as airports — were built on both sides. The challenge today is to merge these two systems into one that serves all the people in the Metropolitan Berlin area.

Transportation - Get In

By plane

Berlin has inherited airports from both sides of the former Berlin Wall. West Berlin, for which air transportation was crucial, had two at the moment of reunification: Tegel Airport (IATA: TXL), which remains the major airport for Berlin as of 2016, and Tempelhof Airport, which was closed and turned into a public park and fairgrounds. East Germany was using the Schönefeld Airport (IATA: SXF) right outside the southeastern border of the city proper, which also remains operational as of 2016.

There is a grand plan to merge all airport operations in the still-under-construction Berlin-Brandenburg Airport (IATA: BER), which is being built on the extended grounds of Schönefeld. At its opening, both Tegel and the former Schönefeld airports will close. The opening itself had been scheduled for 2011 and has since been postponed many times due to construction and safety issues. Every few months a new date is announced and, therefore, much of the tourist information has been published in recent years with the "impending" opening of BER and closure of TXL and SXF in mind. Bear in mind that until the BER airport is opened, those remain incorrect and there is no passenger traffic to and from BER and much of the infrastructure there not functional. The airport is scheduled to open in late 2017, but given its track record, many Berliners (scratch that, most Germans) are skeptical.

On the other hand, because TXL and SXF were scheduled to close, they have not been updated for the past years, while they are in dire need of update and expansion given the current traffic volumes and advances in air travel. In particular TXL found itself handling far more traffic than it was designed for. In comparison with other, usually very well-planned and cutting-edge German airports, experiencing the airports of Berlin can be a disappointment until BER opens.

Carriers frequently switched between TXL and SXF in recent years and, although one carrier tends to serve one airport only, there is a very mixed bundle of connections from every airport. Make sure you know which airport you are arriving at, especially if you have a connection to meet, and if you've been sold a ticket to "BER" before it becomes operational.


Tegel

Tegel International Airport (IATA:TXL) is in the north-west of the city. It was the airport for West Berlin during the Cold War and today is the main airport for major flag carriers such as Air France, British Airways, KLM, Lufthansa and United. The original airport was designed as a hexagon but today two other terminals try to handle the flights of Air Berlin (most flights in Terminal C) and other budget carriers (mostly in terminal D). All flag carrier flights leave from the main terminal building A (Terminal B contains only the bus gates of Terminal A for Non-Schengen flights), and is also where all airlines lounges are. According to the plan this airport will close after the new BER airport starts operations.

Tegel has an unusually efficient structure because it was built as an origin-and-destination airport only, which resulted in very short walking distances between the taxi ranks and bus stops to the actual gates. The hexagonal structure of the main terminal allows individual gates to have their own check-in/luggage drop-off desks, security control and separate waiting areas. This makes flying out of the main terminal building a very swift and comfortable experience.

That said, connecting via Tegel may not be as comfortable, because you will probably need to go through security anyway, and there is quite a walk (outside!) between terminals, particularly Terminal C. Except for Terminal A, no gates have jetways and you will need to either be ferried by bus or actually walk from the plane to the terminal. The waiting space and shopping within Tegel is also limited and not really top-notch, although Air Berlin offers their frequent fliers separate "exclusive waiting areas" (not available to other oneworldfrequent fliers!) The luggage handling capacities of Tegel have long been exhausted, which sometimes leads to well-publicized massive "luggage lost" incidents on Air Berlin connecting flights.

Tegel Airport offers 60 minutes at a time (renewable) of free wireless Internet access, although the access is limited to Web access and doesn't support non-Web email clients, VPN, or SSH.


Airlines and connections

The airport is the home base for Germany's second largest carrier, Air Berlin, which operates direct short-haul flights to a wide selection of German and European cities and holiday destinations out of Tegel, and intercontinental flights to Chicago O'Hare and New York JFK. As Air Berlin is part-owned by the Emirati carrier Etihad, you can connect to the many global destinations in its network via Abu Dhabi, to which there are frequent flights from TXL. In a code-share with Hainan Airlines, Air Berlin also offers direct flights between Tegel and Beijing-Capital.

Air Berlin is also a member of oneworld, which means TXL is integrated in the connection networks of in. al. British Airways, Iberia, Finnair and Qatar Airways, all of which operate direct flights out of their hubs.

Meanwhile, Lufthansa is backing out of Tegel and leaving behind its low-cost sister carrier Germanwings, which is in the process of taking over the extensive network of TXL connections through 2013 and 2014, except for feeder services to Lufthansa's hubs in Duesseldorf, Frankfurt and Munich. There are no long-haul flights out of TXL on Lufthansa, but Star Alliance partner United Airlines continues to operate a direct connection to Newark.

Most European, North African and Middle Eastern Star Alliance airlines, as well as SkyTeam members, have direct flights out of their main hubs to TXL.


Travelling between Tegel Airport and Berlin

The only means of public transportation operating directly from the airport are buses. There are four bus lines, all operated by BVG and thus included in the same ticket scheme as the rest of Berlin. Tegel is in ticketing zone B, so it is covered by "zone AB", "zone BC" and "zone ABC" tickets. The four lines are:

  • TXL express bus to Alexanderplatz, stopping at the Hauptbahnhof, the Brandenburg Gate and the corner Unter den Linden and Friedrichstraße. The full travel time to Alexanderplatz is 39 minutes, while travel to Hauptbahnhof takes 22 minutes according to official schedules.
  • X9 express bus to Zoologischer Garten railway station, with only 6 stops along the way and a 20 minutes travel from terminus to terminus it is the fastest option to get into the city
  • 109 takes a longer route to Zoologischer Garten, stopping in many locations in West Berlin including Schloss Charlottenburg andAdenauerplatz. From Adenauerplatz onwards it traverses the most popular part of Kurfürstendamm. The full route to the terminus at Zoo takes 28 minutes.
  • 128 goes north-east from the airport to the U-Bahn station Osloer Straße in the north of the city, stopping at many local stops and taking 25 minutes to complete its route. It is of little use to most travellers, unless their specific destination lies close to that particular route.

All buses, both express and regular, require the same regular tickets and operate every 10 minutes (every 20 minutes in nighttime). All buses stop on the main (upper) deck of the Tegel ringroad - TXL and 128 stop in front of the main entrance of terminal A, while X9 and 109 around the corner, in front of the so-called Terminal B. There are automatic ticket machines at all bus stops selling all kinds of tickets and accepting cash (Euros) or credit cards. Berlin WelcomeCards can be bought at the tourist information kiosks in the airport terminal and sometimes from the BVG employees on duty at the bus stops (during peak travel times).

Tegel International Airport does not have any railway station. Do not take any train to the "Tegel railway (S-Bahn) station", which is not connected to the airport, but rather to the suburban village called Tegel. It is not possible to walk or to otherwise get easily to the airport from that station. Any indication to a Tegel railway station refers to the remote S-Bahn station, even if railway staff at stations in other cities might tell you otherwise. The nearest train stations are:

  • Jakob-Kaiser Platz on the U-Bahn line U7 (5 minutes from the airport with bus X9/109)
  • Kurt-Schumacher Platz on the U6 (10 minutes from the airport with bus 128)
  • Beusselstraße on the S-Bahn ring line S41/S42 (8 minutes from the airport with the TXL bus)

If you want to connect to mainline (long-distance) railway, you need to travel to Hauptbahnhof or Zoologischer Garten on either of the buses.


Schönefeld

Schönefeld Airport (IATA: SXF) southeast of Berlin, formerly serving East-Berlin, is the base for most low-cost airlines (including easyJet, Ryanair and Norwegian) and charter flights. Many carriers from Russia, former Soviet States and Eastern Europe continue to use SXF as their Berlin airport as they did in the days of East Germany, although a similar number of those have switched to TXL. There are also many charter and scheduled connections to Bulgaria and Israel.

The airport will close if and when BER airport starts full operations.


By train from Schönefeld Airport to Berlin

The airport is served by the S-Bahn and regional trains. The station is a short walk, under a covered, well-lit walkway opposite terminal A/B. There are two types of trains operating from that station - the slower but more frequent S-Bahn and the faster regional trains (Regionalbahn/Regional Express).

  • Regional trains (RE7 or RB14) are the only ones that go to the major train stations in the city centre over the northern part of the railway ring of Berlin. They depart once an hour each between 05:00 and 23:30, spaced about 30 minutes apart, which means you have two chances per hour to catch either of them. The journey takes approximately 25 minutes to/from Alexanderplatz; 30 minutes to/from Berlin Hauptbahnhof and 35 min to/from Zoologischer Garten. Other stations served within Berlin are Karlshorst, Ostbahnhof, Friedrichstrasse, Charlottenburg, Spandau (RB14 only) and Wannsee (R7 only).
    • Attention: While RE14 finishes its run at the airport, the RE7 goes further south to Wünsdorf-Waldstadt, so make sure you board the train going in the right direction (RE7 going from the airport to Berlin terminate at Dessau or Bad Belzig).
  • S-Bahn trains (S9 or S45) run every 20 minutes each (so there is a departure around every 10 minutes) until around 01:30. They do not, however, reach the city centre and stop at many more stations than the regional trains, so a journey to the centre using S-Bahn requires a longer ride and a change of trains.
    • The S9 runs through East Berlin to the northern district of Pankow, through the railway node of Ostkreuz. You can change to other S-Bahn lines along the way, to U-Bahn line U5 at Frankfurter Allee and U2 towards the end at Schönhauser Allee or Pankow. The journey times are to/from Ostkreuz and 45 minutes to/from Pankow.
    • the S45 connects to the circle-line (Ringbahn) and also runs along its southeastern stretch through in.al. stations Neukölln, Tempelhof andSchöneberg, serving the namesake districts, terminating at Bundesplatzin Willmersdorf. You can change to U-Bahn lines U4, U6, U7, U8 and U9 at various stations along the S45 route. You can also change to S-Bahn trains travelling on the north-south tunnel through the city centre atSüdkreuz.
  • Alternatively, you can take the express city bus line X7 from Schoenefeld Airport to U-Bahn line U7 terminus Rudow. The bus is direct (no intermediate stations) and takes just 7 minutes to complete the route, running every 10 minutes at daytime and 20 in nighttime. The U7 is a very long line serving most southern and western districts of Berlin well. The U7 does not go to the core city centre, but you can change from it to other lines that do.
  • Other city buses from Schoenefeld serve locations around the airport in Berlin and beyond, sometimes stopping at a railway station on their way, but they never afford any time gains over the direct train connections or X7.

The Schoenefeld Airport railway station is in Zone C of the BVG network, so you need a ticket covering all three zones (ABC), or a BC ticket if you do not intend to travel directly into the city centre. The same tickets are valid in both S-Bahn and regional trains if you travel from Schoenefeld Airport into Berlin. A single ABC ticket that will get you anywhere in Berlin costs €3.20 (regular fare ‘ABC’ single journey ticket - Einzelfahrschein). Stamp the ticket to validate it before boarding.

Check out timetables, platform numbers and fare prices on the BVG website

Transportation - Get In

By Train

Berlin is served by high speed ICE as well as somewhat slower InterCity and EuroCity trains operated by the national German railway corporation Deutsche Bahn (DB) which offers connections between Berlin and other German and major European cities.

Night trains from Amsterdam, Paris,Zurich, Vienna and Budapest run every day. Booked in advance they can be as cheap as €29. Popular with backpackers so reservations are strongly recommended. Unfortunately Deutsche Bahn is following a European trend away from night trains and has announced their intention to get out of the market in the near future. While the Austrian Railways have given a commitment to sleeper trains, it is uncertain which if any routes DB abandons they can and will serve.

Long-haul trains from Eastern European cities, Kaliningrad, Minsk, Moscow,Saint Petersburg and Warsaw among others, stop both at Hauptbahnhof and Ostbahnhof. Make sure you have a reservation because these lines are also very popular. Also, it's possible to travel on the once-weekly Sibirjak train from cities far away as Chelyabinsk, Novosibirsk, and Yekaterinburg. Unlike the routes mentioned above, they are run mostly by Russian Railways and not threatened with cancelation.

Domestic trains to Berlin include an ICE to Hamburg, an ICE to Munich (via Leipzig, expect travel times to go down once the new line is finished between Erfurt and Nuremberg in 2017), an IC/EC to Dresden and several "regional" trains among which the IRE to Hamburg (longer travel time than ICE, more intermediate stops) might be of interest due to its cheap fixed price (19.90 € one way, 29.90€ round trip)


Stations

During the times of its division, Berlin had two main train stations: Zoologischer Garten (colloquial name Bahnhof Zoo) in the West, and Ostbahnhof in the East. The new 'Hauptbahnhof' may be titled 'Lehrter Bahnhof' on older maps and is situated between the S-Bahn stations Friedrichstraße and Bellevue. Since the opening of the Hauptbahnhof, most ICE and international lines now bypass Zoologischer Garten, although it is still in operation for regional DB services and as an S+U-Bahn station.

The central station Hauptbahnhof (Central Station) together with Südkreuz (southern cross) and Ostbahnhof (eastern station) — plus minor Gesundbrunnen in the north and Spandau in the west — forms the backbone of all connections. All are connected to S- or U-Bahn. All trains travel through Hauptbahnhof and a second major hub (depending on the destination you travel to or arrive from). Trains in the regional area (Berlin and Brandenburg) mostly use these stations. Regional trains stop at several stations within Berlin. Hauptbahnhof itself is an impressive feat of architecture (opened in May 2006) with many shopping opportunities (most of them open on Sunday), but surprisingly short distances between trains given its size. However, try to avoid tight connections, as the multilevel layout can be confusing at first and Berlin Hauptbahnhof is a good place to kill half an hour at any rate.

Transportation - Get In

By Bus

Long distance buses arrive at Zentraler Omnibusbahnhof (Central Bus Terminal) in Charlottenburg, Masurenallee. There are numerous buses to all directions or do a 5-minute-walk to the U-Bahn (Theodor-Heuss-Platz orKaiserdamm or to the S-Bahn (Messe Nord/ICC). Follow signposting. Some bus lines have a second stop on several locations spread around Berlin. The bus station is not really close to anything and the limited services it offers are comparable in price to gas stations.

Transportation - Get In

By Car

Berlin is encircled by a motorway ring, the A10 Berliner Ring, which extends up to 30 km outside the city limits. These motorways (enumerated in a clockwise direction) connect with the ring:

  • A11 from Stettin at Dreieck Schwanebeck
  • A12 from Frankfurt (Oder)/Warsaw at Dreieck Spreeau
  • A13 from Dresden/Prague at Kreuz Schönefeld
  • A9 from Leipzig/Munich at Dreieck Potsdam
  • A2 from Hanover/Dortmund at Dreieck Werder
  • A24 from Hamburg at Dreieck Havelland.

From the ring, these are the motorways heading towards the city:

  • A111 from the northwest at Kreuz Oranienburg
  • A114 from the north at Dreieck Pankow
  • A113 from the southeast at Schönefelder Kreuz
  • A115 from the southwest at Dreieck Nuthetal.

There are also dual carriageways:

  • B96 from the north and the south
  • B2 from the northeast
  • B5 from the east and west
  • B101 from the south.

Inside Berlin there is a heavily congested inner ring motorway (A100), which encircles the north, west and south with the northeastern section missing. Berlin driving is not for the faint-hearted, but manageable as there are wide streets and reasonably good parking conditions - at least in most parts of the city. Orientation is easier than in most of the central European cities, once you get the hang of things: there are a couple of ring roads (like an onion) and several radiating trunk roads.

Berlin has a low emission zone (Umweltzone), which contains all areas within the S-Bahn ring. All vehicles moving inside this zone (including foreign vehicles) are required to bear a green emissions sticker (Feinstaubplakette). There are exceptions, e.g., for historic cars, but not for foreign number plates. Information on obtaining a sticker (which must be done at least several days in advance) is available here . The sticker can also be ordered on-line.

Transportation - Get In

By ship

Being 200 kilometres inland, Berlin does not have a seaport. The nearest seaport is Rostock-Warnemünde, which is between two and a half and three hours away by train, though still sold by many cruise ship operators as "Berlin", so don't be surprised. There are similar distances to the seaports of Hamburg and Szczecin.

Some river cruises start or end at Berlin, using Havel, Spree and some canals for cruises to Prague or the Baltic Sea. While river cruises in this area are nowhere near as popular as those along Rhine or Danube, there is some charming nature rather close to Berlin. Most cruises include a tour of Berlin as the river Spree runs close to many sights.


Transportation - Get Around

Berlin is a huge city. You can make use of the excellent bus, tram, train and underground services to get around. The Berliner Verkehrsbetriebe (BVG) have a detailed fare list on their web site. Consult their Berlin route planner (in English) to get excellent maps and schedules for the U-Bahn, buses, S-Bahn and trams, or to print your personal journey planner. The route planner can also calculate the fastest door-to-door connection for you destination for any given day and hour.

If you don't know how to get somewhere, or how to get home at night, call  +49 30 19449, the Customer Service of the BVG. There are also facilities in most U-Bahn and some S-Bahn stations to contact Customer Service directly. The BVG has Metro lines (buses and tram) that run 24 hours a day, seven days a week. All lines are marked with a big orange plate and a white M.

House numbers do not necessarily run in one direction (up or down). On a lot of streets, the numbers ascend on one side and descend on the other. Especially on long streets, check the numbering scheme first: you can find the name of the street and the numbers on that block at nearly every street corner.

Unlike some English-speaking countries, Germans usually add the word for "street", "square", "park", etc., when they mention the name of a locality. Thus, they would not simply refer to "Kurfürsten" when talking about Kurfürstenstraße (Kurfürsten Street), as this could also mean "Kurfürstendamm", which is a different road at a different place. "Schloss", which simply means "palace", could refer to any of the palaces in Berlin, to one of the two roads called "Schloßstraße" in Charlottenburg (Charlottenburger Schloss) and Steglitz, to a shopping centre called "Das Schloss", or to the "Schloßplatz" in the Mitte district.


Public transport ticketing

Berlin uses a zone system, but you are unlikely to need to go beyond zone A and B, except on trips to Potsdam or to the Schönefeld Airport (SXF). This is a very large area. The public transport system (U-, S-Bahn, bus, tram, regional rail) uses a common ticket.

Standard tickets (€2.70 for A and B) are valid for any travel within two hours of validation, in a single direction, within the appropriate fare zones. There is no limit to transfers. For a single journey you can buy a cheap Kurzstrecke for €1.70, but this is only valid for 3 stops on the U-Bahn or S-Bahn (transfers permitted) or 6 stops on buses or trams (no transfers). Reduced fares apply for children 6 to 14. Under 6 y/o ride free. The border between zones A and B is the S-Bahn Ring (see below)

Several options are available for unlimited travel. Prices listed here are only for zones A and B: prices for A, B, and C cost marginally more. Check the machines for the current prices (January 2016):

  • Single Ticket Berlin AB: €2.70, ABC (incl. Potsdam): €3.30, reduced: €1.70, ABC: €2.40. Transfers are allowed, return journeys aren't.
  • The 4-trip ticket Berlin AB (4 Fahrten Karte), 4 single trips AB bought at once for a reduced price: €9.00, reduced: €5.60 .
  • Day Ticket Berlin AB (Tageskarte AB): €7, Tageskarte ABC (incl. Potsdam): €7.60, reduced AB: €4.70, ABC: €5.30. If you are travelling more than two trips a day. Valid until 03:00 the next morning, not 24 hours!
  • Small Group Day Ticket AB (Kleingruppen-Tageskarte) for up to five people: €17.30, ABC (incl. Potsdam): €17.80. This ticket is cheaper than individual day tickets for groups of three or more.
  • 7-Day-Ticket AB (7-Tagekarte): €30, 7-Tage-Karte ABC (incl. Potsdam): €37.20.
  • The Berlin CityTourCard : ticket valid for all public transport services in Berlin, Potsdam and the surrounding area and a discount card for many tourist attractions; available in several different version: 48 hours, AB, €17.40; 72 hours, AB, €24.50; 5 days AB, €31.90. Add a few euros if you want to go to Potsdam (fare zone ABC). A folded leaflet with inner city map and an overview of the S-Bahn and U-Bahn railway networks of Berlin is included. Can be bought at ticket machines and various sales points (Berlin airports, larger train stations, hotels or online).
  • The Berlin WelcomeCard 2015, 24 hours, fare zone AB, €19.50; 72 hours, AB, €26.70; 5 days, AB, €34.50. Add a few euros if you want to go to Potsdam (fare zone ABC). Unlimited travel with all methods of public transport for the validity of the ticket; save up to 50% on more than 200 tourist and cultural highlights; Handy guide in pocket book format with insider tips and tour suggestions; city plan for Berlin and Potsdam and a network plan for public transport. Can be bought at various sales points (Berlin airports, larger train stations, hotels or online).
  • The Berlin WelcomeCard Museum Island 2015 : valid for 72 hours in the AB fare zone: €40.50 (ABC: €42.50). Same perks as the 72-hour WelcomeCard, but includes admission to all museums on Museum Island (Old National Gallery, Old Museum, Bode Museum, New Museum and Pergamon Museum).

Purchasing tickets

All tickets are available at vending machines at U- and S-Bahn platforms. English and other European languages are available. Payment is mostly by local bank cards and coins, and banknotes. If you need assistance most larger stations have staffed ticket counters where you can ask questions and buy tickets. Buses will accept cash, and make change for tickets. Hotels may sell tickets as well.

In some places like Zoologischer Garten and Eberswalder Straße, people will try to sell used tickets to you. Be aware that you can go only one direction with a single-journey ticket (check the validation stamp and be careful as this could also be a pickpocket trick). Don't pay more than half the price.


Validating tickets

You need to validate your ticket using the machines on the U- and S-bahn platforms or in the bus. The machines are yellow/white in the U-Bahn and the bus, and red on S-Bahn platforms. Validation simply means the machine prints a time stamp onto the ticket. Once validated, a ticket which is still valid will not have to be re-validated before each single trip. Whilst it might be tempting to try to avoid buying a ticket, be advised that plain-clothed inspectors do patrol the trains. There is a €60 fine if you are caught with an unvalidated ticket. Fare inspections are rather common and arguably more common than in other cities. The inspectors are very no-nonsense and will catch you if you try to outrun them.

Transportation - Get Around

By train

If you need to get around the city quickly, take the S-Bahn.

The Ringbahn that goes all around Berlin in a circle lets you get to other parts of the city really fast. If you're looking for the way, use BVG.de, that site includes Buses, U-Bahn, S-Bahn, Tram and even ferries. You can simply enter departure address and arrival address to see the optimum connection, it's an excellent service. An option to reach Schönefeld airport is to use U-Bahn line U7 until the terminal station Rudow and then take the bus.

In the centre, most S-Bahn lines S5, S7, S75 run on an east-west route between Ostkreuz and Westkreuz via the stops Warschauer Straße, Ostbahnhof, Jannowitzbrücke, Alexanderplatz, Hackescher Markt, Friedrichstraße, Hauptbahnhof, Bellevue, Tiergarten, Zoologischer Garten, Savignyplatz and Charlottenburg. Other lines run along a circle track around the city, most notably the S8 and the S41, S42, S45, S46 lines, and there's also a north-south connection S1, S2, S25 from Gesundbrunnen through Friedrichstraße and Potsdamer Platz to Südkreuz or Schöneberg.

Regional trains (RB, RE) run along the same central east-west connection, but stopping only at Lichtenberg or Karlshorst, Ostbahnhof, Alexanderplatz, Friedrichstraße, Hauptbahnhof, Zoologischer Garten, Charlottenburg and Spandau or Wannsee, as well as other lines connecting north-south from Jungfernheide or Gesundbrunnen through Hauptbahnhof, Potsdamer Platz and Südkreuz to Lichterfelde-Ost. Long distance trains mostly run to Hauptbahnhof, often with one or two extra stops at other stations.

Transportation - Get Around

By underground

The Berlin U-Bahn (short for Untergrundbahn - "underground railway") is a network of ten light rail lines across the city. They are numbered from 1 to 9 with the prefix "U", with the additional line U55 in operation until its route gets connected to the U5sometime before 2020. You may find the U-Bahn network slightly less logical and convenient to use than in other European capitals, as Berlin's troubled history made its mark on it and many key locations remain unconnected, which is why using buses, trams and S-Bahn to complement the U-Bahn is probably necessary for efficient travel throughout Berlin. However as those systems are fully integrated (see above), you can do so with only one ticket or type of ticket. Generally speaking in the east trams are more widespread while the west relies more heavily on U-Bahn, but both of that has been slowly changing since 1990.

Despite the name "underground", some 20% of the network is actually made up of overground stretches running over the characteristic viaducts that can be found throughout the city and add a certain flavour to Berlin's cityscape. This arrangement is similar many older subway systems which include elevated or even at-grade sections like the Hamburg system or the M2 / M6 lines in Paris. Unlike light rail systems or the Berlin tram however, all parts of the network have their own right of way and subways don't have level crossings.

Detailed maps can be found in every U-Bahn station and on the trains. U-Bahn stations can be seen from far by their big, friendly blue U signs. Together with the S-Bahn (which is administered by Deutsche Bahn and mostly runs aboveground), the U-Bahn provides a transportation network throughout greater Berlin that is extremely efficient and fast. On weekends (Friday to Sunday), and during the Christmas and New Year holidays, all U-Bahn and S-Bahn lines (except line U4 and U55) run all night, so returning from late night outings is easy, especially given the average start time of most 'parties' in Berlin (23:00 to 01:00). During the week there is no U-Bahn or S-Bahn service from c. 01:00-04:30, but metro trams/buses and special Night Buses (parallel to the U-Bahn line) run every half an hour 12:30-04:30.

There are no turnstiles to limit access to U-Bahn stations, so it is technically possible to ride without a ticket, but if caught by a ticket checker you will be fined €60 (see "Validating tickets" above) so it is not only illegal but probably not worth the risk to ride without validating your ticket. Nearly all U- and S-Bahn Stations now have electronic signs that give the time of the next train, and its direction based on sensors along the lines.

Transportation - Get Around

By tram (streetcar)

The trams (Straßenbahn) are mostly found in East Berlin, as the West Berlin tram network was shut down in the 1960s in an effort to make the city more car friendly. If you don't already have a ticket, you can buy one inside the tram. Since reunification there has been a gradual "reconquista" of areas once served by trams in West-Berlin and in some parts of Mitte it is hard to tell from trams alone where the wall used to be. That said, in outlying districts of West Berlin, trams are still nowhere to be found - in stark contrast to the East, where they provide much needed access to planned bedroom communities from GDR times.

There are two types of tram. Metrotrams usually have a 24/7 schedule as well as higher frequencies during daytimes, although stops are more spread out. Metrotrams are marked by an "M" in front of their line number (e.g., M10)."Regular" trams stop more frequently and even incorporate picturesque single-track rides through forested areas far east of the Mitte district.

Despite being called "tram" the network has almost all characteristics of light rail and new lines are always built with their own right of way, making travel times faster than by bus.

Transportation - Get Around

By bus

Berlin's buses are a very important form of public transportation, as they complement the light rail systems wherever they were removed (trams in the West) or remain incomplete. Due to the heavy loads and demands of narrow streets, Berlin is one of the few cities in Europe to use double-decker buses extensively - over 400 of the 1400 buses in operation in Berlin are double-deckers. A ride in a Berlin double-decker should be on the to-do list of every first-time visitor to Berlin. Note that in contrast to other world cities, you should not flag down buses at stops in Berlin, even if there are multiple routes serving the stop. Some drivers may consider it an insult to their professionalism.

There are various types of buses in Berlin, each indicated separately on public transit maps:

  • Metro buses are meant to replace the dismantled tram lines mostly within the western part of the city (although many run into East Berlin as well to replace the severed tram connections). They are designated using the letter "M" and two digits, and are considered a separate means of transportation from the other buses, being marked orange on signage and maps just like the trams are (the orange "M" logo means "MetroBus" or MetroTram). The MetroBuses tend to run along the main transportation corridors and are generally operated using the double-decker buses, which makes using them very attractive for tourists. MetroBuses generally run every 10 minutes from every stop they serve. Among the lines especially attractive for tourists areM19 and M29, which run along the Kurfürstendamm and the M41, which connects the districts of Kreuzberg and Neukölln to the main station via Potsdamer Platz.
  • Express bus lines connect important locations, such as airports and train stations, in a very fast fashion by skipping many stops along the way. They run every 5 minutes in the city centre using double-decker buses or articulated buses. The express lines are designated with the letter "X" and one or two digits, except for the special airport line TXL connecting the Tegel Airport with the city centre. Other lines of interest to travellers may be the X9from Tegel Airport to Zoologischer Garten and the X7 from Schoenefeld Airport to U-Bahn U7.
  • Regular bus lines have three-digit numbers and their digits each have a meaning that committed public transit buffs can decipher to find out the exact route the bus does. For the most part, those buses will be of use to travellers only if they want to get to a particular location not served by other means of transportation, including metro or express buses.
    • Two exceptions are special sightseeing lines 100 and 200, which run from along some of the most important tourist attractions in the city centre and are operated using double-decker buses exclusively. The 100runs from Zoologischer Garten to Alexanderplatz through the Tiergarten park, Regierungsviertel and Unter den Linden street. The 200 diverts from that route to visit the Kulturforum, Potsdamer Platz and extend further east from Alexanderplatz to Prenzlauer Berg. Either ride is a must for any visitor to Berlin. In the summer bus 218 takes you along the scenic ride through the Grunewald forest in West Berlin, starting at the subway station Theodor-Heuss-Platz (U2) and ending near the famous Pfaueninsel in South West Berlin, where you can take a small ferry to said island and visit the park and the small castle there.
  • Night buses operate in the night when the other means of transportation do not.
    • The single-digit lines replace along the metro lines in the night when the latter do not operate, stopping at the stops right atop/beside the U-Bahn stations. The numbering follows the numbering of U-Bahn lines, but uses "N" instead of "U", so that N7 is a bus line replacing the U7 U-Bahn line.
    • Other double-digit night lines (N10 through N97) cover other routes, but without straightforward reference to daytime route numbers

There is no difference in fares between different types of buses - even the MetroBuses, the 100 and 200 demand the same fares as regular buses. Therefore, riding the city buses is a very cost-effective way of exploring the city compared to the many privately-operated "hop-on/hop-off sightseeing bus tours".

Transportation - Get Around

By bike

Berlin has no steep hills and offers many bicycle paths (Radwege) throughout the city (although not all are very smooth). These include 860 km of completely separate bike paths, 60 km of bike lanes on streets, 50 km of bike lanes on pavements or sidewalks, 100 km of mixed-use pedestrian-bike paths, and 70 km of combined bus-bike lanes on streets. Bicycles are a very popular method of transportation among Berlin residents, and there is almost always a certain level of bicycle traffic. Seeing Berlin by bicycle is unquestionably a great way to get acquainted with the big tourist sites, and the little sprees and side streets as well. Although it's good to carry your own map, you can also always check your location at any U-Bahn station and many bus stations. You can create your own bicycling maps on-line, optimised by less busy routes or fewer traffic lights or your favourite paving. If you are not familiar with searching your own way through the city or you want more explanation of the sights you visit, you can get guided bike tours (with bike included) on Baja Bikes or Berlin Bike.

Tours and rentals

Traditional rental places are widespread, especially in areas frequented by tourists. Have a look around or ask at your accommodation. Most places have a rental charge of between €8 and €12 per day – they are excellent value and give you the freedom to explore the big city.

If you won't be biking much or if you're planning to stay longer than a few days, you may consider Berlin's bike sharing programme, Call a Bike. Rental stations are scattered throughout the city and are easily spotted by the bright-red and silver bikes and terminals. Bikes are usually in good condition, just check the brakes. After you've registered at one of the self-service kiosks (English available), you can take out a bike by following the on-screen instructions or using your phone (either through an app or by calling the number printed on each bike). Lift the metal flap on the device to the left of the back wheel, tap the display and follow the instructions to unlock the bike. To return, lock the bike at one of the stations and wait for the display to confirm your return. Rentals cost, basic annual fee of €3, then €1 for each 30 minute up to a maximum of €15 a day. You may however prefer to pay the monthly fee of €9 or a yearly fee of €49 and get the first 30 minutes of each rental for free, even right after returning your previous bike.

Transportation - Get Around

By taxi

Taxi services are easy to use and a bit less expensive than in many other big Central European cities. You can hail a cab (the yellow light on the top shows the cab is available), or find a taxi rank (Taxistand). Taxi drivers are in general able to speak English. If you ask for a short trip (Kurzstrecke), as long as it's under 2 km and before the taxi driver starts the meter running, the trip normally is cheaper, €4. This only applies if you flag the taxi down on the street, not if you get in at a taxi rank.

Hotels

- BEST RATED -

Hotels

- BEST VALUE -

Shopping

Due to federal liberalisation, shopping hours are theoretically unlimited on weekdays. Nevertheless, many of the smaller shops still close at 20:00. Most of the bigger stores and nearly all of the malls are open additionally until 21:00 or 22:00 from Thursday to Saturday. Sunday opening is still limited to about a dozen weekends per year, although some supermarkets located at train stations (Hauptbahnhof, Bahnhof Zoologischer Garten (under the S-Bahn bridge), Friedrichstraße, Innsbrucker Platz (U4 in the underground) and Ostbahnhof) are open also on Sundays. Many bakeries and small food stores (called Spätkauf or colloquially "Späti") are open late at night and on Sundays in more gentryfied neighborhoods (especially Prenzlauer Berg, Kreuzberg and Friedrichshain). Stores inside the Hauptbahnhof (central station) have long working hours (usually until about 22:00-23:00), also on Sundays.

The main shopping areas are:

  • Ku'Damm and its extension,Tauentzienstraße remain the main shopping streets even now that the Wall has come down. KaDeWe (Kaufhaus Des Westens) at Wittenbergplatz is a must visit just for the vast food department on the 6th floor. It's reputedly the biggest department store in Continental Europe and still has an old world charm, with very helpful and friendly staff.
  • Schloßstraße in Steglitz with the shopping center Schloss-Straßen-Center, Forum Steglitz, Karstadt, Boulevard Berlin, Naturkaufhaus and Das Schloss, between the subway stations U9 Walther-Schreiber-Platz and U9+S1 Rathaus Steglitz.
  • Friedrichstraße is the upmarket shopping street in former East Berlin withGaleries Lafayette and the other Quartiers (204 to 207) as main areas to be impressed with wealthy shoppers.

The new great shopping center "Leipziger Platz 12 Mall of Berlin" opened in September 2014 and is located 300 meters between Friedrichstraße and Leipziger Platz (U2 Potsdamer Platz or Mohrenstraße).

The renovated Galeria Kaufhof department store at Alexanderplatz is also worth a visit. The main shopping area for the alternative, but still wealthy crowd is north of Hackescher Markt, especially around the Hackesche Höfe. For some more affordable but still very fashionable shopping there is Prenzlauer Berg, Kreuzberg and Friedrichshain with a lot of young designers opening shops, but also lots of record stores and design shops. Constant change makes it hard to recommend a place, but the area around station Eberswalder Straße in Prenzlauer Berg, around Bergmannstraße and Oranienstraße in Kreuzberg and around Boxhagener Platz in Friedrichshain are always great when it comes to shopping.

For nice and trendy second-hand clothing and accessories visit Elementarteilchen - Second Hand für Frauen in the upcoming district Berlin-Wedding (Di-Sa 12-16, Amsterdamer Str. 4, Seestr. U6).

For cheap books, a nice choice is Jokers Restseller in Friedrichstraße 148, +49 30 20 45 84 23) where there is a wide variety of secondhand books.

For souvenirs, have a look just in front of the Kaiser Wilhelm Gedächtniskirche; these shops sell almost the same items as others, but are cheaper, but not all the staff speaks English. You can also get cheap postcards there (from €0.30 while the average price for normal postcard is €0.50-0.80).

For collectible stamps go to Goethe Straße 2 (Ernst Reuter Platz, U2), where you can find a Philatelic Post Office from the Deutsche Post. They generally speak English.

For alternative souvenirs (design, fashion and small stuff from Berlin designers and artists), go to ausberlin [www] near Alexanderplatz; it's a bit hidden at the other side of Kaufhof at the Karl-Liebknecht-Straße.


Flea markets

You can find dozens of flea markets with different themes in Berlin (mostly on weekends), but worth checking out is the big one at Straße des 17. Juni:

  • Straße des 17. Juni, (between Ernst-Reuter-Haus and S-Bahn: Tiergarten).
  • Mauerpark, (next to Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn Sportpark in Prenzlauer Berg. UseU-Bahn: Eberswalder Straße), on Sundays.
  • Arkonaplatz, (close to Mauerpark). On Sundays, so it can be combined with a visit there.

Credit cards

Credit cards are becoming more common, but Germans still largely prefer cash, as well EC/Maestro cards. Most places in tourist zones will accept credit cards, but it is still a good idea to ask in advance if you intend to pay with one. Many restaurants require a minimum check amount, sometimes in excess of €30.

For Americans, Germany uses the chip-and-pin system so you may have trouble at places like unattended gas stations and automated ticket machines. Often, a cashier will be able to swipe the magnetic strip, but don't be surprised if someone refuses your credit card because it doesn't have a chip.

Restaurants

Lovers of street food rejoice! Berlin has an incredibly wide variety of different styles and tastes at very affordable prices (for European wallets, that is). You can find superb food in a small stall tucked away under the tracks of elevated U-Bahn stretches for well under five euros.

A staple in Berlin is currywurst. It's a bratwurst covered in ketchup and curry powder. You can find them all over Berlin by street vendors. It's a must try when in Berlin. Two renowned Currywurst stands are "Konnopke's Imbiss" below Eberswalder Strasse U-Bahn station on line 2 and "Curry 36" opposite the Mehringdamm U-Bahn station in Kreuzberg (only two stops south of Checkpoint Charlie). Both of these offer far friendlier service than many of Berlin's more upmarket eateries.

Another famous thing to eat in Berlin is Döner, a flat bread filled with lamb or chicken meat and vegetables, available at many Turkish stands.

Eating out in Berlin is incredibly inexpensive compared to any other Western European capital or other German cities. The city is multicultural and many cultures' cuisine is represented here somewhere, although it is often modified to suit German tastes.

Berlin may seem like carnivore Heaven, but vegetarians and vegans can eat quite well. Berliners are generally environmentally conscious, and that extends to their food; most of the inner neighborhoods have a handful of good healthy vegetarian or vegan restaurants using local ingredients, though they tend to be more expensive than the ubiquitous kebab and sausage stands. If you're a vegetarian on a limited budget, many kebab restaurants have a good selection of roasted vegetables and salads, and you can usually get falafels (fried chickpea balls, suitable for vegans) and halloumi (a type of dense cheese) in place of meat.

All prices must include VAT by law. Only upmarket restaurants may ask for a furtherservice surcharge. Note that it is best to ask if credit cards are accepted before you sit down—it's not that common to accept credit cards and cash is preferred. Most likely to be accepted are Visa and MasterCard; all other cards will only be accepted in some upmarket restaurants. Please note that lately European debit cards are not always accepted because due to debit card fraud, some processing companies stopped intra-European cards from specific countries. This does not apply to debit cards that are from German banks. Better have cash or ask the restaurant staff.

One of the main tourist areas for eating out is Hackescher Markt/Oranienburger Straße. This area has dramatically changed during the years: once full of squats and not-entirely-legal bars and restaurants, it had some real character. It is rapidly being developed and corporatized, and even the most famous squat - the former Jewish-owned proto-shopping mall "Tacheles" - has had a bit of a facelift. There are still some gems in the side streets, though, The "Assel" (Woodlouse) on Oranienburger Straße, furnished with DDR-era furniture, is still relatively authentic and worth a visit, especially on a warm summer night. Oranienburger Straße is also an area where prostitutes line up at night, but don't be put off by this. The area is actually very safe since several administrative and religious buildings are located here.

For cheap and good food (especially from Turkey and the Middle East) you should try Kreuzberg and Neukölln with their abundance of Indian, pizza and Döner Kebaprestaurants. Prices start from €2 for a kebab or Turkish pizza (different from the original Italian recipe and ingredients). If you are looking for a quick meal you could try getting off at Görlitzer Bahnhof or Schlesisches Tor on the U1 line - the area is filled with inexpensive, quality restaurants.

Kastanienallee is a good choice too - but again not what it used to be since the developers moved in (much less exploited than Hackescher Markt, though). It's a popular area with artists and students and has a certain Bohemian charm. Try Imbiss W, at the corner of Zionskirchstraße and Kastanienallee, where they serve superb Indian fusion food, mostly vegetarian, at the hands of artist-chef Gordon W. Further. Up the street is the Prater Garten, Berlin's oldest beer garden and an excellent place in the summer.


Waiters and tipping

Except at very high-end restaurants, nobody will seat you. If you see an open table, just sit down. You may need to go get a menu yourself from another table or a pile near the cash register. If you sit outside, expect slightly slower service.

As in most European countries, you need to tell the waiter when you want to pay and leave. The waiter will come to you usually with a money purse, and the custom in Germany is to tell the waiter how much you’re paying (including the tip) when you receive the bill — don’t leave the money on the table. If there is confusion with the tip, remember to ask for your change, Wechselgeld (money back).

Add a 5-10% tip (or round up to the next Euro) to the bill if you are satisfied with the service. If you received shoddy service or are otherwise unsatisfied it is perfectly acceptable to not tip at all - waiters and waitresses have the same 8.50€ an hour minimum wage any other job has, so they don't depend on tips as the biggest part of their salary like in the US.


Restaurants

  • Kreuzberg & Friedrichshain – Young and independent student area with a big Turkish community in Kreuzberg.
  • City West – Heart of West Berlin with good quality restaurants.
  • Mitte – Political and new center of East Berlin with upmarket restaurants.
  • Schöneberg – City slickers and street cafe atmosphere.
  • Prenzlauer Berg – Buzzing Prenzlberg and its lively student scene.

Breakfast

It is very common to go out for breakfast or brunch (long breakfast and lunch, all you can eat buffet, usually from 10:00-16:00, for €4 to €12 - sometimes including coffee, tea or juice).

Coffe & Drink

If you want to get some tap water, ask for "Leitungswasser" (if you just say "water" (Wasser), you will receive mineral water.) This is common if you drink coffee. They should not charge you for it but you should order another drink as well.

Sights & Landmarks


Museums

Berlin has a vast array of museums.  Mitte district , which, among others, covers the Museumsinsel (an island on the Spree covered with historic museums) and the Kulturforum (a collection of contemporary cultural institutions). You will also find a good deal of museums in the West and South of the city, but there are larger or smaller museums in almost every district. There are museums covering everything, from art through Berlin's and Germany's history to various branches of technology and science.

Most museums charge admission for people 18 years of age or older - usually €6 to €14. Discounts (usually 50%) are available for students and disabled people with identification. Children and young people can often come in free, but do check the age restrictions in particular museums. A nice offer for museum addicts is the three-day Museums Pass for €24 (concessions: €12), which grants entrance to all the regular exhibitions of the approximately 55 state-run museums and public foundations.

Most museums are closed on Mondays - notable exceptions include the Pergamon Museum, the Neues Museum and the Deutsches Historisches Museum, which are open daily. Museumsportal Berlin, a collective web initiative, offers easy access to information on all museums, memorials, castles and collections and on current and upcoming exhibitions. Some museums offer free or steeply discounted entry once a week, once a month or during certain hours of the day. This website has daily updates on free offers in Berlin.


Remains of the Berlin Wall

While the Berlin Wall has long been dismantled and much of the grounds it occupied completely redeveloped, you can still find parts of the wall preserved around Berlin. This does not refer to very small pieces of the Wall sold by the East German government immediately after its dismantling, which can be found in various cafes, restaurants and hotels not only in Berlin, but to actual preserved fragments of the Wall still standing in their original locations.

The most often visited is the Checkpoint Charlie. at the southern border of Mitte and Kreuzberg, which is a recreated legendary border crossing within the Friedrichstraße. You cannot see the actual wall there, but this iconic (and extremely touristy) point is on almost every visitor's list. West from there, you can find a piece of the wall lining up the Niederkirchnerstraße next to the Topography of Terror. museum in Mitte. Another popular site is the East Side Gallery. along the Spree in Friedrichshain, a very long stretch of preserved Wall with colorful graffiti. All of the aforementioned fragments were altered and are now tourist attractions rather than actual historic monuments - if you want a truly preserved section of the Wall, head over to the northern border of Mitte and Gesundbrunnen in the street Bernauer Straße and visit the Berlin Wall Memorial. , with a complete section of the wall in all its gloom.


Private art galleries

As Berlin is a city of art, it is quite easy to find an art gallery on your way. They provide a nice opportunity to have a look at modern artists' work in a not-so-crowded environment for free. Some gallery streets with more than about a dozen galleries are Auguststraße, Linienstraße, Torstraße, Brunnenstraße (all Mitte, north of S-Bahn station Oranienburger Straße), Zimmerstraße (Kreuzberg, U-Bahn station Kochstraße) and Fasanenstraße (Charlottenburg). You can find a list of all the exhibitions and gallery openings as well as a map on Berlin Art Grid. A directory listing of all Berlin's art galleries can be found on The Art of Berlin: Complete Berlin Art Gallery Directory.


Landmarks with observation decks

Berlin has its fair share of tall buildings and, as the city is quite expansive and does not have one single centre where all tall buildings are located, you can enjoy a nice view from most of them, even ones that are not tall by global standards.

Below is an overview of some of the most popular openly-accessible observation decks.

  • Park Inn (Panorama Terasse) (Alexanderplatz). 10:00–18:00. Small terrace on the top of the Park Inn, publicly accessible. Take the elevator to the 40th floor, and follow the signs up the stairs. Pay the attendant who also serves beer and coffee. Great views of the Fernsehturm. In the summer, consider base jumping off the roof with Jochen Schweizer. It is often closed in bad/windy weather, so look for a notice posted near the elevator that the terrace is closed.€4.
  • Fernsehturm (TV Tower) (Alexanderplatz). 10:00–00:00. Germany's tallest construction: 368 m high. Observation deck 204 meters above ground. €13, children €8.50.
  • Reichstag (Platz der Republik, Spreebogen / Regierungsviertel). 08:00–00:00. The German Parliament building with a spectacular glass dome, which offers a great view of Berlin. Free, but pre-booking is required. Bring valid ID.
  • Kollhoff Tower (Potsdamer Platz). 10:00–20:00. The fastest elevator in Europe takes you approximately 101 meters high. €6.50, concession €5.
  • Siegessäule (Victory Column), Großer Stern / Straße des 17. Juni(Tiergarten). Apr–Oct 09:30–18:30, Nov–Mar 10:00–17:00, 30 minutes longer on weekends. An old monument (1865-1873) with 50.7 m high in front of the Reichstag on the Platz der Republik), since 1939 on the place Großer Stern with 66.9 m high. Unfortunately there is no elevator, so be prepared for 285 steps to the platform in 50.7 m high. The sculpture of Victoria is 8.3 metres high. € 3.
  • Funkturm (Radio Tower) (Westend). M 10:00–20:00, Tu–Su 10:00–23:00, limited access during trade fairs.. 150 m high lattice tower with open-air observation deck 124 m above ground. €5, concession €2.80.

Zoo

Berlin has two zoos and an aquarium. The Berlin Zoo in the west is the historic zoo that has been a listed company since its foundation. It's an oasis in the city and very popular with families and schools.

  • Berlin Zoo. The largest range of species in the world. The zoo lies directly in the heart of the City West (opposite Bahnhof Zoo at Hardenbergplatz) and is especially famous for its pandas. The Elephant Gate (Budapester Straße) is the second entrance next to the Aquarium and a traditional photo stop for most visitors because of the architecture.
  • Aquarium. Part of the Berlin Zoo, located at Budapester Straße in an historic building. Still the largest aquarium in Germany and a host to an amazing variety of fish, crocodiles, etc. One of the best places on a rainy day with children.
  • Tierpark Berlin. Located in Friedrichsfelde, the Tierpark is more spacious than the historic Berlin Zoo and has been open for some 50 years. The compound also comprises a small château with its adjacent park.

Museums & Galleries

As of 2011 Berlin is home to 138 museums and more than 400 art galleries. The ensemble on the Museum Island is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and is situated in the northern part of the Spree Island between the Spree and the Kupfergraben. As early as 1841 it was designated a "district dedicated to art and antiquities" by a royal decree. Subsequently, the Altes Museum was built in the Lustgarten. The Neues Museum, which displays the bust of Queen Nefertiti, Alte Nationalgalerie,Pergamon Museum, and Bode Museum were built there.

Apart from the Museum Island, there are many additional museums in the city. The Gemäldegalerie(Painting Gallery) focuses on the paintings of the "old masters" from the 13th to the 18th centuries, while the Neue Nationalgalerie(New National Gallery, built by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe) specializes in 20th-century European painting. The Hamburger Bahnhof, located in Moabit, exhibits a major collection of modern and contemporary art. The expanded Deutsches Historisches Museum re-opened in the Zeughaus with an overview of German history spanning more than a millennium. The Bauhaus Archive is a museum of 20th century design from the famous Bauhaus school.

The Jewish Museum has a standing exhibition on two millennia of German-Jewish history. The German Museum of Technology in Kreuzberg has a large collection of historical technical artifacts. The Museum für Naturkunde exhibits natural history near Berlin Hauptbahnhof. It has the largest mounted dinosaur in the world (aGiraffatitan). Well-preserved specimens of Tyrannosaurus Rex and the early bird Archaeopteryx are at display as well

In Dahlem, there are several museums of world art and culture, such as the Museum of Asian Art, the Ethnological Museum, the Museum of European Cultures, as well as the Allied Museum. The Brücke Museum features one of the largest collection of works by artist of the early 20th-century expressionist movement. In Lichtenberg, on the grounds of the former East German Ministry for State Security, is the Stasi Museum. The site of Checkpoint Charlie, one of the most renowned crossing points of the Berlin Wall, is still preserved. A private museum venture exhibits a comprehensive documentation of detailed plans and strategies devised by people who tried to flee from the East. The Beate Uhse Erotic Museum claims to be the world's largest erotic museum.

The cityscape of Berlin displays large quantities of urban street art. It has become a significant part of the city's cultural heritage and has its roots in the graffiti scene of Kreuzberg of the 1980s. The Berlin Wall itself has become one of the largest open-air canvasses in the world. The leftover stretch along the Spree river in Friedrichshain remains as the East Side Gallery. Berlin today is consistently rated as an important world city for street art culture.

Things to do


Explore

Go on a Tour of Berlin - the Mitte and surrounding districts are sufficiently compact to allow a number of excellent walking tours through its history-filled streets. You'll see amazing things you would otherwise miss. Details are usually available from the reception desks of hostels and hotels.

  • Berlin Tour by public bus line 100 and 200. The 100 and 200 bus lines are just ordinary bus lines, but they pass by many of Berlin's famous landmarks. Both run every 5–10 minutes between S+U-station Zoologischer Garten and S+U-station Alexanderplatz. All BVG tickets are accepted. €2.70 (single) or €7.60 (day ticket).
  • Ticket B City–Tours by architects in Berlin. Showing the city of Berlin on hand-picked architectural routes. Led by selected architects in German, English, French, Italian or Spanish. Anything is possible - tours from the water, on land or in a helicopter. They arrange your special tour on contemporary architecture in Berlin with many exclusive visits to the interiors of buildings and unforgettable experiences.
  • Yachtcharter Werder. Offers the possibility of a long term stay on the waterways of Berlin and the surrounding federal state Brandenburg.

Recreation

Pick up a copy of Exberliner, the monthly English-language paper for Berlin to find out what's on, when and where. It provides high quality journalism and up-to-date listings. If you understand German, the activity planners for the city, zitty and tip, are available at every kiosk. Be prepared to choose among a huge amount of options.

Parks

Berlin has many great parks which are very popular in the summer. Green Berlin operates some of them.

  • Großer Tiergarten, Berlin's largest park. In the summer and on weekends you will see loads of families with their barbecues.
  • Viktoriapark, (Kreuzberg). Superb panoramic views across south Berlin. National monument by Schinkel on top of it.
  • Schlossgarten Charlottenburg (inside the Charlottenburg Palace). The green areas of the park is free, so you can go there to have a walk even if you are not interested in the palace. It covers a large area and you can get in from the entrance just near the "New Pavillon" (Neuer Pavillon a.k.a. Schinkelpavillon) placed on the right of Luisenplatz. Bus M45, 309: „Luisenplatz“ or „Klausenerplatz“, the nearest train station is Sophie-Charlotte Platz on the U2.
  • Gärten der Welt (World's Garden). Open daily from 09:00-16:00, in April and October until 18:00, from May-Sep until 20:00. Inside you can find a large, well-established Chinese garden, a Korean garden, a small Bali's Garden/Glasshouse, an Oriental Garden with nice fountains and a cloister and a Japanese garden which is a project by the city partnership of Berlin and Tokyo. Best time for a visit is in spring or summer. To get there, take the S7 until "Marzahn" station and continue with bus 195 until Eisenacher Straße. Entrance is €3.
  • Botanischer Garten und Botanisches Museum Berlin-Dahlem (Botanic Garden and Botanical Museum Berlin-Dahlem), Königin-Luise-Straße 6-8.Opening hours. Ticket: €6, reduced rate: €3, family day ticket: €12.

Lakes and Beaches

  • Wannsee is called Berlin's "bath tub". The Strandbad Wannsee is the most famous bathing area for locals. Take the S-Bahn lines S1 or S7 to the station Nikolassee and follow the crowd!
  • Müggelsee in the southeast of Berlin is a popular swimming spot.

Theatre, opera, concerts, cinema

Berlin is arguably the live cultural centre of Germany:

Theatre

  • Deutsches Theater (German theatre), Schumannstraße 13a (U-Bahn Oranienburger Tor, Bus 147), +49 30 2844-1221, +49 30 2844-1225. Classical theatre with an impressive line up of actors and directors.

Musicals and shows

  • Theater des Westens (Theatre of the West), Kantstraße 12 (U+S Zoologischer Garten),  +49 30 - 3190 30, e-mail: .
    An historic theatre in the former West Berlin, only musicals today. Till 2013: „Tanz der Vampire“
  • Friedrichstadt-Palast. Berlin's biggest show with over 100 artists on the biggest theatre stage in the world.

Opera

  • Staatsoper Unter den Linden. '. The impressive building and royal history make the building alone worth a visit. Schiller Theater in Berlin-Charlottenburg.
  • Neuköllner Oper. Voted several times best off-opera house and known for its modern and contemporary pieces. Mostly in German as usually relating to developments in Germany. Very creative and innovative.

Concert houses

  • Berliner PhilharmonieHerbert-von-Karajan-Str. 1 (Bus 200, M41: Philharmonie, or Bus M48, M85, N2: Varian-Fry-Str.),  +49 30 254 88 999, e-mail: . The Berliner Philharmonie is a concert hall with 2,440 seats in Berlin-Tiergarten (constructed 1960–1963) and the home of the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra. Famous building and outstanding musicians. Reservations are recommended, but cheaper tickets are usually available 2–4 hr before the concert if not sold out. Every Tuesday (September to June) 1pm-2pm free lunch concert; come early. In the winter, late-night concerts (10:30 or 11pm) are a bargain and often have more avant-garde or unconventional formats.
  • Kammermusiksaal (chamber-music hall). with 1,180 seats. Constructed 1984–1987. It is linked to the foyer of the Philharmonie.

Cinema

There are about a hundred cinemas in Berlin, although most of them only show movies dubbed in German, without subtitles. Listed below are some of the more important cinemas also showing movies in the original language (look for the OmU - "original with subtitles" - notation). Most movies which are dubbed into German are released a bit later in Germany. Tickets are normally €5-7. Monday to Wednesday are special cinema days with reduced admission.

  • CineStar. The "CineStar Original" cinema located inside the Sony Center at the Potsdamer-Platz shows only movies in original version (e.g. in English, without subtitles).
  • Babylon Kreuzberg. Also non-mainstream movies in this small cinema built in the 1950s.
  • Central (near Hackesche Höfe). Repertory cinema located in an ex-squat.
  • Kino Moviemento (between Kreuzberg and Neukölln). The oldest cinema in Germany (1907).
  • Kant Kino. One of the few old cinemas (founded 1912) left in Berlin's western city. Mostly non-mainstream European movies.

Sport

In Berlin, nearly all sports are on offer:

  • The most popular sport is football, which is played all over the city. The Berlin FA [www] lists all the clubs.
Not to be missed is the Olympic Stadium, which hosted the 2006 world cup final.Hertha BSC Berlin, Berlin’s highest professional soccer team, plays there during the Bundesliga season in spring, fall and winter.
  • Basketball. Alba Berlin, known as The Albatross are consistently the best basketball team in Germany, and one of the best in Europe.
With fans crazier than most in the NBA, Albatross games at the o2 World arena are an exciting way to take in one of the world's greatest sports.
  • Public swimming pools. Can be found around the city. Check out BBB for pool listings and opening times.
  • Sailing, on one of the many lakes is also popular. You can find sailing clubs and most universities have ships as well.
  • Golf. You can find golf clubs all around Berlin, although for non-members Motzen has one of the best.
  • Ice hockey. The Berlin Eisbären (Polar Bears) play this fast, exciting and very physical sport during the winter. The excitement is heightened by the singing and chanting of the crowds, who are fueled by the copious quantities of wurst and beer available.
  • Floorball, is booming faster than ever before in the German capital. A sum of teams defines the cascade of the local floorball scene, whereas the decorated Bundesliga site of BAT Berlin probably embodies the most prominent one.
  • American Football. After the closing of NFL Europe and the related end of Berlin Thunder (triple winner of the World Bowl), the Berlin Adler (Eagles) are Berlin’s No. 1 team playing in the German Football League they are one of the oldest and most storied teams in Germany being a founding member of the first American Football season in 1979 but have recently entered something of a slump, often falling to their crosstown rivals. Apart from the "Berlin-Derby" a highlight of the season is the match against the Dresden Monarchs as the two teams share an intense and storied rivalry. The Berlin Rebels currently (2016) also play in the first division German Football League. American Football in Germany is a very relaxed and family friendly affair and you can definitely show up in any NFL, German or no Football gear at all and have a chat with fans of either side.

Spa

  • Day Spa. In Riverside Hotel next to the Friedrichstadtpalast.
  • Adlon Day Spa. One of the best spa's in town right next to the Brandenburg Gate in the Hotel Adlon

Festivals and events


Festivals

  • Berlinale – Berlin Film Festival. The city's largest cultural event and an important fixture in the global film industry's calendar (up there with Cannes). 250,000 tickets sold, 400 different films screened and a host of associated parties and events every year. In contrast to Cannes, all screenings at the Berlinale are open to the public. Tickets are inexpensive and relatively easy to get for the "International Forum of Young Film" screenings and the "Berlinale Panorama" (movies which are not in the competition).
  • Lange Nacht der Museen (Long Night of Museums),  +49 30 90 26 99 444. A large cultural event in May (17th May 2014, 16th May 2015) with museums open until 02:00 and extra events around the city. Price with unlimited use of the shuttle bus service and public transportation (BVG and S-Bahn): 18 €, concessions 12 €.
  • Fête de la Musique (Worldwide Music Day). June 21 every year. All kinds of music around the city on this day coordinating with a similar day in most French cities.
  • Open Air Gallery OberbaumbrückeOberbaumbrücke between Kreuzberg and Friedrichshain (just under the bridge Oberbaum). Sunday 2th June and Sun 7th July 2013 at 10 to 22 h. Artists are selling their works, amateur tango dancers are giving public performances and you can contribute to a collaborative painting on a very long canvas spread on the street along the festival. free.
  • Festival of lights. 09th until 18th October 2015. Famous buildings are illuminated in a special way free.

Parades

  • Christopher Street Day on 23 July 2016. Berlin's gay pride. A well-known annual political demonstration for the rights of the gay culture organised in all major German cities. Even if you are indifferent about the issue, the Christopher Street Day is usually a worthwhile sight as many participants show up in wild costumes.
  • Fuckparade. In August. The Fuckparade (Hateparade in the early days) started as an antiparade or demonstration against the commercialized Love Parade, and was first on the same date as the Love Parade but later the date was shifted. The Fuckparade is a political demonstration, with political speeches at the beginning and the end and the parade with music between. The general motto of the Fuckparade is "against the destruction of the club scene". The music is quite different than at the Love Parade: mostly independent/alternative/extreme electronic music.
  • Hanf Parade. In August. The Hanfparade is the biggest European political demonstration for the legalization of hemp for use in agriculture and as a stimulant. Conflicts with police have been known to occur and consuming any form of Cannabis at this demonstration is not a good idea as the police willcontrol people if only to show that they can.
  • Karneval. In late February or early March. As a lot of people in Berlin originally came from the southern or western area of Germany where Fasching,Fastnacht or Karneval is celebrated, a carnival parade was also established in Berlin. It grew bigger and bigger (about 500.000 to 1 million people watching), but the costumes and cars are rather boring and the people are not as dressed up as in the "original" big carnival parades (Cologne, Mainz, Düsseldorf). Since 2007 the traditional route across Kurfürstendamm was chosen. Note that people from Berlin themselves don't care a bit about Karneval; this is mostly an event for people coming from the regions of Germany that have a Karneval. In fact, most Berliners will be laughing at you if you mention that you went to Karneval, so beware that this is not a Berlin tradition, but a recent (post-1990) institution.
  • Karneval der Kulturen (Carnival of Cultures). In May or June (on Whit Sunday). The idea of the "Carnival of Cultures" is a parade of the various ethnic groups of the city showing traditional music, costumes and dances. Other more modern, alternative and political groups also participate. Similar events are also held in Hamburg and Frankfurt.

Nightlife


Clubs

The club scene in Berlin is one of the biggest and most progressive in Europe. Even though there are some 200 clubs in the city, it's sometimes difficult to find the right club for you since the best ones are a bit off the beaten track and most bouncers will keep bigger tourist groups (especially males) out. Entrance is cheap compared to other big European cities, normally from 5 to €10 (usually no drink included).

The main clubbing districts are in the east: Mitte (especially north of Hackescher Markt and - a bit hidden - around Alexanderplatz), Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg (around Schlesisches Tor) and Prenzlauer Berg (around station Eberswalder Str.). Some mainstream clubs are located in Charlottenburg and at Potsdamer Platz. Electro and techno are still the biggest in Berlin, with lots of progressive DJs and live acts around. But there are also many clubs playing '60s beat, alternative rock and of course mainstream music. Clubbing days are Thursday, Friday and especially Saturday, but some clubs are open every day of the week. Partying in Berlin starts around midnight (weekends) and peaks around 2AM or 3AM in the normal clubs, a bit later in many electro/techno clubs. Berlin is famous for its long and decadent after hours, going on until Monday evening.

A good overview about what's going on close to the place you are staying is brought to you by joinjack.de. This website shows you parties directly on a map. Be sure to check Resident Advisor for the best parties before you go out.


Bars

Berliners love to drink cocktails, and it's a main socializing point for young people. Many people like to meet their friends in a cocktail bar before clubbing. Prenzlauer Berg (Around U-Bahnhof Eberswalder Str., Helmholtzplatz, Oderberger Straße & Kastanienallee), Kreuzberg (Bergmannstraße, Oranienstraße and the area around Görlitzer Park and U-Bahnhof Schlesisches Tor), Schöneberg (Goltzstraße, Nollendorfplatz, Motzstraße for gays), and Friedrichshain (Simon-Dach-Straße and around Boxhagener Platz) are the main areas.

At Warschauer Straße (which you can reach via S-Bahn and U-Bahn stationWarschauer Straße) and more specifically Simon-Dach-Straße and around Boxhagener Platz you can find a wide variety of bars. It is common for locals to meet at Warschauer to go to a bar there. Also Ostkreuz (Eastcross) and Frankfurter Allee are very famous meeting points. Especially to visit the alternative ("underground-/left-szene") locations in houseprojects (so called squats), like the Supamolly at Jessnerstreet (Traveplatz), the Scharni38 (Scharnweberstreet) and so on, or famous alternative clubs on the Revaler Straße, like the R.A.W. or the Lovelite on Simplonstraße.

There are lots of Irish bars all over the city, as there are in all European cities. If you like off-the-shelf Irish bars or watching football in English then you won't be disappointed, but in a city with new cool bars opening pretty much daily and a huge range from which to choose, you'll find that these cater mostly to the Irish construction workers and Germans attracted by Irish music, which is often played in them. The Irish pub in the Europa Center at Tauentzienstraße is famous. Located in the basement of a skyscraper, you will find a big Irish pub and a rowdy crowd on the weekend. It also claims to have the longest bar in all of Berlin!

There aren't as many illegal bars as there were in the 1990s but bars open and close faster than you can keep up - check out the bar and cocktail guides in the bi-weekly magazines Tip or Zitty. For recommended bars, have a look at the district pages.


Brauhäuser

A Brauhaus (brewery) brews and sells its own beer on the premises. There is usually a public viewing area onto the brewery. Try Gaffel Haus, Brauhaus Georgbraeu, Brauhaus Mitte, Brauhaus Spandau and Brauhaus Lemke.

Things to know


Talk

German is the main language in Berlin but you can easily find tourist information in English and sometimes in French. For the soccer World Cup in 2006 all public transportation staff got language training and, at least in theory, should be able to help you in English (although possibly with a strong German accent). If you seem to be lost or hesitating in a public transport station a member of staff could come to your assistance but don't count on that. You can easily approach a group of (preferably young) bystanders and ask for advice in English.

Most people under 40 in Berlin are able to speak English with varying degrees of fluency, but it might not be as widely spoken as you might expect, so a few key German phrases are worth having, especially in the suburbs and less touristy places. Basic French and Russian are also spoken by some Berliners, because French in West Berlin and Russian in East Berlin were taught in schools.

There are also 400,000 people of Turkish origin living in Berlin, mainly in the Western districts. Many of them arrived in early 1960s from remote villages in Anatolia as guest workers but stayed on.

Since the early to mid 2000s Berlin has attracted foreign students from all over Europe. Due to the economic crisis in Southern Europe there are a lot of Spanish, Greek and Italian students in Berlin. As many students in Berlin are either Erasmus students or have been abroad elsewhere, you can reasonably expect students to speak at least passable English and often another European language.

There are some words in Berlin that differ from regular German, especially in the former East Berlin. Here, the language has preserved a certain level of dialect.

Some words used in the Berlin dialect:

  • Schrippe: Roll.
  • Stulle: Sandwich.
  • Broiler: Grilled chicken (people from western Germany and former West Berlin probably won't understand this; they say Grillhähnchen instead).

People

Berlin is a relatively young city by European standards, dating to the thirteenth century, and it has always had a reputation as a place filled with people from elsewhere. It may seem tough to find someone born and raised here! This is part of Berlin's charm: it never gets stuck in a rut.

A certain uneasy détente exists between some former residents of East and West Berlin (and Germany). Wessi evolved as a somewhat derogatory nickname for a West German; its corollary is Ossi. The implication here is that after reunification, the West Germans automatically assumed the way they do things is the right way, and the way the Easterners should start doing it, too. Westerners got a reputation for being arrogant. They saw the Easterners as stubborn Communist holdouts interested only in a handout from the "rich West". Consider a shirt for sale in a shop inside the Alexanderplatz Deutsche Bahn station: Gott, schütze mich vor Sturm und Wind/und Wessies die im Osten sind ("God, protect me from the storm and wind, and Wessies who are in the East"). Another such stereotype is reflected by the short poem: Der Ossi ist schlau und stellt sich dumm, beim Wessi ist es andersrum ("The Ossi is sly and pretends to be simple-minded, and with the Wessi, it's the other way around"). However, most of the younger generation do not share such biases. Nowadays the conflicts between Easterners and Westerners are often replaced by jokes about Swabians, who have a reputation for thriftiness, uptightness and an audible dialect. In recent years many Swabians have flocked to neighborhoods like Prenzlauer Berg and the welcome hasn't always been warm.


Orientation

Berlin is — at least in many parts — a beautiful city, so allow enough time to get to see the sights. A good map is highly recommended. While the public transport system is superb, it can be confusing to visitors, due to a lack of directional signs in some of the larger stations, so a good transit map is also essential. Be sure to note the final station/stop of the S-bahn or U-bahn, since that is usually the way direction of travel is indicated. Roads into Berlin can also be confusing, so study your route and drive carefully. Signs point to city boroughs or districts rather than indicating compass directions, so it's a good idea to get to know where the various boroughs or districts lie in relation to each other. This also applies to cyclists.

Berlin's Tourist Information Office is an excellent resource for finding out more about Berlin, providing a wealth of practical information and useful hyperlinks.

Safety in Berlin

Stay Safe


Berlin is a safe place but it has some not-so-well maintained areas, too. No specific rules apply with the exception of public transportation and tourist areas where pickpockets are a problem. Watch your bags during rush hours and at larger train stations.

The police in Berlin are competent, not corrupt; therefore, if you try to bribe them you are likely to spend at least a night behind bars to check your background. They are generally helpful to tourists. Most of the officers are able to speak English, so don't hesitate to approach them if you are frightened or lost. The nationwide emergency number is 112 for medical emergencies and fires, while the police emergency number is  110.

Since the 1980s, there have been localized riots on Labour Day (May 1). In general they take place in Kreuzberg around Oranienstraße/Mariannenplatz. Nowadays they usually start the night before May 1, especially in the Mauerpark (Prenzlauer Berg), at Boxhagener Platz and in Rigaer Str. (Friedrichshain) and start again in the evening of May 1 in Kreuzberg and in the mentioned areas. The violent riots have become rather small since 2005 due to the engagement of the citizens who celebrate the Labour Day with a nice "myfest" in Kreuzberg and well-planned police efforts. It is still better to stay out of these areas from 20:00 until sunrise. Vehicles should not be parked in these area as this is asking for damage!

Racially-motivated violence is rare but the risk is higher on the outskirts of East Berlin. It is recommended for non-Caucasian tourists to be attentive in areas such as Lichtenberg, Hellersdorf, Marzahn, Treptow and Köpenick in the evening/night especially if alone.

In the bordering neighbourhood of the districts Neukölln and Kreuzberg (between Hermannplatz, Schönleinstrasse to Kottbusser Tor) and Wedding (Moabit and Gesundbrunnen) the risk of falling victim to robberies and assaults is slightly higher. Tourists should visit these areas with some caution during the night as a mixture of drunken party people and poor neighbourhoods might lead to trouble.

Although harmless, panhandlers have recently started to beg at local tourist spots such as Pariser Platz next to the Brandenburg Gate, Alexanderplatz and the Museuminsel. They are usually women accompanied by their daughters who ask if you speak English and say that they are from the new EU countries and trying to raise money to fly home. The story is false, so don't give them money, which would encourage further exploitation of the women and their kids. They also have a new tactic where they hand you a card telling their "story" and asking for money; beware that the children that they carry in their arms will search through your bags while you are reading the card. The best way to avoid this is simply to ignore them and not to respond when they ask you "Speak English?" If you feel scared, don't hesitate to contact the police, as they will help.


Prostitution

Prostitution is a legal business in Germany. Berlin has no major red-light district though some big brothels were built. Berlin has no "Sperrbezirk" (restricted areas for prostitutes) so the "apartments" or brothels are spread throughout the whole city. The Oranienburger Straße in Mitte is infamous for its prostitutes at night. These women are a tourist attraction and the ladies focus only on tourists to request exorbitant prices.

The proximity to Eastern Europe, relaxed visa rules, and the illegal migrant community increases the number of prostitutes. Advertisements are in the tabloids and online. Human trafficking and illegal immigration is a problem; therefore, police raids do take place and close down illegal places. Brothels and prostitutes must register like normal businesses, or they will be prosecuted for tax evasion. In general, the police officers are not interested in the clients (especially if you stay calm and don't try to argue) but you must have a photo ID (passport copy is fine) with you. Otherwise, you might spend a night at the police station while your background gets checked.

Very High / 8.2

Safety (Walking alone - day)

High / 6.0

Safety (Walking alone - night)

TOP

Pin It on Pinterest