- HOTELS (BEST RATED)
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- COFFEE & DRINK
- SIGHTS & LANDMARKS
- MUSEUMS & GALLERIES
- THINGS TO DO
- FESTIVALS & EVENTS
Siena is a city in Tuscany, Italy. It is the capital of the province of Siena.
The historic centre of Siena has been declared by UNESCO a World Heritage Site. It is one of the nation's most visited tourist attractions, with over 163,000 international arrivals in 2008. Siena is famous for its cuisine, art, museums, medieval cityscape and the Palio, a horse race held twice a year.
As a walled hill city, Siena's centro storico is extremely picturesque, and from high towers, you can see the beautiful countryside that still largely surrounds the city. With a few notable exceptions (including the pretty yellow color of the sunflowers that are cultivated for oil for export), the Sienese countryside looks almost the same as it did in Medieval paintings. The Sienese countryside is part of the Chianti region, and therefore, it is easy to find good local wines in Sienese shops and to accompany your meals in ristoranti and trattorie. Sienese cuisine is delicious, and though some eateries are definitely better than others, it is difficult to find truly bad food in this city. In addition to being known internationally as a Medieval city that's a great draw for tourists, Siena is known nationally as a university town, and there are also places for foreign visitors to stay for a few weeks and study Italian or other subjects.
Siena was an Etruscan city in ancient times, but the era that is most evident in its architecture and remains a constant presence in the city's character is the Middle Ages. Siena was a proud, wealthy, and warlike independent city-state during the Middle Ages and held off its rival Florence in several battles before finally going down to defeat. Medieval Sienese art (painting, sculpture, architecture, etc.) is unique and of great historical importance. Some of the most famous of the artists who lived and worked in Siena are the painters Duccio, Simone Martini, and Ambrogio and Pietro Lorenzetti and the sculptor Jacopo della Quercia.
Sienese people are fiercely proud of their city and their neighborhood (contrada). Each contrada has its own flag, emblem, contrada parish church and contrada house, which functions as a kind of neighborhood social club. The Palio, described below, is all about neighborhood pride and rivalry, and also constitutes the unbroken continuation of a Medieval tradition associated with religion, pageantry, trash-talking, bragging, and occasional violence. It is taken very seriously and is in no way a put-on for tourists; in fact, you are likely to feel less welcomed during the Palio than at any other time, and there isn't the slightest doubt that Siena would run the Palio with great enthusiasm regardless of whether any visitors ever showed up.
That said, this is a city which depends and flourishes on tourism. Siena was a very poor little city for a few hundred years after its defeat, which is the main reason why its lovely Medieval buildings were never torn down and replaced with modern structures. In the 19th century tourists started coming. Nowadays, it is a requirement that new buildings within the city walls be built to maintain the city's character and beauty, with the result that the streets are lined with many neo-Gothic buildings that blend in with the genuinely Gothic ones.
Siena has a borderline humid subtropical (Cfa) and Mediterranean climate (Csa) in the Köppen climate classification, since only one summer month has less than 40 millimetres (1.57 in) of rainfall, preventing it from being classified as solely humid subtropical or Mediterranean.
Climate data for University of Siena (altitude: 348 m sl)
|Average high °C (°F)||8.0|
|Daily mean °C (°F)||5.0|
|Average low °C (°F)||2.0|
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||65|
|Average precipitation days (≥ 1 mm)||8||11||8||10||6||7||4||4||5||8||8||8||87|
|Source: Achivio Climatico ENEA|
Siena is located in the central part of Tuscany, in the middle of a vast hilly landscape between the Arbia river valley (south), the Merse valley (south-west), the Elsa valley (north), the Chianti hills (north-east), the Montagnola Senese (west) and the Crete Senesi (south-east). The city lies at 322 m above sea level.
The main activities are tourism, services, agriculture, handicrafts and light industry.
Agriculture constitutes Siena's primary industry. As of 2009, Siena's agricultural workforce comprises 919 companies with a total area of 10.755 square kilometres (4.153 sq mi) for a UAA (usable agricultural area) of 6.954 square kilometres (2.685 sq mi) or about 1/30 of the total municipal area (data ISTAT for the 2000 Agriculture Census V).
Industry and manufacturing
The industrial sector of the Sienese economy is not very developed. However, the area has seen recent growth in important core manufacturing enterprises.
The confectionery industry is one of the most important of the traditional sectors of the secondary industry, because of the many local specialties. Among the best known are Panforte, a precursor to modern fruitcake, Ricciarelli biscuits, made out of almond paste, and the well-known gingerbread, and thehorses. Also renowned is "Noto" a sweet made of honey, almonds and pepper. The area known for making these delicacies ranges between Tuscany and Umbria. Other seasonal specialties are the chestnut and the pan de 'Santi (or Pan co' Santi) traditionally prepared in the weeks preceding the Festival of Saints, the November 1. All are marketed both industrial and artisan bakeries in different cities.
The area has also seen a growth in biotechnology. Centenary Institute Sieroterapico Achille Sclavo, is now Swiss-owned and operates under the company name, Novartis Vaccines. Novartis develops and produces vaccines and employs about a thousand people.
Service industry, financial and light commerce
In this area, the most important financial activities are those related to the bank Monte dei Paschi di Siena. The oldest bank still in existence, headquartered in Siena, Italy, which has been operating continuously since 1472.
There are also important appearances of the university and the hospital, which employ thousands of people and serves a catchment area much wider than the already large territory province. In the territory there is a dense network of micro-enterprises (less than 10,000) active in trade and tourism.
In the last ten years, Siena has been completely wired with fibre optic cable. This distinction makes Siena the first city in Italy to complete Telecom's Socrates Project (Progetto Socrate). As a result, the town can claim that almost every house is wired for cable. The wiring, built by private companies in partnership with the city, helped to create a civic public station (Channel Civic Sienese) cable that transmits information and local news and gives access to Internet broadband. In 2007, however, the station was privatised, separating the TV from the Internet. The wiring is currently extending to major centres of the province through another company set up ad hoc (earth cable).
Transportation - Get In
Siena's Ampugnano airport is 9 km from the city. However, there are no scheduled flights to Siena airport. For additional information tel 0577-392226. A shuttle service connection is currently available between the airport and Piazza Gramsci TRA-IN (tel. 0577-204224).
Most travellers arriving by plane will land at airports in Florence or Pisa. Buses of the Sena line connect Siena with the Bologna Marconi airport (twice daily, 2.5 hours), a favorite with the discount carriers. There is also a bus link to Pisa airport.
From the north, take the Chiantigiana from Florence (SS 222 – 72 km) that elegantly crosses the hills of Chianti or the highway (SS 2 superstrada Siena/Firenze - 68 km). From the south, Siena can be reached by taking the Autostrada from Rome (A1 Roma-Firenze, exit Valdichiana), turning right on state highway #326 (Bettolle-Siena - 240 km). Relatively cheap parking can be found near Fortezza Medicea, northwest of the city stadium - and around it.
From the north, trains go about hourly directly from Florence to Siena, and otherwise it is possible to take any train that stops in Empoli and find train connections from Empoli to Siena every 30–60 minutes. It costs €7.40 single (Feb 2012). From the south, direct connections to Siena depart from Chiusi or from Grosseto. The train station in Siena is located approximately 2 km from Siena's historical centre — a five-minute bus ride — and buses leave regularly from Piazza del Sale. Buses #3, 8, 10, 17 and 77 leave from the station to Piazza del Sale and bus #17 departs from Piazza del Sale for the train station. If you don't mind walking uphill, you can also walk to the centre in about 20–30 minutes: Exit the train station, turn left, walk past the bus park and then uphill, bearing right at the traffic circle, staying on the road called Viale Giuseppe Manzini. Go through the city gates, and follow the road as it bends sharply to the right. The road becomes Via Garibaldi, which will take you into the city.
By far the easiest way to get to Siena from Florence (though the train journey is much more picturesque). Take the SITA bus (located in a small underground bus depot across the street, to the west of Santa Maria Novella train station). After 1hr 20 minutes it will eventually drop you off at Piazza Garibaldi which is located well within the walls of the city, allowing for an easy walk to any of the city's attractions. For the return journey, buses depart from Piazza Gramsci. The cost was €7.10 in 2012.
Connections are also available from Rome (3 hours) and various other cities.
Transportation - Get Around
The centre of Siena is accessible only on foot. Cars (other than taxis, police, etc.) are strictly prohibited; motorcycles and scooters are OK, though. Patrons of the central hotels are allowed to drive up and unload the luggage (and then get out), but only by obtaining one-time permission slips from the hotel front desk beforehand (also have them draw the route for you on a map and follow it to the letter; if you miss a turn, it may be wiser to head out the nearest gate, get on the circumferential road just outside the walls, return to the starting point and try again); have this pass handy if stopped by police while driving within the walls - or, in a pinch, at least a confirmation of your reservation. Don't rush your turns, and swing wide like a truck, as you would be sometimes required to fit between two stone walls into an opening just slightly wider than your vehicle. For more information, contact "Siena Parcheggi" tel. 0577-228711. To call or reserve a taxi, telephone the Central Reservation Office at 0577-49222.
Siena may be the only city in Mediterranean Europe where parking is not a massive headache, though charges have increased dramatically in the past few years and you can expect to pay €40.00 or more per day for the more convenient spots. The huge parking lots around the Fortezza and the adjacent football stadium are no longer free, but on the other hand, you can now count on finding a space there almost anytime; there is free parking further out, with minibus service, from Due Ponti and Coroncina (beyond Porta Romana).
Google maps shows the location of all bus stops within the city. If you zoom in and click the bus symbol on the map, you will get a list of bus routes serving that stop. There are several small buses (Pollicino) run by the TRA-IN company that cover some streets located in the centre and several bus lines to and from the outskirts of town. Bus tickets cost 1.10 € per fare (as of June 2012) when bought at kiosks/tabacchi but are more expensive when bought from the driver.
The website for Siena Mobilità has bus schedules (orari) for routes within Siena. Click the tab Servizio urbano Siena.
Siena is a city (a small city, yes, but it isn't like one of the tiny hill towns) and the attractions away from the Campo/Duomo area are spread out on three steep hills, so walking is a necessity. You will understand why Italians can eat so much and not get fat, when you see old women carrying groceries up a long street with a 30-degree incline. If you are tired, check to see if you can get to your destination by walking along a ridge, rather than going in a straight line down a hill and back up.
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Siena is large enough still to have items made in the local area, stemming from its history of craftmanship, so you will find some items not readily available anywhere else. Fine paper, neckties, fabrics, embroidery/tapestry, glazed terracotta, gold jewelry, and of course local food and wine, are some of the distinctive items produced locally. There is a great shop on Via di Citta (the main street) with leather luggage, purses, bags etc.
A huge Market is held every Wednesday around the Fortezza Mediceana from about 7am to about 2pm.
Siena has popular stores such as Furla, United Colors of Benetton, Upim, Intimissimi and more.
Due to the city's status as a major tourist attraction there are plenty of newsagents selling international papers and magazines. A good example is the shop opposite the church on Via San Marco in the Snail Contrada, which has a friendly and helpful multilingual owner, who also runs an internet access point.
- Olive Oil. If you have a car then you can drive out to the Montestigliano Olive estate 12 km outside the walls, perched high on a hill surrounded by olive trees. You can taste and buy their single estate, extra virgin olive oil (as well as a few other goodies) to take with you or have shipped. There is also a lovely courtyard where you can sit and enjoy a glass of wine and admire the view.
- Excellent gelato can be found just off the Campo at two gelaterias called "Il Gelato" and "Brivido". Ask for Romaney at "Il Gelato"
- For something more substantial, "La Chiacchiera" next to the House of St Catherine is an excellent source of typical Tuscan cuisine; the pici (thick, homemade noodles) are superb.
- Osteria Nonna Gina, Piano dei Mantellini, 2, . Outside the Due Porte.
- Osteria del Gatto, Via di San Marco, 8 (San Marco quarter), , e-mail: [email protected]. 12:15-14:30/19:45-22:00. Not far from the above Nonna Gina. Menu will be in Italian but the waiters and the cooks will be available for a translation "on the fly". Fish is served one week a month. If you happen to be there in that week, don't miss the "Tonno alla Mediterranea" (tuna fish in the Mediterranean way). €18.00-€28.00.
- La Torre. This is also an excellent restaurant, in the contrada of the same name.
- Osteria Sotto le Fonti, Via Esterna Fontebranda, 114, . Restaurant off the beaten path, with owners who serve you personally; the waitress speaks fluently English (very rare in Italy) and knows how to recommend you wine, as she is also a wine tour guide. Is a pleasant walk downhill shortly outside the gates of the city, allowing you to look up at the top of the Duomo.
- Nannini, Banchi di Sopra, . A bakery/cafe with an excellent selection of Tuscan pastries: Ricciarelli, Cavalucci, Cantucci, Panforte, etc. The ingredients of same are prominently displayed in most cases, making Nannini a very attractive option for the travelling vegan.
- Antica Osteria da Divo, Via Franciosa, 25, . Tue: Closed, Wed-Mon: noon-2:30pm then 7:00pm-10:30pm. Has a splendid atmosphere in a medieval undercroft environment and excellent Italian cuisine served in a decorative haute style.
Sienese specialties include:
- Panforte - a unique kind of dense cake, made of honey, flour, almonds, candied fruits, a secret blend of spices, etc. Tipo Margherita is the classic, but several other types are made. Panforte is commercially manufactured only in Siena and neighboring Monteriggioni, its loyal ally in Medieval wars with Florence. The most famous brand of panforte is Sapori. You can buy panforte most cheaply in local supermarkets, but don't miss a trip to Nannini on Banchi di Sopra (see above), a pleasant caffé where you can buy not only their panforte by weight but also many other types of unusual pastries and so forth.
- Ricciarelli - small almond paste cakes.
Coffe & Drink
- Ristorante Sansedoni in Birreria (La Birreria), Piazza Il Campo, 58. Best priced drinks and food in Il Campo. Sit outside at a table in the central Piazza.
- Barone Rosso, Via Dei Termini N° 9. Great live music, but a bit on the seedy side.
- The Walkabout Pub, Via Pantaneto 90. Cool pub with Australian ambiance doing cool music.
Also, in the fortress is the excellent Enoteca Italiana, a wine bar and shop located in the fortress' vaults. The Enoteca Italiana stocks an extensive selection of wines produced all through Italy.
Additionally, since Siena is in the Chianti country, you can buy bottles of good Chianti wines at any market that sells food and wine.
Sights & Landmarks
Siena's historic centre is a UNESCO World Heritage site.
Piazza del Campo
This unique shell-shaped piazza is the centre of the city, and twice a year functions as the racetrack for the Palio (see "Do" below). It is beautiful and striking in itself and also lined by some of the most famous and beautiful Gothic buildings in town.
- The Palazzo Pubblico, which has functioned as Siena's City Hall for almost 800 years, is probably the building that most recognizably represents Siena. It contains (among many other things) the famous frescoes on good and bad government by Ambrogio Lorenzetti, frescoes by Simone Martini and Duccio, and access to the Torre del Mangia, from the top of which you can view a beautiful panorama of the Sienese countryside. The frescoes on good and bad government and their effects on the city and surrounding countryside (painted 1338-1339), probably Ambrogio Lorenzetti's greatest masterpieces, are in the Sala dei Nove, where the Council of Nine who ruled the city state in the early 14th century could see them and, it was hoped, would keep them close to mind while making important decisions. These frescoes and Duccio's Maestà in the Museo dell'Opera del Duomo are the most important paintings in Siena and for many people represent highlights of a visit to this city, but there are many other beautiful things to see in the Palazzo Pubblico, so allow some time (preferably a couple of hours) to view them all. This building's exterior is equally beautiful and includes a lovely marble chapel, the Cappella di Piazza, which is at the foot of the Torre di Mangia. Built in 1352, it is dedicated to the Virgin Mary, as was the entire city after it avoided annihilation in the devastating black plague of 1348.
- The Piccolomini Palace, one of the most popular sites on the Piazza del Campo, was built in 1459 by the well-known architect Bernardo Rossellino, disciple of Leon Battista Alberti. This Florentine-style palace is home to the official archives of Siena.
- The Palazzo Sansedoni opposite the Palazzo Pubblico is another beautiful Gothic building on the Campo.
- The Fonte Gaia, the fountain sculpted in 1419 by the great Sienese sculptor, Jacopo della Quercia, is a focal point of the piazza. The remains of the original sculptures can be viewed in the loggia of the Palazzo Pubblico (see above), but the current appearance of the fountain, composed of copies made in 1858, is not bad and remains a major sight in this city.
Other major sights
- Duomo di Siena(Siena Cathedral), Piazza del Duomo, 8, , e-mail: [email protected]. The open hours of the Cathedral, Library, Museum, Panorama, Crypt, Baptistery are generally the same, except that you may not enter the museum less than 1 hour before closing time. Complete opening hours information here; "Festive" means Sundays and church holidays. Exclusive of Sundays and holidays (festivi), everything opens at 10:30 and closes at 19:00 between 1 March and 2 November and at 17:30 between 3 November and 28 February, except that the closing hour is 18:00 between 26 December and 6 January. Siena's magnificent black and white Italian Romanesque cathedral includes the Libreria Piccolomini, with splendid frescoes by Pinturicchio, the lovely Baptistery (separate entrance and charge), and an attached museum (separate entrance and charge, see below). Also marvel at the inlaid floors; even as they are sometimes covered for protection, a section is always left visible. At the height of Siena's power it was decided to enlarge the cathedral so that the existing Duomo would become merely its transept; the money ran out very soon after one of the new outer walls, which is still standing as a reminder of the grandiose undertaking, was completed. Opa Si Pass: €12.00 from March 1 to October 31 and €8.00 from 1 November to 28 February. Valid for 3 days, allows admission to the Duomo, including the Libreria Piccolomini and Crypt, the Baptistery, Museo dell'Opera and Facciatone. This is a very good idea if you have enough time; it is possible to see all of this in one day, but expect it to take at least the better part of an afternoon. Otherwise, you can see details of costs for individual tickets here.
- Museo dell'Opera del Duomo. This museum includes the famous Maestà by Duccio and many other great works by Sienese masters. After you've seen all the art, you can also treat yourself to a beautiful panorama from Il Facciatone, the tower in this building. The view is about as good as the one from the Torre del Mangia in the Palazzo Pubblico but somewhat different, although if you are rushed for time, pick one tower to climb (either one). Admission: € 7.00, or see information on Opa Si Pass above.
- Pinacoteca Nazionale di Siena, Via di San Pietro, 29, . Mondays: 09:00 - 13:00, Tuesday-Saturday: 08:15 - 19:15, Sundays and holidays: 09:00 - 13:00. The Pinacoteca is full of Sienese painting from the city's Medieval heyday. Regular admission: €4; reduction for students from the EU aged 18-25 and their docents: €2; free entry to children, and to everyone on the first Sunday of every month.
These "secondary sights" are still quite interesting; it's just that the major sights in Siena are so outstanding that visitors in a rush may want to concentrate on them. If you have more time, walk all around town and see these sights, too.
- This piazza features a 19th-century statue of a locally famous economist and author named Sallustio Bandini, but more so, a set of harmoniously ordered Gothic buildings at right angles, forming 3 sides of a rectangle, with the fourth side open.
- The Palazzo Salimbeni, built in 1472, is the world headquarters of Monte dei Paschi di Siena, the major banking corporation which has a hand in much of the economic and cultural life of the city. The building itself is well worth looking at from the outside. Inside, there are interesting documents showing the history of banking, plus a collection of paintings and other artwork, but you would have to request permission in advance if you'd like to have a chance to view them.
- Right across the Piazza Salimbeni from this palace of banking is the glorious Palazzo Spannocchi (built in 1473), with its row of fantastic carvings of the heads of Roman emperors in stone near the roof.
- The Palazzo Santucci, at right angles with the other two, was built in the 16th century, but in Gothic style to harmonize with the other two buildings.
Via di Città
- Palazzo Chigi-Saracini (Accademia Chigiana), Via di Città, 89, . This is another Gothic palazzo, or at least its façade remains Gothic, though the interior was modernized in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. The building currently (since 1932) houses the Accademia Chigiana, the city's conservatory of music. Quite a number of beautiful paintings are part of its collection, but the rooms that house the artwork are often used for classes and rehearsals or simply locked up when not in use, so if you would like to view its holdings, you will probably need to get permission in advance and make an appointment.
This piazza, a widening of the Banchi di Sopra, features a statue of the Lupa Senese (Sienese She-Wolf), a symbol adopted from Rome, suspended in the air as if on a stone pole.
- Palazzo Tolomei, Piazza Tolomei 9. This lovely palazzo was built between 1205 and 1212 by the Tolomei family when the area was outside of the city walls. Now, it is well within the walls and on the way from the Campo to Piazza Salimbeni.
- Basilica of San Francesco, Piazza San-Francesco 6. This Romanesque church was turned into a Gothic one and contains some notable Gothic art, including a moving fresco of the Crucifixion by Pietro Lorenzetti and one of the Martyrdom of Five Franciscan Brothers by his brother, Ambrogio.
- Basilica Cateriniana San Domenico, Piazza San Domenico, 1,, e-mail: [email protected]. From March to October: 7:00-18:30, from November to February: 9:00-18:00. This large, austere Gothic basilica (usually simply called San Domenico) is not only dedicated to St. Catherine of Siena, along with St. Dominic, but was frequented by her and contains a period portrait of her by Andrea Vanni and relics including her head. It also features several other works by Sienese Gothic painters and impressively high vaulted ceilings. It is quite close to the long-distance bus stop, so if you are going to or from Siena by bus and have the time even to briefly enter this house of prayer, do.Free entry.
- Birth House of St. Catherine of Siena (Santuario di Santa Caterina). In this house lived the 14th-century mystic who is one of the principal patron saints of Italy. If you are a devotee, it is natural to combine a visit here with a visit to San Domenico, but even if you are not a devotee, if you have the time, you are likely to find your visit interesting.
- Sant'Agostino, Piazza Sant'Agostino. Originally a Gothic church, it was damaged by fire in 1747 and was renovated with some Baroque additions and further added to in the 19th century. However, the main draws for the lover of paintings are from well before the fire and include an Enthroned Madonna with Child and Saints by the 14th-century Ambrogio Lorenzetti and a Crucifixion by the 15th-16th-century Perugino.
- Santa Maria dei Servi, Piazza Manzoni (About 650 m uphill from the Piazza del Campo, in the direction of the Porta Romana). This Romanesque church is much smaller than the huge edifices of the Duomo and San Domenico, but it contains some notable art including a Coronation of the Virgin and Saints by Bernardino Fungai, a Massacre of the Innocents attributed to Pietro Lorenzetti and collaborators and an Adoration of the Shepherds by Taddeo Di Bartolo.
- Fontebranda, Via di Fontebranda (150 m downhill from the Santuario di Santa Caterina). This Medieval fountain is the oldest in Siena, built in its current form in 1246 and remaining in place as itself, not a replica. Not surprisingly, it is somewhat worn and overgrown in places, but still impressive and beautiful, and would be a top sight in most other cities.
Museums & Galleries
- Santa Maria della Scala, Piazza del Duomo 1 (Right across the piazza from the Duomo). Monday and Wednesday, 10:30-16:30; Thursday-Sunday, 10:30-18:30. Closed Tuesday. This Medieval hospital, now a museum, is chock-full of Medieval art including altarpieces by Bartolommeo Bulgarini and frescoes by the Lorenzetti brothers and Simone Martini. Also part of the complex (no additional admission charge) is the Museo Archeologico Nazionale, which exhibits some important archeological finds from the area, plus items from public and private collections of antiquities that are mostly from Siena and Chiusi. € 9.00; reduced: € 8.00.
Things to do
Climb the "Torre del Mangia", the tall bell tower overlooking the Piazza del Campo. There is an entrance fee (8 Euro), and only 25 people are let in at a time, so there may be a wait. Not for the faint of heart or claustrophobic, it's about a 300-step hike and you are obliged to leave bags and purses in a locker at the ticket desk inside the tower itself. The panoramic view is exhilarating and well worth the climb. (Note that excellent though different views of the city are also available from the 'Panoramio' by the cathedral, entry to which is purchased as part of the cathedral museum ticket. If you will be in Siena for a while, the two views are different enough to warrant seeing both.)
By all means, walk on the Banchi di Sopra and Via di Città above the Campo, but also in any other part of the centro storico. There are loads of beautiful buildings, big and small, delightful little piazette, fountains and contrada churches, and many views. Local life in the evening typically revolves around the passeggio, the nightly walk through town, which often includes some gelato, macedonia di frutta con gelato, or/and drinks at one end or the other. So do as the locals do and enjoy a walk through this beautiful city.
Tourist information is located in the Piazza del Campo.
- Take a tour of an Etruscan tomb, visit a winery for a wine tasting, sample regional food, and visit a local village. There are many such tours available.
Festivals and events
- Palio Horse Race. A horse race like nowhere else, between the 17 contrade of Siena, is run in The Campo of Siena on July 2 and August 16. All Sienese are affiliated with one of the contrade, to which a typical Sienese feels loyal with a strength perhaps surpassed only by their loyalty to their family. Since the 11th century, the Sienese have conducted festivals every year where the contrade compete for renown (and in times gone by, actual political power) through contests such as flag throwing, horse racing and even fist fights. The fist fights no longer happen (a heavy police presence in the weeks prior to the contest sees to that), but the spirit of competition between contrade is still fierce. The race itself is in late evening but the whole day of the race is taken up with processions through the streets of the various contrade competing in the particular race (only ten can compete at any time for safety reasons).
- Classical concerts during the summer at the Accademia Musicale Chigiana, and at various locations in the city during the Chigiana International Festival.
- Siena Jazz Festival. During summer.