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Trieste is a city and seaport in northeastern Italy. It is situated towards the end of a narrow strip of Italian territory lying between the Adriatic Sea and Slovenia, which lies almost immediately south and east of the city. It is also located near Croatia some further 30 kilometres (19 mi) south. Trieste is located at the head of the Gulf of Trieste and throughout history it has been influenced by its location at the crossroads of Latin, Slavic, and Germanic cultures. In 2009, it had a population of about 205,000 and it is the capital of the autonomous region Friuli-Venezia Giulia and the Province of Trieste.
Trieste was one of the oldest parts of the Habsburg Monarchy. In the 19th century, it was the most important port of one of the Great Powers of Europe. As a prosperous seaport in the Mediterranean region, Trieste became the fourth largest city of the Austro-Hungarian Empire (afterVienna, Budapest, andPrague). In the fin-de-siècle period, it emerged as an important hub for literature and music. It underwent an economic revival during the 1930s, and Trieste was an important spot in the struggle between the Eastern and Western blocs after the Second World War. Today, the city is in one of the richest regions of Italy, and has been a great centre for shipping, through its port (Port of Trieste),shipbuilding and financial services.
|TIME ZONE :||• Time zone CET (UTC+1)
• Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
|LANGUAGE :||Italian (official)|
|RELIGION :||Roman Catholic|
|AREA :||84.49 km2 (32.62 sq mi)|
|ELEVATION :||2 m (7 ft)|
|COORDINATES :||45°38′N 13°48′E|
|SEX RATIO :||• Male: 48.6%
• Female: 51.4%
|AREA CODE :||040|
|POSTAL CODE :||34100|
|DIALING CODE :||+39 40|
Trieste (Triest in German, Trst in Slovenian and Croatian) is a city in North-East Italy that was once a very influential and powerful centre of politics, literature, music, art and culture under Austrian-Hungarian dominion.
Today, Trieste is often forgotten as tourists head off to the big Italian cities like Rome and Milan and it is a very charming and underestimated city, with a quiet and lovely almost Eastern European atmosphere, several pubs and cafes, some stunning architecture and a beautiful sea view. It was also, for a while, the residence of the famous Irish writer, James Joyce.
It is situated on the crossroads of several commercial and cultural flows: German middle Europe to the north, Slavic masses and the Balkans to the east, Italy and then Latin countries to the west and the Mediterranean Sea to the south.
Its artistic and cultural heritage is linked to its singular "border town" location. You can find some old Roman architecture (a small theatre near the sea, a nice arch into old city and an interesting Roman museum), Austrian empire architecture across the city centre (similar to stuff you can find in Vienna) and a nice atmosphere of metissage of Mediterranean styles, as Trieste was a very important port during the 18th century.
Since the second millennium BC, the location was an inhabited site. Originally an Illyrian settlement, the Veneti entered the region in the 10th-9th c. BC and seem to have given the town its name,Tergeste, since terg* is a Venetic word meaning market (q.v. Oderzo whose ancient name was Opitergium). Still later, the town was later captured by the Carni, a tribe of the Eastern Alps, before becoming part of the Roman republic in 177 BC during the Istrian War. Between 52 and 46 BC, it was granted the status of Roman colony under Julius Caesar, who recorded its name as Tergeste in Commentarii de Bello Gallico (51 BC), his work which recounts events of the Gallic Wars.
In imperial times the border of Roman Italy moved from the Timavo river to Formione (today Risano). Roman Tergeste flourished due to its position on the road from Aquileia, the main Roman city in the area, to Istria, and as a port, some ruins of which are still visible. Emperor Augustus built a line of walls around the city in 33–32 BC, while Trajan built a theatre in the 2nd century. At the same time, the citizens of the town were enrolled in the tribe Pupinia. In 27 BC, Trieste was incorporated in Regio X of Augustan Italia.
In the early Christian era Trieste continued to flourish. Between AD 138 and 161, its territory was enlarged and nearby Carni and Catali were granted Roman citizenship by the Roman Senate and Emperor Antoninus Pius at the pleading of a leading Tergestine citizen, the quaestor urbanus, Fabius Severus.
The city was witness to the Battle of the Frigidus in Vipava valley in AD 397, in which Theodosius defeated Eugene. Despite the deposition of Romulus Augustulus at Ravenna in 476 and the ascension to power of Odoacer in Italy, Trieste was retained for a time by the Roman Emperor seated atConstantinople, and thus, became a Byzantine military outpost. In 539, the Byzantines annexed it to the Exarchate of Ravenna and despite Trieste's being briefly taken by the Lombards in 567 in the course of their invasion of northern Italy, held it until the time of the coming of the Franks.
In 788, Trieste submitted to Charlemagne who placed it under the authority of their count-bishop who in turn was under the Duke of Friùli. From 1081 the city came loosely under the Patriarchate of Aquileia, developing into a free commune by the end of the 12th century.
During the 13th and 14th centuries, Trieste became a maritime trade rival to the Republic of Venice which briefly occupied it in 1283–87, before coming under the patronage of the Patriarchate of Aquileia. After committing a perceived offence against Venice, the Venetian State declared war against Trieste in July 1368 and by November had occupied the city. Venice intended to keep the city and began rebuilding its defenses, but was forced to leave in 1372. By the Peace of Turin in 1381, Venice renounced its claim to Trieste and the leading citizens of Trieste petitioned Leopold III of Habsburg, Duke of Austria, to make Trieste part of his domains. The agreement of voluntary submission (dedizione) was signed at the castle of Graz on 30 September 1382. The city maintained a high degree of autonomy under the Habsburgs, but was increasingly losing ground as a trade hub, both at the expense of Venice and the Ragusa(Dubrovnik). In 1463, a number of Istrian communities petitioned Venice to attack Trieste. Trieste was saved from utter ruin by the intervention of Pope Pius II who had previously been bishop of Trieste. However, Venice limited Trieste's territory to three miles (4.8 kilometres) outside the city. Trieste would be assaulted again in 1468-1469 by Holy Roman Emperor Frederick III. His sack of the city is remembered as the "Destruction of Trieste."Trieste was fortunate to be spared another sack in 1470 by the Ottomans who burned the village of Prosecco, only about 5.3 miles (8.5 kilometres) from Trieste, while on their way to attack Friuli.
Early modern period
Following an unsuccessful Habsburg invasion of Venice in the prelude to the 1508–16 War of the League of Cambrai, the Venetians occupied Trieste again in 1508, and were allowed to keep the city under the terms of the peace treaty. However, the Habsburg Empirerecovered Trieste a little over one year later, when the conflict resumed. By the 18th century Trieste became an important port and commercial hub for the Austrians. In 1719, it was granted status as a free port within the Habsburg Empire by Emperor Charles VI, and remained a free port until 1 July 1891. The reign of his successor, Maria Theresa of Austria, marked the beginning of a very prosperous era for the city.
In the following decades, Trieste was briefly occupied by troops of the French Empire during the Napoleonic Wars on several occasions, in 1797, 1805 and 1809. From 1809 to 1813, Trieste was annexed into Illyrian Provinces, interrupting its status of free port and losing its autonomy. The municipal autonomy was not restored after the return of the city to the Austrian Empire in 1813. Following the Napoleonic Wars, Trieste continued to prosper as the Free Imperial City of Trieste (German: Reichsunmittelbare Stadt Triest), a status that granted economic freedom, but limited its political self-government. The city's role as Austria's main trading port and shipbuilding centre was later emphasized with the foundation of the merchant shipping line Austrian Lloyd in 1836, whose headquarters stood at the corner of the Piazza Grande and Sanità (today's Piazza Unità d'Italia). By 1913 Austrian Lloyd had a fleet of 62 ships comprising a total of 236,000 tons. With the introduction of the constitutionalism in the Austrian Empire in 1860, the municipal autonomy of the city was restored, with Trieste becoming capital of the Austrian Littoral crown land (German:Österreichisches Küstenland).
In the later part of the 19th century,Pope Leo XIII considered moving his residence to Trieste or Salzburgbecause of what he considered a hostile anti-Catholic climate in Italy following the 1870 Capture of Rome by the newly established Kingdom of Italy. However, the Austrian monarch, Franz Josef I, rejected the idea. The modernAustro-Hungarian Navy used Trieste as a base and for shipbuilding. The construction of the first major trunk railway in the Empire, the Vienna-Trieste Austrian Southern Railway, was completed in 1857, a valuable asset for trade and the supply of coal.
In 1882 an Irredentist activist, Guglielmo Oberdan, attempted to assassinate Emperor Franz Joseph, who was visiting Trieste. Oberdan was caught, convicted, and executed. He was regarded as a martyr by radical Irredentists, but as a cowardly villain by the supporters of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy. Franz Joseph, who reigned another thirty-five years, never visited Trieste again.
At the beginning of the 20th century, Trieste was a bustling cosmopolitan city frequented by artists and philosophers such as James Joyce, Italo Svevo,Sigmund Freud, Dragotin Kette, Ivan Cankar, Scipio Slataper, and Umberto Saba. The city was the major port on the Austrian Riviera, and perhaps the only real enclave of Mitteleuropa (i.e. Central Europe) south of the Alps. Viennese architecture and coffeehouses dominate the streets of Trieste to this day.
World War I, annexation to Italy and the Fascist era
Italy, in return for entering World War I on the side of the Allied Powers, had been promised substantial territorial gains, which included the former Austrian Littoral and western Inner Carniola. Italy therefore annexed the city of Trieste at the war end, in accordance with the provisions of the 1915 Treaty of London and the Italian-Yugoslav 1920 Treaty of Rapallo. While only a few hundred Italians remained in the newly established South Slavic state, a population of half a million Slavs, of which the annexed Slovenes were cut off from the remaining three-quarters of total Slovene population at the time, were subjected to forced Italianization. Trieste had a large Italian majority, but it had more ethnic Slovene inhabitants than even Slovenia's capital of Ljubljana at the end of 19th century.
The Italian lower middle class—who felt most threatened by the city's Slovene middle class—sought to make Trieste a città italianissima, committing a series of attacks led by Black Shirts against Slovene-owned shops, libraries, and lawyers' offices, and even the Trieste National Hall, a central building to the Slovene community. By the mid-1930s several thousand Slovenes, especially members of the middle class and the intelligentsia from Trieste, emigrated to the Kingdom of Yugoslavia or to South America. Among the notable Slovene émigrés from Trieste were the author Vladimir Bartol, the legal theorist Boris Furlan and the Argentine architect Viktor Sulčič. The political leadership of the around 70,000 émigrés from the Julian March in Yugoslavia was mostly composed by Trieste Slovenes: Lavo Čermelj, Josip Vilfan and Ivan Marija Čok. Despite the exodus of the Slovene and German speakers, the city's population increased because of the migration of Italians from other parts of Italy. Several thousand ethnic Italians from Dalmatia also moved to Trieste from the newly created Yugoslavia.
In the late 1920s, resistance began with the Slovene militant anti-fascist organization TIGR, which carried out several bomb attacks in the city centre. In 1930 and 1941, two trials of Slovene activists were held in Trieste by the fascistSpecial Tribunal for the Security of the State. During the 1920s and 1930s, several monumental building were built in the Fascist architectural style, including the impressive University of Trieste and the almost 70 m (229.66 ft) tall Victory Lighthouse (Faro della Vittoria), which became a city landmark. The economy improved in the late 1930s, and several large infrastructure projects were carried out.
The Fascist government encouraged some of the artistic and intellectual subcultures that emerged in the 1920s and the city became home to an important avant-garde movement in visual arts, centered around the futuristTullio Crali and the constructivist Avgust Černigoj. In the same period, Trieste consolidated its role as one of the centres of modern Italian literature, with authors such as Umberto Saba, Biagio Marin, Giani Stuparich, and Salvatore Satta. Intellectuals frequented the historic Caffè San Marco, still open today. Some non-Italian intellectuals remained in the city, such as the Austrian authorJulius Kugy, the Slovene writer and poet Stanko Vuk, the lawyer and human rights activist Josip Ferfolja and the anti-fascist clergyman Jakob Ukmar.
The promulgation of the anti-Jewish racial laws in 1938 was a severe blow to the city's Jewish community, at the time the third largest in Italy. The fascist anti-semitic campaign resulted in a series of attacks on Jewish property and individuals, culminating in July 1942 when the Synagogue of Trieste was raided and devastated by the Fascist Squads and the mob.
World War II and aftermath
With the annexation of Province of Ljubljana by Italy and the subsequent deportation of 25,000 Slovenes, which equaled 7.5% of the total population of the Province, the operation, one of the most drastic in Europe, filled up Rab concentration camp, Gonars concentration camp, Monigo (Treviso), Renicci d'Anghiari, Chiesanuova, and other Italian concentration camps where altogether 9,000 Slovenes died, World War II came close to Trieste. Following trisection of Slovenia, starting from the winter of 1941, the first Slovene Partisans appeared in Trieste province although the resistance movement did not become active in the city itself until late 1943.
After the Italian armistice in September 1943, the city was occupied by Wehrmacht troops. Trieste became nominally part of the newly constitutedItalian Social Republic, but it was de facto ruled by Germany, who created theOperation Zone of the Adriatic Littoral out of former Italian north-eastern regions, with Trieste as the administrative centre. The new administrative entity was headed by Friedrich Rainer. Under German occupation, the onlyconcentration camp with a crematorium on Italian soil was built in a suburb of Trieste, at the Risiera di San Sabba on 4 April 1944. About 3,000 Jews, South Slavs and Italian anti-Fascists died at the Risiera, while thousands were imprisoned before being transferred to other concentration camps.
The city saw intense Italian and Yugoslav partisan activity and suffered fromAllied bombings. The city's Jewish community was deported to extermination camps, where most of them died.
On 30 April 1945, the Italian anti-Fascist National Liberation Committee (Comitato di Liberazione Nazionale, or CLN) of Marzari and Savio Fonda, made up of approximately 3,500 volunteers, incited a riot against the Nazi occupiers. On May 1, Allied members of the Yugoslav Partisans' 8th Dalmatian Corps took over most of the city, except for the courts and the castle of San Giusto, where the German garrisons refused to surrender to anyone other than New Zealanders.(The Yugoslavs had a reputation for shooting German and Italian prisoners.) The 2nd New Zealand Division continued to advance towards Trieste along Route 14 around the northern coast of the Adriatic sea and arrived in the city the following day (see official histories The Italian Campaign and Through the Venetian Line). The German forces surrendered on the evening of May 2, but were then turned over to the Yugoslav forces.
The Yugoslavs held full control of the city until June 12, a period known in the Italian historiography as the "forty days of Trieste".
During this period, hundreds of local Italians and anti-Communist Slovenes were arrested by the Yugoslav authorities, and many of them were never seen again. These included not only former Fascist and German collaborators, but also Italian nationalists and any other real or potential opponents of Yugoslav Communism. Some were interned in Yugoslav concentration camps (in particular at Borovnica, Slovenia), while others were simply murdered and thrown into potholes ("foibe") on the Karst Plateau.
After an agreement between the Yugoslav leader Josip Broz Tito and the British Field Marshal Harold Alexander, the Yugoslav forces withdrew from Trieste, which came under a joint British-U.S. military administration. The Julian March was divided between Anglo-American and Yugoslav military administration until September 1947 when the Paris Peace Treaty established the Free Territory of Trieste.
Zone A of the Free Territory of Trieste (1947–54)
In 1947, Trieste was declared an independent city state under the protection of the United Nations as the Free Territory of Trieste. The territory was divided into two zones, A and B, along the Morgan Line established in 1945.
From 1947 to 1954, the A Zone was governed by the Allied Military Government, composed of the American "Trieste United States Troops" (TRUST), commanded by Major General Bryant E. Moore, the commanding general of the American 88th Infantry Division, and the "British Element Trieste Forces" (BETFOR), commanded by Sir Terence Airey, who were the joint forces commander and also the military governors. Zone A covered almost the same area of the current Italian Province of Trieste, except for four small villages south of Muggia, which were given to Yugoslavia after the dissolution (see London Memorandum of 1954) of the Free Territory in 1954. Zone B, which was under the administration of Miloš Stamatović, then colonel of the Yugoslav People's Army, was composed of the north-westernmost portion of the Istrian peninsula, between the river Mirna and the Debeli Rtič cape.
In 1954, in accordance with the Memorandum of London the vast majority of Zone A, including the city of Trieste, was given as civil administration to Italy. Zone B was given as a civil administration to Yugoslavia along with four villages from Zone A (Plavje, Spodnje Škofije, Hrvatini, and Jelarji), and was divided among the Socialist Republic of Slovenia and Croatia. The final border line withYugoslavia, and the status of the ethnic minorities in the areas, was settled bilaterally in 1975 with the Treaty of Osimo. This line now constitutes the border between Italy and Slovenia.
The territory of Trieste is composed of several different climate zones depending on the distance from the sea and elevation. The average temperatures are 5.4 °C (42 °F) in January and 23.3 °C (74 °F) in July. The climatic setting of the city is humid subtropical climate (Cfa according to Köppen climate classification) with strong Mediterranean influences.
Climate data for Trieste
|Record high °C (°F)||16.6
|Average high °C (°F)||7.6
|Daily mean °C (°F)||5.4
|Average low °C (°F)||3.8
|Record low °C (°F)||−9.3
|Source #1: Servizio Meteorologico dell'Aeronautica Militare|
Trieste lies in the northernmost part of the high Adriatic in northeastern Italy, near the border with Slovenia. The city lies on the Gulf of Trieste.
Built mostly on a hillside that becomes a mountain, Trieste's urban territory lies at the foot of an imposing escarpment that comes down abruptly from the Karst Plateau towards the sea. The karst landforms close to the city reach an elevation of 458 metres (1,503 feet) above sea level.
It lies on the borders of the Italian geographical region, the Balkan Peninsula, and the Mitteleuropa.
During the Austro-Hungarian era, Trieste became a leading European city in economy, trade and commerce, and was the fourth-largest and most important centre in the empire, after Vienna, Budapest and Prague. The economy of Trieste, however, fell into a decline after the city's annexation to Italy after World War I. But Fascist Italy promoted a huge development of Trieste in the 1930s, with new manufacturing activities related even to naval and armament industries (like the famous "Cantieri Aeronautici Navali Triestini (CANT)"). Allied bombings during World War II destroyed the industrial section of the city (mainly the shipyards). As a consequence, Trieste was a mainly peripheral city during the Cold War. However, since the 1970s, Trieste has experienced a certain economic revival.
Today, Trieste is a lively and cosmopolitan city, with about 8% of its population hailing from a cultural community, and is a major centre in the EU for trade,politics, culture, shipbuilding, education, transport and commerce. The city is part of the Corridor 5 project to establish closer transport connections between Western and Eastern Europe, via countries such as Slovenia, Croatia, Hungary,Ukraine and Bosnia.
The Port of Trieste is a trade hub with a significant commercial shipping business, busy container and oil terminals, and steel works. The oil terminal feeds the Transalpine Pipeline which covers 40% of Germany's energy requirements (100% of the states of Bavaria and Baden-Württemberg), 90% of Austria and more than 30% of the Czech Republic's. The sea highway connecting the ports of Trieste and Istanbul is one of the busiest RO/RO [roll on roll-off] routes in the Mediterranean.The port is also Italy's and the Mediterranean's (and one of Europe's) greatest coffee ports, supplying more than 40% of Italy's coffee. The thriving coffee industry in Trieste began under Austria-Hungary, with the Austro-Hungarian government even awarding tax-free status to the city in order to encourage more commerce. Some remnants of Austria-Hungary's coffee-driven economic ambition remain, such as the Hausbrandt Trieste coffee company. As a result, present-day Trieste boasts many cafes, and is still known to this day as "the coffee capital of Italy". Companies active in the coffee sector have given birth to the Trieste Coffee Cluster as their main umbrella organization, but also as an economic actor in its own right.
Two Fortune Global 500 companies have their global or national headquarters in the city, respectively: Assicurazioni Generali (BIT: G) and Allianz (BIT: ALV). Other megacompanies based in Trieste are Fincantieri (BIT: FCT), one of the world's leading shipbuilding companies and the Italian operations of Wärtsilä. Prominent companies from Trieste include: AcegasApsAmga (Hera Group), Autamarocchi SpA, Banca Generali SpA (BIT: BGN), Genertel, HERA Trading,Illy, Italia Marittima, Modiano Playing Cards, Nuovo Arsenale Cartubi Srl, Jindal Steel and Power Italia SpA; Pacorini SpA, Siderurgica Triestina (Arvedi Group), TBS Group (BIT: TBS), Telit (AIM: TCM), and polling and marketing company SWG. With a dynamic banking institution, the Zadružna Kraška Banka (ZKB), the local Slovene community contributes vigorously to the economy.
Trieste is administratively divided in seven districts:
Altipiano Ovest: Borgo San Nazario · Contovello (Kontovel) ·Prosecco (Prosek) · Santa Croce (Križ)
Altipiano Est: Banne (Bani) · Basovizza (Bazovica) · Gropada (Gropada) · Opicina (Opčine) · Padriciano (Padriče) · Trebiciano (Trebče)
Barcola (Slovene: Barkovlje) · Cologna (Slovene: Kolonja) · Conconello (Ferlugi) · Gretta (Slovene:Greta) · Grignano (Grljan) · Guardiella (Slovene: Verdelj) · Miramare · Roiano (Slovene: Rojan) · Scorcola (Škorklja)
Barriera Nuova · Borgo Giuseppino · Borgo Teresiano · Città Nuova · Città Vecchia · San Vito · San Giusto · Campi Elisi · Sant'Andrea · Cavana
Barriera Vecchia (Stara Mitnica) · San Giacomo (Sveti Jakob) · Santa Maria Maddalena Superiore (Sveta Marija Magdalena Zgornja)
Cattinara (Katinara) · Chiadino (Slovene: Kadinj) · San Luigi · Guardiella (Verdelj) · Longera (Slovene: Lonjer) · San Giovanni (Sveti Ivan)· Rozzol (Slovene: Rocol) · Melara
Chiarbola (Slovene: Čarbola) · Coloncovez (Kolonkovec) · Santa Maria Maddalena Inferiore (Slovene: Spodnja Sveta Marija Magdalena) - Raute · Santa Maria Maddalena Superiore (Slovene:Zgornja Sveta Marija Magdalena) · Servola (Škedenj) · Poggi Paese · Poggi Sant'Anna (Sveta Ana)· Valmaura · Altura · Borgo San Sergio
The iconic city center is Piazza Unità d'Italia, which is between the large 19th-century avenues and the old medieval city, composed of many narrow and crooked streets.
Prices in Trieste
MARKET / SUPERMARKET
|Beer (domestic)||0.5 l||€0.90|
|Bottle of Wine||1 bottle||€5.00|
|Dinner (Low-range)||for 2||€28.00|
|Dinner (Mid-range)||for 2||€50.00|
|Dinner (High-range)||for 2||€74.00|
|Mac Meal or similar||1 meal||€6.50|
|Beer (Imported)||0.33 l||€4.00|
|Beer (domestic)||0.5 l||€4.30|
|Coctail drink||1 drink||€7.50|
|Men’s Haircut||1 haircut||€17.00|
|Mobile (prepaid)||1 min.||€0.15|
|Pack of Marlboro||1 pack||€5.10|
|Toilet paper||4 rolls||€1.95|
CLOTHES / SHOES
|Jeans (Levis 501 or similar)||1||€50.00|
|Dress summer (Zara, H&M)||1||€24.00|
|Sport shoes (Nike, Adidas)||1||€77.00|
|Local Transport||1 ticket||€1.35|
67 € per day
Estimated cost per 1 day including:
- meals in cheap restaurant
- public transport
- cheap hotel
233 € per day
Estimated cost per 1 day including:
- mid-range meals and drinks
Transportation - Get In
National flights via Milan, Rome and Genoa. International flights via Milan and Rome (Alitalia); direct flights from Munich (Air Dolomiti - Lufthansa [www]); direct flights from London and Birmingham (Ryanair [www]); direct flights from Belgrade (Jat [www]); direct flights from Tirana and Prishtina (BelleAir [www]).
The International Airport of Ronchi dei Legionari is 33km north of the city centre. A bus service (number 51) runs to the airport from Trieste's bus station (next to the railway station). Weekdays buses leave at 5 minutes and 35 minutes past the hour however on Sundays the service is every 1 to 2 hours. The bus takes about 55 minutes, a taxi (around 50 euro) takes 30-35 minutes. Tickets can be bought from a machine in the airport terminal. You can also take a train from Trieste station to Monfalcone (approximately 25 minutes) and take a short bus / taxi ride to the airport.
The airport is just off the A4 Trieste-Venice motorway (Redipuglia exit). Long and short-stay car parks are available.
Monfalcone Railway Station - located some 5 km from the airport on the Trieste-Venice railway line - can be reached by Local Transport service APT Bus 10, running every 20/25 minutes.
The public transport company APT operates bus and coach services linking the airport with:
- Gorizia: Coach 1 and other services in connection with Coach 51
- Monfalcone: Bus 10
- Udine: Coach 51 (also non-stop via the motorway)
- Trieste: Coach 51
Tickets can be purchased at city bus/coach stations or at the airport: in the Arrivals Hall, with an automatic machine for selfticketing and at the Post Office.
Taxis are available outside the Arrivals hall from 08.00 to 24.00. Taxi fare to Trieste is around 70 EUR.
A greater number of flights connect with Venice Marco Polo, Venice Treviso, Ljubljana (Slovenia) and Pula (Croatia) which are all less than 2 hours from Trieste by private or public transport.
Lots of trains from Venice and Udine, InterCity trains from Rome and Florence, FrecciaBianca from Milan and Torino at the Central Railway Station. If you arrive by train, the last 15 minutes of travel you have a beautiful sight, because the railway goes along the sea and if the weather is good it should be very striking.
Trains from Central Europe have all but diminished, the easiest option is to travel to the Slovenian border town of Sežana, which sees six daily trains from Ljubljana. From there, take a taxi across the border to Villa Opicina (5 km/10 minutes/10 euros - Taxi Tirič +386 41 62 13 47, Taxi Kras +386 40 23 34 90). To reach Trieste it's possible to travel by bus No. 2 or 4, or take the wonderful and very scenic historic tram to reach the city centre. Note that there is also a bus service between Sežana and Trieste but it is usually inconvenient (buses go only in the early morning and early afternoon, nothing between or later)
Local routes include Udine, Grado, San Candido/Innichen
At the Trieste Coach Station, bus and coach connections to several European countries, including Slovenia (Izola - Isola, Koper - Capodistria, Ljubljana, Piran- Pirano, Portorož - Portorose, Postojna - Postumia, Sežana - Sesana), Croatia(Dubrovnik, Poreč - Parenzo, Pula - Pola, Opatija - Abbazia, Rijeka - Fiume,Rovinj - Rovigno, Split - Spalato, Zadar - Zara) and Serbia (Belgrade - Belgrado) are available. Connections to Germany and Austria are available via Flixbus.
A4 Venice-Trieste, toll-gate Monfalcone-Lisert, exit point "Sistiana" (SS 14 "Costiera" ). The town is 24 km from the motorway.
SS 202 Triestina: Motorway A4, toll-gate Lisert, Carso Plateau, Opicina, Padriciano, Trieste
SS 15 Via Flavia: Koper (Slovenia) - Rabuiese border
SS 58, Carniola highway: Ljubljana (Slovenia) - Fernetti border - Opicina, where the highway joins to SS 202, Trieste
Transportation - Get Around
By Public Transport
Trieste has a network of buses running on a strict schedule. This can often be checked on the web. Routes are very frequent through the day but rarer after 9pm in the evening, on Sundays and holidays. Strikes occasionally affect buses but Trieste is a small city and most places of interest can easily be reached on foot.
Tickets cost €1.30 each, and can be bought from tobacconists and from machines which are found at some of the busier bus stops.
The bus system includes the #2 tram to Opicina, which is regarded as an attraction in and of itself.
For a small extra fee (€2-4) you can get unlimited bus and tram service with your FVG Card, which can be purchased at the Trieste tourist office in Piazza Unita d'Italia.
Like most of Europe, a stroll through the town to admire its ancient architecture is a very popular activity. You get to travel at your own pace and even get some coffee along the way. Trieste is not particularly big and if you do not have luggage with you there is no need to take a bus.
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During the 1970s and 1980s Trieste was the number one shopping destination for tourists from Yugoslavia.
- Ghetto and Piazza Unità. for Biedermeier and Liberty furniture, Bohemian glassware and Austrian silverware, and other fine antiques.
- Glassworks from France and Venice.
- Prints and antique engravings as well as books, postcards, and historical photographs.
The cuisine of Trieste reflects the living traditions of the many populations that have passed through the city over the centuries. In the city's restaurants, called "buffets", you can find delicious examples of the local Austrian and Slavic tradition.
- Caldaia Traditional dish of boiled pork.
- Jota a soup prepared with pork, potatoes, cabbage, and finely-ground beans
- Gnocchi in the style of Austrian dumplings, made with everything from ham to stuffed with plums.
- Brodetto Fish soup
- Risotto Creamy rice dish
- Sardoni in savor flavored pilchards
- Salads common favorites here include chicory and rocket
- Farmers of the plateau who had been allowed by an imperial decree to sell their own products during a period of 8 days, organized the so-calledosmizze, where it is possible to taste local wines and products, such as Monrupino's tabor cheese and honey from San Dorligo.
- The pastry shops in Trieste offer delicious local varieties of the most famous Austrian cakes: Sacher torte, krapfen, strucolo cotto and strucolo de pomi (local varieties of strudel), chiffeletti (cookies made with flour, eggs and potatoes and fried in oil)
- During Easter you can taste the pinza, a sweet leavened bread that many women still prepare at home and take to the bakery to be cooked. Richer variants of this are the titola, decorated with a hard-boiled egg, putizza and presnitz. Fritole, pancakes stuffed and fried in oil and fave, small round cookies made with almonds and aromas are typical during Carnival.
- Al Barattolo, Piazza S. Antonio Nuovo 2. Considering that this restaurant is located right at the Grand Canale, is has very moderate prices (and of course a beautiful view).
- In the first little alley to the left of the Piazza Unità d'Italia, leading towards the hill, there are several small pasta restaurants and bistros.
- Antica Trattoria Le Barettine (Le Barettine), Via del Bastione, 3, , e-mail: , (Mobile)[email protected]. Mon., Tue. 19.30 - 23.00 / Thu. - Sun. 12.30 - 15.00 / 19.30 - 23.00. Italian Seafood restaurant, huge wine collection, located in Trieste hystorical city center €30 - €50.
- Buffet da Siora Rosa, Piazza Hortis 3, . 8:00 - 21:30 Tue - Sat. One of Trieste's oldest family-owned restaurants operating since before World War II, serving typical Triestine cuisine. Particularly famous for their proscuitto cotto: cooked ham served with piquant mustard and horseradish. €10-25 per person.
Coffe & Drink
Some local specialties include:
- Frambua - from framboise - mint and tamarind
- Terrano wine other popular local wines include the Rosso, Malvasia, and the white Vitovska Garganja.
Coffee has been an important part of Trieste since the 1700s. Some of the most famous caffè, known as much for their famous patrons as their food and drink, include:
- Caffè Tommaseo, Riva 3 Novembre.
- Caffè San Marco, via Battisti, 18. Open since 1914, San Marco is as popular with today's students and tourists as it was in the days of Saba and Giotti.
- Caffè Torinese, Corso Italia, 2. Perfectly preserved gem from the 19th century.
- Caffè Pasticceria Pirona. One of the few remaining petesserias (cake shop that also sells coffee and liqueur, as well as beverages made from) to have retained its Viennese charm. One of its most devoted customers was none other than James Joyce.
- Caffè degli Specchi, Piazza Unità d'Italia.
- Chocolat, via Cavana 15. It's a must for hot chocolate in wintertime and chocolate icecream in summertime.
Locals usually enjoy coffee at the bar in the form of a capo in B, a small cappuccino (kind of like a macchiato but with a but more milk and foam) served in a glass cup. This is a unique kind of coffee only served in Trieste.
Sights & Landmarks
Unlike many other Italian cities, Trieste's all-inclusive tourist pass is well worth the price. The FVG Card can be purchased at the tourist center in Piazza Unita, and includes free access to nearly all the major attractions in the Trieste area, and many in other nearby cities. €15 for 48 hours, €20 for 72 hours, and €29 for 7 days.
- Città Vecchia (Old Town). Trieste boasts an extensive old town: there are many very narrow and crooked streets with typical medieval houses. Nearly the entire area is closed to traffic.
- The Austrian Quarter. Half of the city was built under Austrian-Hungarian dominion, so there is present a very large number of palaces that resemble Vienna. An iconic place of this quarter is the majestic Piazza Unità (Unity Square), which is Europe's largest sea-front square. The most present architecture styles are Neoclassical, Art Nouveau, Eclectic, and Baroque.
- The Roman Theatre. Trieste or Tergeste, which probably dates back to the protohistoric period, was enclosed by walls built in 33-32 BC on Emperor Octavius’s orders. The city developed greatly during the 1st and 2nd century AD. The Roman Theatre lies at the foot of the San Giusto hill, and faces the sea. The construction partially exploits the gentle slope of the hill, and most of the construction work is in stone. The topmost portion of the amphitheatre steps and the stage were presumably made of wood. The statues that adorned the theatre (which was brought to light in the '30s) are now preserved at the Town Museum. Three inscriptions from the Trajan period mention a certain Q. Petronius Modestus, a person who was closely connected with the development of the theatre, which was erected during the second half of the 1st century.
- Il Faro della Vittoria (Victory Lighthouse). The Lighthouse of the Victory, an impressive work of the Triestine architect Arduino Berlam (1880-1946) and of the sculptor Giovanni Mayer (1863-1943), has two important functions. Besides lighting the gulf of Trieste, in order to help navigation, it also serves as a commemorative monument dedicated to the fallen of the first Worid War. The lighthouse is topped by an embossed copper statue of Victory sculpted by Giovanni Mayer. Under this statue is affixed the anchor of the torpedo-boat Audace (the first Italian ship that entered the port of Trieste on November 3,1918).
- Arco di Riccardo. An Augustan gate built in the Roman walls in 33 A.D. It stands in Piazzetta Barbacan, in the narrow streets of the old town.
- Synagogue, . It's one of the largest in Europe, and was built in 1912. Open on Sundays 10÷12 and on Thursdays 15.30÷17.30, guided tours only, info Key Tre Viaggi
- Canal Grande. Just up the street Piazza Unità, Trieste's beautiful grand canal. Step onto the bridge to pose with a bronze statue of James Joyce, one of Trieste's many iconic statues that walk the streets instead of standing on pedestals.
- Grotta Gigante (15 km by city bus #42. Two wide parking lots are available on the outside.). This giant cave claims to be the biggest tourist cave in the world (since 1997 in the Guinness Book of Records). The enormous hall is 107 metres high, 280 metres long and 65 metres large. The multi-lingual guided tour takes about 45 minutes. You can also visit the Museum of Speleology is near the cave and besides the various speleological, geological and paleontological finds it also includes some valuable archeological pieces and a poster collection of the cave.
San Giusto - Cathedral and Castle
A walk on the castle ramparts and bastions gives a complete panorama of the city of Trieste, its hills and the sea.
- Capitoline Temple
- Church of San Giovanni
- San Michele al Carnale
- WWI Altar
- Roman forum and civic building
- Castle of San Giusto
- Park of Remembrance World War I commemorative park,
- Lapidary Garden. Contains Roman and Medieval relics discovered in Trieste. In it stands a Cenotaph to the archaeologist Johann Winckelmann, father of neoclassicism, who died in Trieste in 1769.
This historic 19th-century castle is just a 20 minute trip from Piazza Oberdan on the #36 bus.
- Maximilian's Chambers and those of his consort, Carlota of Belgium; the guest rooms; the information room telling the history of the Castle and the Park's construction.
- Duke Amadeo of Aosta's apartment with furnishings from the 1930's in the Rationalist style.
- Throne Room
- The park offers the public a chance for an interesting stroll among botanical species and an important collection of sculptures dotted along its numerous paths.
- The Stables, a building which was recently restored and is now used for temporary exhibitions;
- The Old Greenhouses
- Little Castle containing the seat of the Direction of the Natural Marine Reserve of Miramare and a small number of aquariums
Places of Worship
- Saint Spyridon Church (Serbian Orthodox Church of St. Spyridon), 9, Via San Spiridione. 9-12,17-20 Tue-Sat, 9-12 Fri.
Museums & Galleries
- Museo Revoltella, Via Diaz 27. This museum was donated to the city in 1869 by Baron Pasquale Revoltella, a great patron of the arts who liked to surround himself with precious and avant-garde works. In a building restored and extended by architect Carlo Scarpa, the museum today houses one of Italy’s finest collections of 19th-century, modern and contemporary art.
- Museo di Storia, Arte e Orto Lapidario (Museum of History and Art and Lapidary Garden), Piazza della Cattedrale, 1 Trieste. 9.00 – 18.00 (Tue–Sun); Mon closed. Archaeological, historical and art collections. Prehistoric and protohuman findings of local origin; Roman and medieval sculptures and epigraphs. Egyptian, Greek, Roman and pre-Roman antiques. Numismatic collection. Photograph and book libraries. €5, €3 reduced.
- Museo di Storia Naturale. Zoological, botanical, geological, palaeontological and mineralogical collections. Vivarium. Specialised scientific library.
- Museo della Comunità Ebraica di Trieste "Carlo e Vera Wagner"("Carlo e Vera Wagner" Museum of the Jewish Community of Trieste).Collection of ritual art of the Jewish community of Trieste, mainly silverware and fabrics.
- Museo della Risiera di San Sabba (Risiera di San Sabba Museum). A national monument - a testimonial of the only Nazi extermination camp in Italy.
- Railway Museum Trieste Campo Marzio. Housed in the former railhouse, the museum features drawings, models and fullsized train engines and railcars as well as horse-drawn trams from Trieste's past.
- Museo Sartorio, Largo Papa Giovanni XXIII, 1, .10.00-18.00 (Tue-Sun). Art collections donated to the city by the Sartorio family. Paintings from the 19th-20th c.; sculptures; sketches by Giambattista Tiepolo. Full: €6; reduced: €4.
Things to do
- Relax on Molo Audace, the long pier across from Piazza Unica d'Italia. An amazing place to watch the sunset.
- Take the tram #2 from Piazza Oberdan to Opicina. Alight at the Obelisco, and take a walk along the pedestrian Strada Vicentina to Prosecco. The views are superb. Do not miss it if you come to Trieste!
- The Karst (Kras in Slovene, Carsoin Italian) is the limestone plateau above the city on both sides of the border. It is ideal for walking and offers excellent views of the Gulf of Trieste including the coastal areas of Slovenia and northern Croatia. Many of the villages in the Karst are majority-Slovene speaking areas. The principal town in the Karst is Opicina reachable by tram or bus.
- Sunbathe at Barcola, Trieste's concrete, sandless beach just south of Miramare.
Things to know
The region of Friuli Venezia Giulia is officially quadrilingual (Italian, Slovene, Friulian, and German). Signs are often only in Italian in Trieste, as the city itself is generally Italian speaking and the local dialect (a form of the Venetian language) is called Triestine. Surrounding villages and towns are often inhabited by mostly Slovene speakers. Residents, and those working in the city, can easily find free courses to learn Italian, Slovene, German, English and many other languages. When walking around Trieste, you will also hear Croatian/Serbian all the time, mainly from people who visit the city on brief shopping trips.
Speakers of Italian or Slovene or German should find work easily in Trieste. The city has a large number of science parks which employ scientists from all over the world and communication at these centres is usually in English. There are also a small number of English language schools which employ native speakers.
Safety in Trieste
Trieste has a reputation of being one of Italy's safest cities possibly due to it being a border city (and therefore formerly full of border police and other security services). There are very few problems with regards to walking the streets at night, taking taxis or pickpocketing. Obviously normal precautions should be taken and like elsewhere in Italy be careful of drivers who tend to think that they own the road.