TURIN

Italy

Turin is a city and an important business and cultural centre in northern Italy, capital of the Piedmont region. The city is located mainly on the western bank of the Po River, in front of Susa Valley and surrounded by the western Alpine arch and by the Superga Hill. The population of the city proper is 892,649 (August 2015) while the population of the urban area is estimated by Eurostat to be 1.7 million inhabitants. The Turin metropolitan area is estimated by the OECD to have a population of 2.2 million.

Info Turin

introduction

Turin is a city and an important business and cultural centre in northern Italy, capital of the Piedmont region. The city is located mainly on the western bank of the Po River, in front of Susa Valley and surrounded by the western Alpine arch and by the Superga Hill. The population of the city proper is 892,649 (August 2015) while the population of the urban area is estimated by Eurostat to be 1.7 million inhabitants. The Turin metropolitan area is estimated by the OECD to have a population of 2.2 million.

The city has a rich culture and history, and is known for its numerous art galleries, restaurants, churches, palaces,opera houses, piazzas, parks, gardens, theatres, libraries, museums and other venues. Turin is well known for its renaissance, baroque, rococo,neo-classical, and art nouveau architecture.

Much of the city's public squares, castles, gardens and elegant palazzi such as Palazzo Madama, were built in the 16th to 18th century, after the capital of the Duchy of Savoy (later Kingdom of Sardinia) was moved to Turin from Chambery (now in France) as part of the urban expansion.

The city used to be a major European political centre, being Italy's first capital city in 1861 and being home to the House of Savoy, Italy's royal family. It was the capital of the Duchy of Savoy from 1563, then of the Kingdom of Sardinia ruled by the Royal House of Savoy and finally the first capital of the unified Italy. Turin is sometimes called the cradle of Italian liberty, for having been the birthplace and home of notable politicians and people who contributed to the Risorgimento, such as Cavour.

The city currently hosts some of Italy's best universities, colleges, academies, lycea and gymnasia, such as the six-century-old University of Turin and the Turin Polytechnic. Prestigious and important museums, such as the Museo Egizio and the Mole Antonelliana are also found in the city. Turin's several monuments and sights make it one of the world's top 250 tourist destinations, and the tenth most visited city in Italy in 2008.

Even though much of its political significance and importance had been lost by World War II, it became a major European crossroad for industry, commerce and trade, and currently is one of Italy's main industrial centres, being part of the famous "industrial triangle", along with Milan and Genoa. Turin is ranked third in Italy, after Milan and Rome, for economic strength.  With a GDP of $58 billion, Turin is the world's 78th richest city by purchasing power, and as of 2010 has been ranked by GaWC as a Gamma- world city. Turin is also home to much of the Italian automotive industry.

Turin is well known as the home of the Shroud of Turin, the football teams Juventus F.C. and Torino F.C., the headquarters of automobile manufacturers FIAT, Lancia and Alfa Romeo, and as host of the 2006 Winter Olympics.

info
POPULATION : 892,649
FOUNDED : 
TIME ZONE :• Time zone CET (UTC+1)
• Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
LANGUAGE :  Italian (official)
RELIGION :
AREA : 130.17 km2 (50.26 sq mi)
ELEVATION : 239 m (784 ft)
COORDINATES : 45°04′N 07°42′E
SEX RATIO : Male: 48.6%
 Female: 51.4%
ETHNIC :
AREA CODE : 011
POSTAL CODE : 10100, 10121-10156
DIALING CODE :  +39 11
WEBSITE : www.comune.torino.it

Tourism

Turin (Italian: Torino, Piedmontese: Turin), a large city of about one million inhabitants, is set in the Piedmont region of northwestern Italy, a one-hour drive from the French border and slightly more than that from the Mediterranean sea. It's famous for being the home of Italy's royal family. Today, Turin, with its fine, aristocratic atmosphere, old world sophisticated shops, grand boulevards and palaces, leafy parks, and several art galleries, is an increasingly popular tourist resort. The 2006 Winter Olympics, and its status recently as World Book Capital, have prompted tourists to visit this beautiful and underestimated Italian city, which has a longstanding cultural and artistic history.

While it's not a famous tourist destination like Florence or Rome, the setting is pleasant, with the Po River flowing through the city, the genteel hills overlooking the city and scattered with pleasant villas and surrounded by the Italian Alps off in the distance. This is why the famous architect Le Corbusier defined Turin as "the city with the most beautiful natural location in the world".

Turin is an important city of technology and industry, and the FIAT automobile company is based here. (The 'T' in the name stands for Torino; F I A T = Fabbrica Italiana Automobili Torino, which translates as: Italian Automobile (manu)Factory Turin.) It was also the birthplace to many important cultural and political movements in Italy.

Turin inhabitants are well known across Italy for their understatement and composure and the city reflects this attitude.

Many people consider Torino the European capital of Baroque: many palaces and churches were built in this style during the kingdom of the Savoia. It isn't the typical Italian city, with red and yellow buildings: is a bit more French, so much that is also called "the little Paris"; wide boulevards with white buildings make the city center more similar to Paris. Around the city, a crown of churches and castles, some up on a hilltop, some lost in a park, provide plenty of interesting views. Turin also has an aristocratic atmosphere - the centre is filled with posh 19th century cafes, regal-like arcaded mansions, debonair glittering restaurants, and grand churches.

Turin, as the former capital of the Kingdom of Sardinia and the Kingdom of Italy, is home of the Savoy Residences. In addition to the 17th-century Royal Palace, built for Madama Reale Christine Marie of France (the official residence of the Savoys until 1865) there are many palaces, residences and castles in the city centre and in the surrounding towns. Turin is home to Palazzo Chiablese, the Royal Armoury, the Royal Library, Palazzo Madama,Palazzo Carignano, Villa della Regina, and the Valentino Castle. The complex of the Residences of the Royal House of Savoy in Turin and in the nearby cities of Rivoli,Moncalieri, Venaria Reale, Agliè,Racconigi, Stupinigi, Pollenzo andGovone was declared a World Heritage Sites by UNESCO in 1997. In recent years, Turin has become an increasingly popular tourist destination, ranking 203rd in the world and 10th in Italy in 2008, with about 240,000 international arrivals.

The Egyptian Museum of Turin specialises in archaeology and anthropology, in particular the Art of Ancient Egypt. It is home to what is regarded as one of the largest collections of Egyptian antiquities outside of Egypt. In 2006 it received more than 500,000 visitors. The Museum of Oriental Art houses one of the most important Asian art collections in Italy.

Other museums include the Puppet Museum, the Museo Nazionale dell'Automobile, the Museum of Human Anatomy Luigi Rolando, and the Museo Nazionale della Montagna (National Museum of the Mountains).

The city is home to the well-known Shroud of Turin: a linen cloth bearing the image of a man who appears to have suffered physical trauma in a manner consistent with crucifixion. It is kept in the royal chapel of the Cathedral of Saint John the Baptist in the city centre. The origins of the shroud and its image are still the subject of intense debate among scientists, theologians, historians and researchers. It is popularly believed to be a depiction of Jesus Christ, however this matter is still controversial, as there seems to be a sufficient amount of historical and scientific evidence supporting the idea that it is, or is not, the Holy Face of Jesus. Nonetheless, it is a symbol of religious devotion and is one of the city's main symbols and tourist attractions.

History

Ancient origins

The Taurini were an ancient Celto-Ligurian Alpine people, who occupied the upper valley of the Po River, in the centre of modern Piedmont.

In 218 BC, they were attacked by Hannibal as he was allied with their long-standing enemies, the Insubres. The Taurini chief town (Taurasia) was captured by Hannibal's forces after a three-day siege. As a people they are rarely mentioned in history. It is believed that a Roman colony was established in 27 BC under the name of Castra Taurinorum and afterwards Julia Augusta Taurinorum (modern Turin). Both Livy and Strabo mention the Taurini's country as including one of the passes of the Alps, which points to a wider use of the name in earlier times.


Roman times

In the 1st century BC, probably 28 BC, the Romans created a military camp (Castra Taurinorum), later dedicated to Augustus (Augusta Taurinorum). The typical Roman street grid can still be seen in the modern city, especially in the neighbourhood known as the Quadrilatero Romano (Roman Quadrilateral). Via Garibaldi traces the exact path of the Roman city's decumanus which began at the Porta Decumani, later incorporated into the Castello or Palazzo Madama. The Porta Palatina, on the north side of the current city centre, is still preserved in a park near the Cathedral. Remains of the Roman-period theater are preserved in the area of the Manica Nuova. Turin reached about 5,000 inhabitants at the time, all living inside the high city walls.


Middle Ages

After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the town was conquered by the Heruli, the Ostrogoths, the Byzantines, the Lombards, then the Franks of Charlemagne (773). The Contea di Torino (countship) was founded in the 940s and was held by the Arduinic dynasty until 1050. After the marriage of Adelaide of Susa with Humbert Biancamano's son Otto, the family of the Counts of Savoy gained control. While the title of count was held by the Bishop as count of Turin (1092–1130 and 1136–1191) it was ruled as a prince-bishopric by the Bishops. In 1230–1235 it was a lordship under the Marquess of Montferrat, styled Lord of Turin. At the end of the 13th century, when it was annexed to the Duchy of Savoy, the city already had 20,000 inhabitants. Many of the gardens and palaces were built in the 15th century when the city was redesigned. The University of Turin was also founded during this period.


Early modern

Emmanuel Philibert, also known under the nickname of Iron Head, made Turin the capital of the Duchy of Savoy in 1563. Piazza Reale (named Piazza San Carlo today) and Via Nuova (current Via Roma) were added along with the first enlargement of the walls, in the first half of the 17th century; in the same period the Palazzo Reale (Royal Palace of Turin) was also built. In the second half of that century, a second enlargement of the walls was planned and executed, with the building of the arcaded Via Po, connecting Piazza Castello with the bridge on the Po through the regular street grid.

In 1706, during the Battle of Turin, the French besieged the city for 117 days without conquering it. By the Treaty of Utrecht the Duchy of Savoy acquired part of the former Duchy of Milan, including Turin, and the architect Filippo Juvarra began a major redesign of the city. Now the capital of a European kingdom, Turin had about 90,000 inhabitants at the time.


Late modern and contemporary

Turin, like the rest of Piedmont, was annexed by the French Empire in 1802. The city thus became the seat of theprefecture of Pô department until the fall of Napoleon in 1814, when the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia was restored with Turin as its capital. In the following decades, the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia led the struggle towards theunification of Italy. In 1861, Turin became the capital of the newly proclaimed united Kingdom of Italy until 1865, when the capital was moved to Florence and then to Rome after the conquest of the Papal States in 1870. In 1871, the Fréjus Tunnel was opened, making Turin an important communication node between Italy and France. The city in that period had 250,000 inhabitants. Some of the most iconic landmarks of the city, like the Mole Antonelliana, the Egyptian Museum, the Gran Madre di Dio church and Piazza Vittorio Veneto were built in this period. The late 19th century was also a period of rapid industrialisation, especially in the automotive sector: in 1899 Fiat was established in the city, followed by Lancia in 1906. The Universal Exposition held in Turin in 1902 is often regarded as the pinnacle of Art Nouveau design, and the city hosted the same event in 1911. By this time, Turin had grown to 430,000 inhabitants.

After World War I, harsh conditions brought a wave of strikes and workers' protests. In 1920 the Lingotto Fiat factory was occupied. The Fascist regime put an end to the social unrest, banning trade unions and jailing socialist leaders, notably Antonio Gramsci. On the other hand, Benito Mussolini largely subsidised the automotive industry, to provide vehicles to the army. Turin was then a target of Allied strategic bombing during World War II, being heavily damaged in its industrial areas by the air raids. The Allied's campaign in Italy started off from the South and slowly moved northwards in the following two years, leaving the northern regions occupied by Germans and collaborationist forces for about a couple of years.

Turin was not captured by the Allies until the end of Spring Offensive of 1945. By the time the vanguard of the armoured reconnaissance units of Brazilian Expeditionary Force reached the city, it was already freed by the Italian Partisans, that had begun revolting against the Germans on 25 April 1945. Days later, troops from the US Army's 1st Armored and 92nd Infantry Divisions came to substitute the Brazilians.

In the postwar years, Turin was rapidly rebuilt. The city's automotive industry played a pivotal role in the Italian economic miracle of the 1950s and 1960s, attracting hundred of thousands of immigrants to the city, particularly from the rural southern regions of Italy. The number of immigrants was so big that Turin was said to be "the third southern italian city after Naples and Palermo". The population soon reached 1 million in 1960 and peaked at almost 1.2 million in 1971. The exceptional growth gains of the city gained it the nickname of the Automobile Capital of Italy and the Detroit of Italy (Turin has been "twinned" with Detroit since 1998). In the 1970s and 1980s, the oil and automotive industry crisis severely hit the city, and its population began to sharply decline, losing more than one-fourth of its total in 30 years. The long population decline of the city has begun to reverse itself only in recent years, as the population grew from 865,000 to slightly over 900,000 by the end of the century. In 2006, Turin hosted the Winter Olympic Games.

Climate

Turin is located on the border of the humid subtropical climate and oceanic climate zones (Köppen climate classification Cfa/Cfb). This is in contrast to the Mediterranean climate characteristic of the coast of Italy.

Winters are moderately cold but dry, summers are mild in the hills and quite hot in the plains. Rain falls mostly during spring and autumn; during the hottest months, otherwise, rains are less frequent but heavier (thunderstorms are frequent). During the winter and autumn months banks of fog, which are sometimes very thick, form in the plains but rarely on the city because of its location at the end of the Susa Valley.

Its position on the east side of the Alps makes the weather drier than on the west side because of the föhn wind effect.

The highest temperature ever recorded was 37.1 °C (98.8 °F), while the lowest was −21.8 °C (−7.2 °F).

Climate data for Torino

MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)25.1
(77.2)
24.8
(76.6)
27.4
(81.3)
31.0
(87.8)
32.3
(90.1)
35.6
(96.1)
36.8
(98.2)
37.1
(98.8)
32.2
(90)
30.0
(86)
22.8
(73)
21.4
(70.5)
37.1
(98.8)
Average high °C (°F)6.6
(43.9)
9.1
(48.4)
13.4
(56.1)
16.6
(61.9)
20.7
(69.3)
24.8
(76.6)
27.9
(82.2)
27.1
(80.8)
23.0
(73.4)
17.3
(63.1)
11.1
(52)
7.6
(45.7)
17.1
(62.8)
Daily mean °C (°F)2.1
(35.8)
4.3
(39.7)
8.1
(46.6)
11.1
(52)
15.5
(59.9)
19.4
(66.9)
22.4
(72.3)
21.8
(71.2)
17.8
(64)
12.4
(54.3)
6.5
(43.7)
3.1
(37.6)
12.0
(53.6)
Average low °C (°F)−2.5
(27.5)
−0.7
(30.7)
2.7
(36.9)
5.7
(42.3)
10.4
(50.7)
14.0
(57.2)
16.9
(62.4)
16.5
(61.7)
12.7
(54.9)
7.4
(45.3)
1.9
(35.4)
−1.6
(29.1)
7.0
(44.6)
Record low °C (°F)−18.5
(−1.3)
−21.8
(−7.2)
−10.5
(13.1)
−3.8
(25.2)
−2.3
(27.9)
4.3
(39.7)
6.6
(43.9)
6.3
(43.3)
1.8
(35.2)
−3.9
(25)
−8.2
(17.2)
−13.8
(7.2)
−21.8
(−7.2)
              
Source: Italian Air Force Meteorological Service

Geography

Turin is located in Northwest Italy. It is surrounded on the western and northern front by the Alps and on the eastern front by a high hill that is the natural continuation of the hills of Monferrato. Four major rivers pass through the city: the Po and three of its tributaries, the Dora Riparia (once known as Duria Minor by the Romans, from the Celtic noun duria meaning "water"), the Stura di Lanzo and the Sangone.

Economy

Turin is a major automotive and aerospace centre, home of Fiat(Fabbrica Italiana Automobili Torino; Turin Italian Automobiles Factory), part of Fiat Chrysler Automobiles group, the sixth largest automotive company in the world. In 2008 the city generated a GDP of $68 billion, ranking as the world's 78th richest city by purchasing power, and 16th in Europe, according to PricewaterhouseCoopers. The city has been ranked in 2010 by Globalization and World Cities Research Network as a Gamma level city.

Other companies operating in Turin are Maserati, Lancia, Alfa Romeo, Iveco,Pininfarina, Bertone, Sparco, Italdesign Giugiaro, General Motors, New Holland,Comau, Magneti Marelli, Graziano Oerlikon, Ghia, Fioravanti (automotive), Rai(national broadcasting company), Intesa Sanpaolo (bank), Kappa (fashion),Lavazza (coffee), Martini & Rossi (beverage), Ferrero SpA (food).

The city is also well known for its aerospace industry Alenia Aeronautica, Thales Alenia Space and Avio. The International Space Station modules Harmony,Columbus, Tranquility, as well as the Cupola and all MPLMs were produced in Turin. The future European launcher projects beyond Ariane 5 will also be managed from Turin by the new NGL company, a subsidiary of EADS (70%) and Finmeccanica (30%).

Subdivisions

Turin is split up into 10 boroughs, locally called circoscrizioni; these do not necessarily correspond to the historical districts of the city, which are rather called quartieri, rioni, borghi,borgate or zone.

The following list numerates the present day boroughs and today's location of the historical districts inside them:

  • Circoscrizione 1: Centro – Crocetta
  • Circoscrizione 2: Santa Rita – Mirafiori Nord
  • Circoscrizione 3: San Paolo – Cenisia – Pozzo Strada – Cit Turin – Borgata Lesna
  • Circoscrizione 4: San Donato – Campidoglio – Parella
  • Circoscrizione 5: Borgo Vittoria – Madonna di Campagna – Lucento – Vallette
  • Circoscrizione 6: Barriera di Milano – Regio Parco – Barca – Bertolla – Falchera – Rebaudengo – Villaretto
  • Circoscrizione 7: Aurora – Vanchiglia – Sassi – Madonna del Pilone
  • Circoscrizione 8: San Salvario – Cavoretto – Borgo Po
  • Circoscrizione 9: Nizza Millefonti – Lingotto – Filadelfia
  • Circoscrizione 10: Mirafiori Sud

Prices in Turin

PRICES LIST - EUR

MARKET / SUPERMARKET

Milk1 liter€1.28
Tomatoes1 kg€1.85
Cheese0.5 kg€8.00
Apples1 kg€1.50
Oranges1 kg€1.60
Beer (domestic)0.5 l€1.40
Bottle of Wine1 bottle€5.00
Coca-Cola2 liters€1.90
Bread1 piece€1.50
Water1.5 l€0.45

PRICES LIST - EUR

RESTAURANTS

Dinner (Low-range)for 2€30.00
Dinner (Mid-range)for 2€50.00
Dinner (High-range)for 2
Mac Meal or similar1 meal€7.50
Water0.33 l€0.95
Cappuccino1 cup€1.40
Beer (Imported)0.33 l€3.50
Beer (domestic)0.5 l€3.50
Coca-Cola0.33 l€1.85
Coctail drink1 drink€7.00

PRICES LIST - EUR

ENTERTAINMENT

Cinema2 tickets€16.00
Gym1 month€55.00
Men’s Haircut1 haircut€15.00
Theatar2 tickets€88.00
Mobile (prepaid)1 min.€0.15
Pack of Marlboro1 pack€5.30

PRICES LIST - EUR

PERSONAL CARE

Antibiotics1 pack€7.00
Tampons32 pieces€7.00
Deodorant50 ml.€3.20
Shampoo400 ml.€3.30
Toilet paper4 rolls€2.20
Toothpaste1 tube€2.20

PRICES LIST - EUR

CLOTHES / SHOES

Jeans (Levis 501 or similar)1€83.00
Dress summer (Zara, H&M)1€28.00
Sport shoes (Nike, Adidas)1€85.00
Leather shoes1€105.00

PRICES LIST - EUR

TRANSPORTATION

Gasoline1 liter€1.45
TaxiStart€3.50
Taxi1 km€1.40
Local Transport1 ticket€1.50

Tourist (Backpacker)  

67 € per day

Estimated cost per 1 day including:

  • meals in cheap restaurant
  • public transport
  • cheap hotel

Tourist (business/regular)  

197 € per day

Estimated cost per 1 day including:

  • mid-range meals and drinks
  • transportation
  • hotel

Transportation - Get In

Transportation - Get In

By plane

Turin's international airport (IATA: TRN – ICAO: LIMF) is placed 15 km north of the city and is named after Italy's former President Sandro Pertini. It is located in the town of Caselle, connected to Turin city by a convenient motorway. The main carriers to reach Torino from abroad are Lufthansa, Air France, British Airways and Alitalia if flying from Rome or Naples, Italy's flagship airline, which operates flight from some European and Italian cities. Caselle is also a destination for some low fares airlines, for example Ryanair and Easyjet. The airport is connected to the city by train (to the station of Dora GTT, which is useless; arriving at the Dora GTT really is like arriving in the middle of nowhere.), bus (with a regional bus service, which is long) and taxi (€30 one way to city centre at December 2010). Private cars are in the €75 range.

The SADEM bus service runs every 30-40 minutes from the airport to Torino's Porta Susa and Porta Nuova train stations. If you buy a ticket at a ticket kiosk inside the airport terminal, it will cost €6.50. If you buy it on the bus, it's €7. If you bought the Turin + Piemonte Card, the ride is only €5. The voyage from the airport to the center of the city takes approximately 40 minutes.

The TERRAVISION bus service started in August 2013, there are stops in the city as Lingotto station and Torino Esposizioni, the one-way ticket costs 5,50 €, instead the return 9,50 €.

Turin is also reached from Malpensa airport, which may be cheaper to fly to. There is a bus service running ten times daily between the city and the airport, managed by SADEM. The ride lasts 2 hours and costs €22 (as of April 21, 2015). Tickets to/from Malpensa airport can be purchased in advance on SADEM website (English instructions available) or at several kiosks in the Malpensa arrival hall.

Transportation - Get In

By Train

Turin has three main railway stations, Porta Nuova, Porta Susa and Lingotto FS.

Generally speaking, Porta Nuova and Porta Susa are stations dedicated to mid-range and long-range trains. Porta Susa (under renovation) serves trains to all northern regions of Italy (Milan, Venice, Aosta, and also Paris), while Porta Nuova serves especially trains to the south (Genoa, Florence, Rome, Bologna). You'd better check in advance where you need to go. Many trains also stops in both stations. All trains coming from/going to the south of Turin, depart from Porta Nuova via Lingotto FS.

All stations are managed by Trenitalia, the Italian state railways.

Transportation - Get In

By Bus

There are many buses from Milan, milan airports, Lyon, Genoa. Check the internet

Transportation - Get In

By Car

  • A4. From Milan and Venice (six-lane toll motorway).
  • A5. From Ivrea and Aosta (four-lane toll motorway).
  • A6. From Fossano, Ceva, and Savona (four-lane toll motorway).
  • A21. From Asti, Alessandria, Genoa, and Piacenza (four-lane toll motorway).
  • A32. From Frejus and France (four-lane toll motorway).
  • A55. From Pinerolo (four-lane toll motorway).


Transportation - Get Around

Transportation - Get Around

By Public Transport

Turin has an efficient system of city connections with buses and trams managed by GTT . Currently, the first driverless, ultra-modern underground line was opened for the Olympics in 2006. Both urban and suburban areas are served by an efficient network. Buses and trams cross the city from morning to late at night.

The hard part of bus travel is remembering you must buy your ticket before you get on the bus. All tabaccherie (tobacconists) sell bus tickets as do some bars and various ticket offices at stations.

There's possibly a bewildering array of tickets from singles to annual season tickets. Generally the longer the ticket the greater the saving but for many season tickets of one week or more you'll need a separate card with photo ID which costs very little and can usually be issued on the spot by the ticket issuer. It's not necessary for single tickets or, in Turin, weekly town tickets.

You may run into ticket inspectors any time, everywhere, even on night buses, but they are most of the time easily recognizable. Most of them do not speak English and some of them may behave rude. Be sure take your ticket/pass on you and validate it before the first stop after you get on the bus. If you are caught, you may pay a certain amount of fee about €25 right on the bus. If you pay later, this amount may increase to €36. If you forgot to take your pass/valid ticket with you, you may tell the inspectors your situation and get a fine ticket of €10. Then you go the GTT office with your fine ticket and your pass/valid ticket and pay. Some says if you are not Italian, the fee will not reach you.

But which bus?

That's a good question. Network map is available at the GTT website. The map shows all the bus and tram lines and the metro line. On 5T website it's also possible to check real-time transits for every stops of GTT network and plan your routes using public transportation.

You're pretty safe in Turin with every bus or tram. The stops are clearly marked with yellow signs and maps of the city and public lines. If it seems a very long list your stop will be highlighted in grey and buses go from the bottom to top direction. If it seems a rather short list with just the highlights you probably see an arrow pointing down on the left of the sign, showing stops go from top to bottom. It takes a bit of getting used to! Some of the more modern and popular trams and buses have onboard indicators and announcements of the forthcoming stops. But don't bank on it.

All buses are divided into urban and suburban. In Turin the urban tickets allow you to hop on and off of as many town buses as you like within 90 minutes of validating your ticket (fare at 1,50 € in 2012). Suburban tickets cost a little more and can get you anywhere up to 20km on some routes (1,70 € in 2012). They are also valid for trains within the same area. There's a bit of confusing overlap with some areas appearing to be both urban and suburban. If in doubt buy the suburban ticket, it's a lot cheaper than a fine.

You can also buy your tickets in a 'blocchetto' of 5 or 15, which works out a reasonable amount cheaper. There are daily (or 2-day or 3-day) tickets for town travel as well as various weekly and monthly combinations.If you plan to stay thee days and explore the city a 3 day pass is recommended and costs €10 valid in all the urban network and all means of transport.

Night Bus

Standard bus services run from around 06:00-00:30. From 00:30 (first departure from suburbs) to 05:00 (last departure from city centre), on Friday and Saturday night, starts night bus service managed by GTT (called GTT Nightbuster ) with 10 bus lines connecting piazza Vittorio Veneto, in the city centre, to various Turin's suburbs and vice-versa. All night buses run at 1 hour frequency.

Blue is the color

Things get a little more complicated when you need to go further afield on the bus. Each town, district or region seems to have its own bus service. Generally in Turin there is a healthy selection of blue buses run by SADEM and other companies which tend to go further afield.

If possible still try to buy your ticket before you get on the bus, although vendors are not as numerous. Generally look around for the nearest tobacconist, cafe or news stand.

It should also be possible to buy your ticket on the bus, but this will cost up to 60 cents more and you may get a certain amount of abuse from driver who plainly is not on a percentage.

This also applies to the blue buses between Porta Nuova and Turin airport. There's a kiosk and two vending machines (usually out of action) at the airport and cafes near the terminal in Turin where you can buy tickets for €5. In theory the bus driver should be able to sell you a ticket but don't bank on it.

  • Torino and Piemonte Card

Torino and Piemonde Card is certainly worth its money if you plan to visit most places on the "See" section above. Using the three day (72 hours) option and paying €29 you have free access to all the museums and other attractions of the city listed above. You also can use free the Venaria Reale bus service, which is operated by GTT, to travel to Venaria and see the restorated Palace. Of course the entry to the Palace is also covered by the pass(2 days €25, 5 days €34, 7 days €37). Also don't miss the opportunity to use the Navebus service and take a boat tour in the river Po. This service is also operated by GGT and is included in your pass. As of July 2012 the Torino and Piemonte Card does not included free travel in the public transport.The best option is to buy a separate pass for that.However the Card entitles you with free travel from Dora Station to Torino International Airport, service operated by GTT.As mentioned the Card is very attractive and cost effective if you plan to visit the top attractions of the city. Trip with chain train to Superga is also included with the small fee to reach the top of the church and a guided visit to the tombs of the Savoy Royal family.

Transportation - Get Around

By Taxi

Taxis in Torino start the meter the moment your call is received. It is not customary to hail a taxi on the street.

  • Pronto Taxi+39 011-5737
  • Radio Taxi+39 011-5730
  • EuropTaxi+39 011-19839026
  • Turin Airport+39 011-9914419
  • Main Railway station - Torino Porta Nuova,  +39 011-547331
  • Via Sacchi ang. C.so Vittorio Emanuele II,  +39 011-657139

On the streets there are taxi parking. You can get one there.

Transportation - Get Around

By Car

Driving around the town is fun but not for the faint hearted, although not as challenges as other Italian cities. Note that some drivers regard red lights as advisory and speed lints tend also to be a guideline.

A good parking garage in the centre under the Piazza Vittorio Veneto is Parcheggio Vittorio Park

Car Rentals If you would like to rent a car, you can find all the main car hire companies at Turin Airport. Car rentals companies are grouped together immediately in front of the Domestic Arrivals, Ground Floor-Level Zero.

Transportation - Get Around

By Bicycle

The City of Turin has recently completed a network of bicycle paths throughout the city. However, a lot still has to be done, and cycling outside the paths (and sometimes even on them) can be quite tricky. From 2010, a bike-sharing service provided by a company named ToBike is all across the city center. It's very difficult to find a ticket if you are not resident. It is possible to buy a ticket at the Tobike shop located in Via Santa Chiara 26/F.

Hotels

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Shopping

Turin is not the best Italian city for shopping fashion brand, although there are plenty of small and expensive brand shops. It's a great spot for buying food and wines.

  • Bookstores are very popular in Turin, and there are many in the Via Po area. An innovative bookshop is in Via Cesare Battisti, near a lovely square, Piazza Carignano. Together with books you can also sit down and have a cup of coffee, or the famous aperitivo. The Luxembourg International Bookshop is at V. Accademia delle Scienze, 3 (just off Piazza Castello) and it's your best destination for English-language novels, EFL teaching materials and foreign magazines and newspapers.
  • Via Roma. from Piazza Castello to the main railway station. Here you can find upscale brands like Hermes and Dolce & Gabbana, as well as cheap chains like H&M, United Colours of Benetton and Zara. In Piazza CLN, behind Piazza San Carlo, there's a good branch of La Feltrinelli, a bookstore chain with shops all over the country. On the Via Roma there is also a branch of FNAC, the French book and multimedia chain, and an Apple Store.
  • Via Garibaldi. People in Turin say it's the longest pedestrian shopping street in Europe. There are clothes shops, bars, a Nike store and a new branch of the Japanese store Muji at the beginning of the street near Piazza Castello.
  • Via Po. is more alternative, with record shops and strange clothing stores under the arcades. This street goes from Piazza Castello to the Po River (Piazza Vittorio Veneto).
  • Via Pietro Micca. also houses upscale shops, but also one of the three shops of Frav. This 2-storey shop sells trendy clothes and is very popular in the city.
  • Via Lagrange (near Via Roma). is a pedestrian street and houses the Lagrange 15 shopping centre, with La Rinascente department store.
  • Le Gru. is a shopping center in Grugliasco, just outside Turin. Easy access TO the center on the #17 bus. Consider timing your return trip to one of the infrequent #66 buses, or take a taxi back. Ikea store was in this area but now it has moved to Collegno.
  • The Quadrilatero Romano. is a trendy neighborhood north of Piazza Castello. It is the most ancient part of the city, and once was an unsafe area. But now there are many design shops (Marcopolo, via Sant' Agostino) and independent shops like Autopsie Vestimentaire or Born In Berlin in its pedestrian cobbled streets. Lots of cosy restaurants and outdoor trendy cafes and bars. For dog-lovers there is a dog park inside the fenced area around the Roman ruins.
  • Porta Palazzo. in Piazza della Republica (north of the Quadrilatero) is the largest open air market in Europe, and a spectacle that is well worth the visit (from 6AM to 13 pm working days, from 6AM to 19 pm Saturdays). A newly built building by the famous architect Massimiliano Fuksas remains unused.
  • 8 Gallery and Eataly. 8 Gallery is a long corridor with various shops, located in Lingotto area, sharing the same building with Politecnico di Torino Automotive department and Turin University. Renovated by the famous architect Renzo Piano, it can be reached by bus No.1, 35, 18, 17. Or if you are near the Lingotto FS station, you can pass a bridge which directly connect to the 8 Gallery. It is one of the few shopping centers which still open at Sunday. Next to 8 Gallery, Worth visiting for the architecture but the shops are nothing special. Are a few restaurants and fast food outlets too. Across the road, Eataly is the greatest gourmet grocery in Europe: here you can buy, or eat, the best Italian food (guaranteed by Slow movement).

Restaurants

Turin is probably the most free-water town in the world. You can find public fountains really EVERYWHERE, from the center to the suburbs, that provides you free public water. And thanks to the near mountains, Turin public water is really good.


Budget

  • LobelixPiazza Savoia 4,  +39 011 436 7206. This bar serves a nightly 'aperitivo' (aperitif) meaning that, with the purchase of a beverage one receives unlimited access to a food buffet, much the same way as 'tapas' are in Spain. During this aperitivo time, all drinks -from water to cocktails- cost the same price, which is about €8. It begins at around 18:00 and ends when the food runs out, usually at around 21:00.
  • Gennaro EspositoVia Giuseppe Luigi Passalacqua 1/g (near Piazza Statuto),  +39 011 535 905. For about €15, sit at one of the few tables and one of the best pizzas in Turin.
  • Fratelli La CozzaCorso Regio Parco 39+39 011 859 900.Outside the city center, this large pizzeria is brightly decorated and popular with large groups. If you're a couple, ask for a balcony seat for the best view!
  • ExkiTwo locations in the center of Turin: Via XX Settembre 12 and Via Pietro Micca near Piazza Castello+39 011 560 4108. The healthiest fast-food you'll find in Turin, Exki serves up fresh salads, soups, quiches and health-minded entrees at low prices. You'll also find a selection of fresh juices, organic beers and organic coffees.
  • Tre GalliVia Sant'Agostino 25,  +39 011 5216027. Nice "Vineria" in the quadrilatero perfect for the aperitivo. Service is good and the ambiance is young and relaxed, not too trendy. Here you can eat or just drink. Typical dishes of Torino reinvented.
  • Sfashion CafèVia Cesare Battisti 13,  +39 011 5160085. The owner and the decorations are the same of Fratelli La Cozza: kitsch an funny. Infact the owner is Piero Chiambretti, an Italian actor. Good pizza and southern italy dishes. Perfectly located on the lovely Piazza Carlo Alberto, pedestrianized.
  • Pizzeria GonzalesVia Mollieres, 1,  +39 011 779 0348. Locals Pizzaria, simple but good. Plus point, open on Mondays.

Mid-range

  • giusti maurovia Maria Vittoria 21 (4 blocks east of via Roma),  +39 011 817 0604. Closed 2PM to 7:30PM. frequented by almost only Italian diners, because it accepts only cash. The menu does not vary between lunch and dinner. no nonsense, but good basic regional food at reasonable prices. below market.
  • Caffè dell OrologioVia Morgari 16/a, (Zona: San Salvario),  +39 011 5794274. The place is large and very beautiful: it still possesses its original character, which deeply impresses anyone entering it for the first time. The lovely ambience and great staff make one feel their enthusiasm about everything on the menu.
  • L BirichinVia Vincenzo Monti 16/a,,  +39 011 65 74 57. $35-$45.
  • ArcadiaGalleria Subalpina (Piazza Castello),  +39 011 56 13 898.beautiful place, sushi bar.
  • Trattoria AlaVia Santa Giulia 24,  +39 011 81 74 778. For about 35$ you will get delicious food and wine. Definitely to try Cantucci con vinsanto dessert. Beware that they cook Tuscan food, so if you are looking for local food, you may not be in the very right place.
  • Spada RealeVia Principe Amedeo 53 (near Piazza Vittorio Veneto), +39 011 8171363. A classic restaurant with local Piedmontese as well as Tuscan offerings.
  • Trattoria Decoratori & Imbianchinivia Lanfranchi 28 (Near the Gran Madre Church), +39 011 819 0672. fixed menu €24, beverages excluded.
  • A LivellaCorso so Belgio 50/A,  +39 011 86 00 173. Stylish restaurant with moderate prices.
  • Trattoria San DomenicoStrada della Pronda, 15,+39 011 701674. Traditional Italian food.
  • Pizzeria Due TorriCorso Peschiera 309,  +39 011 722486. Very good pizza and paste dishes. Friendly efficient staff.
  • Il Povero FeliceVia Fidia, 28,  +39 011 728928. Good Italian local restaurant.
  • Eataly Torino LingottoVia Nizza 224,  +39 011 1950 6801.High end supermarket with a number of food counters (meat, fish, pasta, ice cream, ..), excellent quality food

Splurge

  • Ristorante Del CambioPiazza Carignano, 2,  +39 011 546690.A very posh and exclusive cafe and restaurant. Set in the beautiful Piazza Carignano, Del Cambio serves all of the traditional Piemontese delicacies. Was supposedly a favorite of famous Italian politician Camillio Benso di Cavour.
  • Mare NostrumVia Matteo Pescatore, 16,  +39 011 839 4543.Excellent southern Italian fish dishes. The starter is a must, just one entry on the menu, you receive a series of small dishes of the day.

Sights & Landmarks

Turin's main attractions include important baroque palaces and churches, a regular and attractive street grid, an extensive network of arcades, famous coffee shops and a number of world-renowned museums. Five palaces in Turin itself and nine more in the region served as residences for the Savoy royalty and are now inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage list.

  • Mole AntonellianaVia Montebello, 20. Turin's landmark building was completed in 1888 as a synagogue. The 167.5-meter tower is the highest work of masonry in Europe and it now contains one of the finest cinema museums of Europe. A lift is available to reach the top. lift: €7.
  • The National Cinema MuseumVia Montebello, 20,  +39 011 813 8511. The museum opened in July 2000 in the Mole Antonelliana, a building that has come to symbolize Turin. The exhibition space covers 3,200 square meters and spans five floors. The themes of the floors are the archaeology of cinema, the video camera, a collection of cinema posters, video installations (including a number of small rooms screening clips on themes such as Turin in the movies, love stories and experimental film), and The Great Temple (where you recline in comfortable red chairs and watch classic Italian films projected on giant screens overhead). In a spectacular setting the museum offers artifacts from the collection of the Maria Adrianna Prolo Foundation including magic lanterns, optical illusions, photographs, drawings, models and other curious items. Amongst a fascinating array of other movie memorabilia, be sure to check out the original cape worn by Christopher Reeve in Superman. If you're a certain age, that's incredibly exciting! If you plan to visit both the museum and the tower, the combined ticket costs €14. Museum: €10.
  • Museo dell'Automobile (Also Carlo Biscaretti di Ruffia, Biscaretti for short.), Corso Unità d'Italia, 40+39 011 677666. The collection houses over 170 vehicles, from 18th-century carriages to Formula 1 racers, and lots of gorgeous red sports cars. The museum reopened in March 2011 after a three years long renovation that transformed it in one of the hot spot of the city, a "must see".
  • The Cathedral of Saint John the Baptist (Duomo di San Giovanni), Piazza San Giovanni+39 011 436 1540. The Cathedral's Chapel of the Shroud houses the controversial Shroud of Turin, which is stored in a vault below the Duomo. It is only displayed by papal decree. Information about the shroud, viewings, and reservations can be made at the official site.
  • Egyptian MuseumVia Accademia delle Scienze, 6,  +39 011 561 7776. Houses the most important collection of ancient Egyptian artefacts outside Cairo. Founded in 1824 by King Carlo Felice after acquiring archaeologist Drovetti's collection, the museum contains 30,000 exhibits. It documents the history and civilization of Egypt from the palaeolithic to the Coptic era through unique exhibits and collections of objects d'art, articles of daily use and funeral furnishings (including the Altar of Isis, the canvas painted by Gebelein, the intact tombs of Kha and Merit, and the exceptional cliff temple to Ellesjia). It is also intelligently laid out and the exhibits are lovingly preserved. Despite a big renovation is currently taking place, the museum is open every day except Mondays and 25th December, ticket € 7,5. The end of the works is scheduled for 2013.€7.50.
  • Palazzo Madama, Piazza Castello. Recently re-opened after a long refurbishment, this wonderful hybrid of a baroque palace and a medieval castle is attracting many tourists. It was home of the regent queens of Savoy, and is a mix of medieval and baroque rooms. It now houses the City Museum of Ancient Art, which has an eclectic collection of church art, paintings, ancient sculpture, porcelain, ceramics, archaeological artefacts and some fascinating scenes of life in Torino in times gone by. On the second floor there's a room with red sofas to take a rest after the visit, with a magnificent chandelier, and a cafeteria. The moat contains a medieval castle garden, and the tower offers a beautiful view over Turin.€7.50.
  • Palazzo Carignano (Carignano Palace), Via Accademia delle Scienze 5 (close to Piazza Castello), +39 011 562 3719.
  • Quadrilatero Romano. Full of restaurants, it is the old Roman town, north-west of Piazza Castello.
  • Via Garibaldi. Pedestrian-only shopping zone between Piazza Castello and Piazza Statuto.
  • Galleria Subalpina. A pedestrian passage from Piazza Castello and Piazza Carlo Alberto. One of the most elegant place of the city.
  • Valentino Park (Parco del Valentino). the biggest park in Turin central area. This park is situated along the Po river and in its area you can find the Valentino Castle, and the Medieval Village (Borgo Medievale).
  • Cathedral of Superga(Superga Basilica), Strada Basilica di Superga, 73,  +39 011 899 7456. On top of the hill near Turin, this cathedral was built in thanksgiving for a victorious battle against French. Today, it houses the tombs of the House of Savoy. In 1949 a plane carrying the entire Turin FC team crashed near the cathedral, killing one of the greatest football teams ever. At the crash site a plate memorializes the dead. The top of the hill offers the best view of Turin, with the magnificent Alps in the background. You can reach the top by car but also by a little chain-train. Ask for theTrenino per Superga.Chain train with return € 6.Take the straicase inside the church to reach the top,€ 3 (July 2012).
  • Castello di RivoliPiazzale Mafalda di Savoia,  +39 011 956 5222. In the small town of Rivoli, east of Turin. Houses one of Europe's most important Contemporary Art Museums. The Castle of Rivoli is a unfinished XVIII castle that stands on top of Rivoli hills. Corso Francia(France Road) is one of the world's longest streets and was built because of the desire of the House of Savoy to connect Royal Palace in the center of Turin with Rivoli Castle. You can reach it by bus or taxi.
  • La Venaria Reale. Outside the town of Venaria, 10 kilometres north east of Turin. Restored to the baroque magnificence that inspired it when it was built in the mid 17th century for duke Carlo Emanuele II di Savoia, the Reggia of Venaria Reale was inaugurated in October 2007, after two centuries of abandon and decay, and eight years of intense restoration. In the first year since it opened to the public, Venaria Reale has welcomed approximately 1.000.000 visitors becoming one of the most popular spot in Italy. The enormous palace, which has a surface area of over 80,000 square metres, contains some of the most outstanding examples of European baroque architecture: the enchanting Salone di Diana, designed by Amedeo di Castellamonte, the solemnity of the Galleria Grande and the chapel of Sant’Uberto, and the immense complex of the Scuderie, designed by the 17th century genius, Filippo Juvarra. The Gardens now represent a close combination of ancient and modern. Venaria Reale, which was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO, is at the centre of the circuit of Royal Residences in Piedmont. To get there: Venaria Express” shuttle bus operated by GTT (freephone number: 800 019152 www.comune.torino.it/gtt Bus: routes 72, 11 (freephone number: 800 019152 - www.comune.torino.it/gtt) Train: Turin-Ceres line (freephone number: 800 019152 - www.comune.torino.it/gtt) Car: Torino Nord orbital road, Venaria or Savonera/Venaria exit. GTT bus ticket with return € 5.Entrance to the Venaria 15 €. 
  • River Po Park. The Piedmontese part of the longest river of Italy is protected as a natural park. Its benches ar full of interesting and unexpected views onwards the town and the hill and are enriched by the Castle of Valentino, Medieval Burgh and Gran Madre church, which mirror on river Po.
  • Armeria Reale (Royal Armoury), Piazza Castello, Turin, Italy,  +39 011543889. 1. Turin's Royal Armoury contains one of the best exhibits of arms in Europe, dating back to the 16th century. The collection was put together in 1833 by Sardinian king Charles Albert.
  • Porta Palazzo market. A 5 minutes walking distance from Piazza Castello, at the very beginning of the multi-cultural quarter, is one of the biggest, cheapest and most diverse markets in Europe. Turin has lots of street markets, all around the city, that serve thousands of people every day. Porta Palazzo is the best, especially for foodstuffs, cheap clothes, housewares, ethnic products, handicrafts, craftsmen, and second-hand stuff. The markets are open every weekday morning and all day long on Saturday. On Sunday Porta Palazzo houses a smaller flea market. Take a walk there, keep track of your wallet and pockets, and explore its multicultural, colored humanity.
  • Monte dei Cappuccini, Turin.
  • Museo Nazionale della Montagna Duca degli AbruzziPiazzale Monte dei Capuccini, 7.

Things to do

  • A trip to Superga by chain train from Sassi to see the magnificent view of Turin from there. Sassi is reached by tram 15(As of July 2012 the tram is temporary out of service and the path of the line is serviced by buses).
  • A walk on Via Roma from Porta Nuova Station to Piazza Castello through Piazza San Carlo to see how elegant this city can be.
  • A walk on Via Po from Piazza Castello to Piazza Vittorio and further to the Gran Madre Church. Stop on the bridge and enjoy the beautiful view of the Po river.
  • Have a break in one of the historic cafes located around Piazza Castello, such as Mulassano or Baratti & Milano (established in 1873).
  • Play hit ball, a sport born in Turin in 1986 and today the very specialty of the city. Various associations provide free trials.
  • Meet new friends in a sporty and funny way by joining Torino Night Run collective workouts troughout the nicest places of the city. Every Tuesday evening at 20:15, Monumental Arch, Parco del Valentino (lat. 45.0584, long. 7.6906)

Nightlife

Where before there were boatsheds, you will find many modern bars and nightclubs by the river Po at the Murazzi close to the bridge Ponte Vittorio Emanuele. Closer to the historical center, there are many charming old-world cafes.

  • Vinicola Al SorijVia Matteo Pescatore 10c (close to Piazza Vittorio),  +39 011 835667. wine and entries
  • ZonkVia Gian Francesco Bellezia, 20,  +39 011 521 7568. In the heart of the Quadrilatero Romano, Zonk features an expansive cocktail list (from Mojitos to Manhattans to cocktails with dried, powdered scorpions!), long wine list and nightly aperitivo buffet in a funky environment. When the food is cleared away a live DJ starts spinning.
  • caffe rossini, Corso Regina Margherita, 80 (at the corner to Via Gioacchino),  +39 011 521 4105. Caffe Rossini is a nice Caffe/Pub with music and young local people.
  • labPiazza Vittorio Veneto, 13/E,  +39 011 8170669. modern bar with lots of young people and nice music. some place to go out during the week when the city is sleeping.
  • Caffe al BicerinPiazza della Consolata, 5,  +39 011 436 9325. is home to the classic Torinese drink,the Bicerin. A mix of coffee, hot chocolate and cream, it is a wonderful treat on a raw winter day. Located in the small but scenic Piazza della Consolata, across the square is the elaborate Baroque church, Chiesa della Consolata.
  • Birrificio TorinoVia Parma, 30,  +39 011 2876562. 20:00-2:00.Brewpub restaurant. Four regular Birrificio beers brewed on premises. Good menu with recommended matched beers. More restaurant than pub. Can be very busy.
  • Caffè dell'OrologioVia Morgari 16/a (Zona: San Salvario),  +39 011 579 4274. Una sola filosofia, quella del vivere bene, sentendosi sempre a casa. Il locale è grande e bellissimo, è rimasto con l'impronta originaria e colpisce chiunque ci entri per la prima volta. Lovely ambience and great staff you felt they were excited about everything on the menu.
  • Basso 30via Sant'Agostino 30/a,  +39 011 578 8288. Due modi di bere, mangiare e oziare fino a tardi.

Safety in Turin

Stay Safe


Generally Turin can be considered a safe city. Be aware that the first three blocks of Via Nizza, on the eastern side of Porta Nuova train station, can be dangerous in the wee hours. San Salvario neighborhood, which lies between Via Nizza and Parco del Valentino today is full of nightclubs, cafes and restaurants aimed to college students who attract small-scale drug dealers. Watch out for pickpockets in the crowd, especially while walking with your luggage and backpacks. Those who are looking for a quiet neighborhood where to stay should avoid San Salvario, especially in summer.

Also the areas between Porta Palazzo square and the Dora River can be dangerous during the night, especially in the smaller streets.

Turin is home to two football clubs, Juventus and Torino, playing both in Serie A. Juventus are the most successful club side in Italian domestic football and have won the UEFA Champions League twice in their history, while Torino also have a proud history. Juventus play at the Juventus Stadium in the north of the city while Torino play at the Olympic Stadium renovated for the 2006 Winter Games. The rivalry between the two clubs is intense, so one would exercise caution when wearing their colours (Juventus wear black and white, Torino a brownish red) when the other side is playing. Wearing the colours of other Italian sides (AC Milan, Internazionale, Lazio, Roma, Fiorentina and Napoli in particular) when they are playing Juventus should also be avoided, especially the colours of the two Milan sides and Fiorentina.

High / 7.4

Safety (Walking alone - day)

Mid. / 4.4

Safety (Walking alone - night)

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