BAR

Montenegro

Bar is a major port for Montenegro.The Old Town of Bar, which is 4km far from the coast, is the most significant among the numerous cultural-historical monuments, what witnesses to the turbulent history of this town.

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introduction

Bar is a major port for Montenegro.The Old Town of Bar, which is 4km far from the coast, is the most significant among the numerous cultural-historical monuments, what witnesses to the turbulent history of this town. The remnants of the town are deaf witnesses of numerous conquerors and different cultures. In Bar there are tourist facilities, restaurants, sport fields, trade and a marina with 1050 berths.

Tourism

Although there are some nice stony beaches in Bar itself, many tourists choose destinations in other small towns in the Bar municipality, notably Sutomore, with its beautiful long sandy beach. The natural area around Bar is mostly untouched and is rich in vegetation. The Bar municipality stretches to the southern shore of Skadar lake and encompasses Krajina region. This entire area is suitable for leisure activities and hiking. Smaller settlements near Bar, such as Dobra Voda, Sutomore and Čanj, are a favourite destination for sunbathing, as they incorporate long sandy beaches.


Places of interest

  • The Old Olive of Mirovica is said to be one of the oldest olive trees in Europe and one of the oldest trees in the world. In 1957, it was placed under state protection. Numerous legends and traditions are associated with the tree. For instance, families that had a dispute would come to the tree to make peace. This explains its name, Mirovica, mir meaning peace.
  • King Nikola’s palace was built in 1885. It was a present from King Nikola to his daughter Princess Zorka and his son-in-law, Prince Petar Karađorđević. The construction included a large palace, a little palace, a chapel, guardhouses and a winter garden. In 1910, a spacious ballroom was added. A botanic garden has Mediterranean vegetation including a cork tree. There is also a large flower garden in a stainless steel structure of interesting shape. it was a gift from King Emmanuel of Italy to King Nikola. It is now a restaurant called Knjaževa bašta (The Duke’s Garden). At the front of the palace, there was a wooden pier. Between 1866 and 1916, King Nikola owned ten yachts. One of them, Sibil, was bought from Jules Verne, the novelist. The last yacht bought was the Rumija. In 1915, it was sunk in the Bar harbour by the Austro-Hungarian navy. The palace complex houses the Bar city museum. It is also used as a venue for festivals, concerts, exhibitions and literary events.
  • Mount Rumija Fortress
  • Nehaj Fortress, partially preserved, is located near the small seaside town of Sutomore. It has been held by both Venetians and Ottoman Turks. It was first recorded as the 16th century Fortezza dei Spizi, a Venetian fortified town.
  • Bar old town.
  • The Bar Aqueduct was constructed during the 16th and 17th centuries.

History

Ancient times

Local archaeological findings date to the Neolithic era. It is assumed that Bar was mentioned as the reconstructed Roman castle, Antipargal, in the 6th century. The name Antibarium was quoted for the first time in the 10th century.


Middle Ages

In the 6th and 7th centuries, Slavs occupied the Balkans. Duklja, a Slavic, or Serbian state, was mentioned in the 10th century. Jovan Vladimir (ruler 1000 – 1016), of Skadarska Krajina is the first ruler of Duklja whose history is known. Stefan Vojislav (ruler 1018 – 1043), the eponymous founder of the Vojislavljević dynasty, defeated the Byzantines in a battle on a hill near Bar. He made Bar his seat of power. Vojislav then expanded the area under his rule. Mihailo I of Duklja (ruler 1050 – 1081), Vojislav's son, established the Archdiocese of Antivari. He continued to fight the Byzantines in order to secure the town's independence. This led to a union of states known as the Serbian Grand Principality. From 1101 to 1166, the principality was ruled by the Vukanović dynasty. However, for much of this time, Bar was under Byzantine rule. In 1183, Stefan Nemanja conquered Bar and it stayed under Serbian control under the Nemanjić dynasty.


Venetian and Ottoman period

From 1443 to 1571, the region was ruled by the Venice. Bar (called Antivari by the Venetians, was part of the Albania Veneta. It was a city state with its own coat of arms, flag, statute and mint. In 1571, the Ottomans captured Bar and held the town until 1878. The archdiocese was preserved. One of the archbishops during this period was Andrija Zmajević. The Ottomans ceded Bar to Montenegro at the Treaty of Berlin.


Modern era

Guglielmo Marconi, the Italian scientist and pioneer in wireless telegraphy, made a radio connection between Bar and Bari on 30 August 1904. In 1908, the first railroad in this part of the Balkans was put into operation. During World War I, on 16 August 1914, the Austro-Hungarian navy's light cruiser SMS Zenta and an accompanying destroyer became trapped off Bar by a very large French fleet (over twelve battleships) and in the subsequent battle of Antivari the Zenta was sunk with considerable loss of life. The destroyer escaped.

In World War II, on 13 July 1941, an uprising against the Italian occupying forces in Bar took place. In 1945, about 2,000 Albanians were killed in Bar by Yugoslav Communist Partisans. Bar was largely destroyed in World War II and rebuilt into a modern city.

In 1979, there was an earthquake that devastated Bar. It has since been rebuilt.

Climate

Bar has a wind blowing from the south about 88 days a year, mostly during the winter. The southern wind is very soft and warm but raises the waves in the sea. The temperature is as in July – about 28 °C (82 °F). There are approximately 2160 sunny hours a year. In winter the temperature drops down to 10 °C (50 °F). In the Köppen climate classification, Bar has a mediterranean climate (Csa) close to a humid subtropical climate (Cfa). There is only one summer month with less than 40 millimetres (1.6 in) precipitation. Winters are cool and rainy, with an average high of 12.3 °C (54.1 °F) in January and a low of 4.3 °C (39.7 °F). Snow is very rare occurrence in Bar, it usually snows once in a few years. The highest recorded snowfall occurred during January 2000, when 9 centimetres (3.5 in) was measured. Summers are generally warmer, drier and sunnier than the winter months. During summer, the highest temperatures are around 27 to 28 °C (81 to 82 °F) and the lowest 18 °C (64 °F). Precipitation is low during the summer months, although rainfall can still occur, with July averaging 4.5 days with measurable precipitation. Spring and fall are transitional seasons that feature mild weather that can often be wet and unpredictable. There are, on average, 2523 hours of sunshine per year, ranging from a low of 111.6 hours in December to a high of 350.3 hours in July.

Climate data for Bar, Montenegro

MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °C (°F)12.3
(54.1)
13.0
(55.4)
15.0
(59)
18.0
(64.4)
22.1
(71.8)
25.3
(77.5)
27.8
(82)
27.7
(81.9)
25.1
(77.2)
21.6
(70.9)
17.2
(63)
13.6
(56.5)
19.9
(67.8)
Average low °C (°F)4.3
(39.7)
5.1
(41.2)
6.8
(44.2)
9.3
(48.7)
13.1
(55.6)
16.4
(61.5)
18.4
(65.1)
18.2
(64.8)
15.8
(60.4)
12.5
(54.5)
9.1
(48.4)
5.7
(42.3)
11.2
(52.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches)156
(6.14)
148
(5.83)
130
(5.12)
126
(4.96)
86
(3.39)
56
(2.2)
37
(1.46)
53
(2.09)
107
(4.21)
140
(5.51)
182
(7.17)
170
(6.69)
1,391
(54.77)
Source: Hydrological and Meteorological Service of Montenegro

Geography

Bar is located on the coastal western border of Montenegro on the shore of the Adriatic Sea. It is approximately 53 kilometres (33 mi) from Podgorica, the capital of Montenegro.To the east is the largest lake in the Balkans, Lake Skadar. To the west, across the sea, is Italy.

Economy

The economy of Bar relies upon the Port of Bar, the Belgrade - Bar railway and the Sozina tunnel. The Port of Bar is the most recognizable feature of the city. It occupies 3,100 m (10,170.60 ft) of seacoast, land area of 800 ha and aquatorium of 200ha. It is capable of reloading 5 million tons of goods annually. In 1976, the Belgrade – Bar railway was opened. It made the Adriatic coast accessible to tourists, and transport to the Port of Bar. The food company, Primorka has been operating in Bar for more than 50 years. It produces olive oil and pomegranate juice. There are 95,000 olive trees, about 80,000 citrus trees (lemon, orange, tangerine and grapefruit) in the municipal area. The centre for subtropical cultures, founded in 1937, is the oldest scientific institution in Montenegro. Tourism is also a major part of Bar's economy.


Transport

Bar has a ferry line to Bari, Italy which is operated by Montenegro Lines. In season, ferries also go to Ancona, Italy. Bar is well connected with inland Montenegro, as well as with the rest of the Montenegrin coast. The Sozina tunnel, completed in 2006, shortened the road connection with Podgorica to around 50 km (31 mi). Bar is connected to other coastal towns by the Adriatic motorway, which extends from Ulcinj to Herceg Novi, and on to Croatia. Bar is also the final station of the Belgrade - Bar railway, which connects Bar with Podgorica, northern Montenegro and Serbia. Podgorica Airport is about 40 km (25 mi) from Bar. There are regular flights to Belgrade, Budapest, Zürich, Frankfurt, Ljubljana, Paris, Rome and Vienna.

Transportation - Get In


By plane

For Podgorica or Tivat airports take a bus (or train for Podgorica) for the respective town and then a local taxi to the airport.

Alternatively, take an one-hour drive by a car. It is possible to reach Podgorica airport through a taxi service. A transfer should cost €30 for a vehicle up to four passengers, and €60 for a minvan up to eight passengers. [Taxis from Tivat to Bar would charge €40 for a sedan and €75 for a minivan.


By train

  • Željeznička stanica (Railway station),  +382 301615. both day and night trains departuring from Belgrade and Podgorica. Trains can often be slower than buses and those arriving in Bar (the end of the line) are sometimes extremely late because of delays in other places.

By boat

  • Ship terminal. Daily ferries operated by Montengro Lines to/from Bari, Italy departing at 10PM and arriving at 7:00 and costing 56 euros and up. The company also operates bi-weekly ferries to/from Ancona, Italy.

By bus

  • Autobuska stanica (Bus station) (2 km from centre, 300 m from train station),+382 30 346 141. Frequent buses operate along the coast to Budva, Tivat (for the airport) and Kotor. The journey to Podgorica takes a little over an hour, journeys to Ulcinj take about 30 minutes and journeys north to Budva and Kotor take one hour and just under two hours respectively. If you're heading to Bar's beaches in Susanj then you can ask to be let off the buses (for those coming from Podgorica, Budva and Kotor) in Susanj rather than having to walk all the way back from the bus station.

Transportation - Get Around

During the summer months there is a local bus service running between Sutomare (about 5km north along the coast) and Bar. Services are hourly. Bar is a small city and everywhere is walkable. The walk between Bar and the beaches in Susanj will take about 30 minutes or taxi drivers will be happy to take you.

  • Taxi Bar+38269949197, e-mail: . 24h. minivan transfers, airport transfer services Tivat airport 40eur, Podgorica airport 30eur, Tirana 105eur, Dubrovnik 110eur.
Car rentals
  • A URBAN Car Rentals-Bar,  +382 69 94 91 97, e-mail: . economy cars from 35eur day, private driver car rentals, rent a minivan with driver 110eur day
  • A Marker Car Rental-Bar,  +385 91 739 75 45.

Hotels

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Hotels

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Beaches

The Bar municipality has over 44 kilometres (27 miles) of sea coast. There are twenty beaches stretching over 9 kilometres (6 miles). In the north is Čanj, which has a 1,100-metre (3,600-foot) sandy beach. A boat takes tourists from Čanj to the Kraljičina Plaža. It lies below a natural wall of sedimentary rock. Further south is 300-metre-long (980-foot) Maljevik Beach. The beach at Sutomore, 1,200 metres (3,900 feet) long, has entertainments, activities and restaurants. Near the medieval monastery complex of Ratac is Crvena Plaža, named after the colour of its fine sand. The beach is surrounded by a pine forest and located about a hundred m from the main road to Bar. Just north of the Bar central business district is the 1,200-metre-long (3,900-foot)Žukotrlica Beach. It is a gravel beach, surrounded by a pine forest and varied Mediterranean vegetation. The Bar Gradska Plaža is located in front of King Nikola's palace. It is 750 metres (2,460 feet) long, part pebble and part sand. 10 kilometres (6 miles) south of central Bar is the 380-metre-long (1,250-foot) Veliki Pijesak. It is surrounded by numerous tourist facilities, restaurants and discothèques. On the border of the Bar and Ulcinj municipalities, in the village of Bušat, is the Val Maslina with its nearby olive groves. There are also beaches on the shore of Lake Skadar including the sandy Murici village beach and Pjesacac.

Restaurants

  • Pizzeria Pulena.
  • Restaurant SambaJ Tomasevica 41+382 85 312 025. Partly inside, partly on a terrace with amazing mountain views. Popular with locals. Pricey.
  • Tajana (Old Town). Garden restaurant with tables inside and outside.
  • Sunce, nacionalna kuc'aul. Rista Lekic'a,  +382 69211010. 8:00 - 21:00. Home made national food. Inexpensive, for travelers on a budget, backpackers.

Sights & Landmarks

  • Stari Bar (Bar Old Town).
  • Bar Fortress
  • The Oldest Olive tree in the world. Between 2000 and 2500 years old
  • Port of Bar. See a lot of great ships, beautiful yachts and small fishing boats.
  • Beaches in Susanj. Cleaner water and more space a short walk along the promenade north of the city centre

Festivals and events

  • Summer with the stars is an annual musical festival held in July and August at King Nikola's Walk. The tourist organisation of Bar sponsors music concerts with singers from Montenegro and former Yugoslav republics.
  • The Мotorcycle race of Sutomore is an annual race in early May and September.
  • The International athletic meeting is held each May Day in Majarica.
  • The Crmnica Games are held on weekends from mid-July to mid-August in Virpazar.
  • An Agricultural show is held each year in early September in Virpazar to promote local produce.
  • The Zagradje tourism show is held annually in July and August in Zagrade.
  • The Lake Skadar Ecology, Tourism and Culture Day is held annually in July, in Murići.
  • The Mrkojević family day is held in the last week of July, in Pečurice as a celebration of culture and traditions of the area.
  • The Bar Guitar Fest is an annual gathering of guitar teachers and musicians held in January.
  • The Olive Festival is held in Bar old town.
  • The Wine and Bleak festival is held in December, in Virpazar.
  • The Old Olive Tree Gathering has been held every November since 1987. It celebrates children’s works and works for children. Children are represented in literary and art works with the theme Olives, Peace and Friendship.
  • The Port Cup is an international annual volleyball tournament for women which commenced in 1992.
  • The Bar Marathon is a swimming race held in Bar in August. Contestants swim 5 kilometres (3.1 miles) between the Hotel Sozina, Sutomore and the Hotel Topolica, in Bar. The event commenced in 1988.
  • The Chronicle of Bar is an annual summer multimedia festival with theatre plays, art exhibitions, literary events, and concerts and the Mediterranean Book Fair. It commenced in 1988.
  • The International Television Festival' has been held each November since 1995 to celebrate the television arts.

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