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Ankara is the capital of Turkey, located in Central Anatolia. With a population of 4,587,558 in the urban center and 5,150,072 in its province , it is Turkey's second largest city behind Istanbul.
Ankara was Atatürk's headquarters from 1920 and has been the capital of the Republic of Turkey since its founding in 1923, replacing Istanbul following the fall of the Ottoman Empire. The government is a prominent employer but Ankara is also an important commercial and industrial city, located at the center of Turkey's road and railway networks.The area is also known for its pears, honey, and muscat grapes.
Ankara is a very old city with various Hittite, Phrygian, Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine, and Ottoman archaeological sites.
|POPULATION :||City: 4,587,558 / Metro: 5,150,072|
|TIME ZONE :||EET (UTC+2) Summer: EEST (UTC+3)|
|LANGUAGE :||Turkish (official), Kurdish, Dimli|
|RELIGION :||Muslim 99.8% (mostly Sunni), other 0.2% (Christians and Jews)|
|AREA :||24,521 km2 (9,468 sq mi)|
|ELEVATION :||938 m (3,077 ft)|
|COORDINATES :||39°56′N 32°52′E|
|SEX RATIO :||• Male: 49.1% |
• Female: 50.9%
|AREA CODE :||312|
|POSTAL CODE :||06xxx|
|DIALING CODE :||+90 312|
Ankara is the administrative hub of Turkey and a huge university town, so it has a large population of government workers and university students. As the national capital Ankara is home to a large population of foreign diplomats and embassy staff, it offers goods and services that might be more difficult to find in other Turkish cities - for example you will have no problem ordering a cappuccino or a hamburger.
Ankara is a sprawling, modern city which can appear as little more than a dull, concrete jungle at first glance. As a result, many tourists tend to use it merely as a transit point for getting to places like Konya or Cappodocia. However, Ankara does have a lot to offer for those prepared to look a bit deeper.
Foreign visitors to Ankara usually like to visit the old shops in Çıkrıkçılar Yokuşu (Weavers' Road) near Ulus, where myriad things ranging from traditional fabrics, hand-woven carpets and leather products can be found at bargain prices. Bakırcılar Çarşısı (Bazaar of Coppersmiths) is particularly popular, and many interesting items, not just of copper, can be found here like jewelry, carpets, costumes, antiques and embroidery. Up the hill to the castle gate, there are many shops selling a huge and fresh collection of spices, dried fruits, nuts, and other produce.
Modern shopping areas are mostly found in Kızılay, or on Tunalı Hilmi Avenue, including the modern mall of Karum (named after the ancient Assyrian merchant colonies called Kârum that were established in central Anatolia at the beginning of the 2nd millennium BC) which is located towards the end of the Avenue; and in Çankaya, the quarter with the highest elevation in the city. Atakule Tower next to Atrium Mall in Çankaya commands a magnificent view over Ankara and also has a revolving restaurant at the top, where the city's panorama can be enjoyed in a leisurely fashion.
There are about 50 museums in the city.
The region's history can be traced back to the Bronze Age Hattic civilization, which was succeeded in the 2nd millennium BC by the Hittites, in the 10th century BC by the Phrygians, and later by the Lydians, Persians, Greeks, Galatians, Romans, Byzantines, and Turks.
The oldest settlements in and around the city center of Ankara belonged to the Hattic civilization which existed during the Bronze Age and was gradually absorbed ca. 2000–1700 BC by the Indo-European Hittites.
Persian sovereignty lasted until the Persians' defeat at the hands of Alexander the Great who conquered the city in 333 BC. Alexander came from Gordion to Ankara and stayed in the city for a short period. After his death at Babylon in 323 BC and the subsequent division of his empire among his generals, Ankara and its environs fell into the share of Antigonus.
In 278 BC, the city, along with the rest of central Anatolia, was occupied by a Celtic group, the Galatians, who were the first to make Ankara one of their main tribal centers, the headquarters of the Tectosages tribe.
The city was subsequently conquered by Augustus in 25 BC and passed under the control of the Roman Empire. Now the capital city of the Roman province of Galatia, Ancyra continued to be a center of great commercial importance. Ankara is also famous for the Monumentum Ancyranum (Temple of Augustus and Rome) which contains the official record of the Acts of Augustus, known as the Res Gestae Divi Augusti, an inscription cut in marble on the walls of this temple.
In the late 4th century, Ancyra became something of an imperial holiday resort. After Constantinople became the East Roman capital, emperors in the 4th and 5th centuries would retire from the humid summer weather on the Bosporus to the drier mountain atmosphere of Ancyra. Theodosius II (408–450) kept his court in Ancyra in the summers. Laws issued in Ancyra testify to the time they spent there. The city's military as well as logistical significance lasted well into the long Byzantine rule. Although Ancyra temporarily fell into the hands of several Arab Muslim armies numerous times after the 7th century, it remained an important crossroads polis within the Byzantine Empire until the late 11th century.
Ancyra, known in the West also as Angora, continued to be a residential see of the Eastern Orthodox Church until the 20th century.
Following the Ottoman defeat at World War I, the Ottoman capital Constantinople (modern Istanbul) and much of Anatolia were occupied by the Allies, who planned to share these lands between Armenia, France, Greece, Italy and the United Kingdom, leaving for the Turks the core piece of land in central Anatolia. In response, the leader of the Turkish nationalist movement, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, established the headquarters of his resistance movement in Ankara in 1920. After the Turkish War of Independence was won and the Treaty of Sèvres was superseded by the Treaty of Lausanne, the Turkish nationalists replaced the Ottoman Empire with the Republic of Turkey on 29 October 1923. A few days earlier, Ankara had officially replaced Constantinople as the new Turkish capital city, on 13 October 1923.
Ankara has a hot-summer continental climate (Dsa) under the Köppen classification and a hot summer continental (Dca) or a hot summer oceanic climate (Doa) under the Trewarthaclassification. Due to its elevation and inland location, Ankara has cold, snowy winters and hot, dry summers. Rainfall occurs mostly during the spring and autumn. Under Köppen climate classification, Ankara borders on a dry summer continental climate with a warm summer subtype (Dsb), with some regions of the province having a true warm summer subtype (Dsb) of continental climate, depending on elevation. Its climate is near the borderline of a cold semi-arid climate (BSk). Because of Ankara's high altitude and its dry summers, nightly temperatures in the summer months are cool. Ankara lies in USDAHardiness zone 7b. Ankara's annual average precipitation is fairly low at 400 millimeters (16 in), nevertheless precipitation can be observed throughout the year. Monthly mean temperatures range from 0.3 °C (32.5 °F) in January to 23.5 °C (74.3 °F) in July, with an annual mean of 12.02 °C (53.6 °F).
Climate data for Ankara
|Record high °C (°F)||16.6|
|Average high °C (°F)||4.4|
|Daily mean °C (°F)||0.4|
|Average low °C (°F)||−3.0|
|Record low °C (°F)||−24.4|
|Source: Turkish State Meteorological Service|
The city has exported mohair (from the Angora goat) and Angora wool (from the Angora rabbit) internationally for centuries. In the 19th century, the city also exported substantial amounts of goat and cat skins, gum, wax, honey, berries, and madder root.
The Central Anatolia Region is one of the primary locations of grape and wine production in Turkey, and Ankara is particularly famous for its Kalecik Karası and Muscat grapes; and its Kavaklıdere wine, which is produced in the Kavaklıdere neighbourhood within the Çankaya district of the city. Ankara is also famous for its pears. Another renowned natural product of Ankara is its indigenous type of honey (Ankara Balı) which is known for its light color and is mostly produced by the Atatürk Forest Farm and Zoo in the Gazi district, and by other facilities in the Elmadağ, Çubuk and Beypazarı districts.
Prices in Ankara
MARKET / SUPERMARKET
|Beer (domestic)||0.5 l||€1.70|
|Bottle of Wine||1 bottle||€9.30|
|Dinner (Low-range)||for 2||€16.00|
|Dinner (Mid-range)||for 2||€32.00|
|Dinner (High-range)||for 2||€47.00|
|Mac Meal or similar||1 meal||€4.95|
|Beer (Imported)||0.33 l||€3.10|
|Beer (domestic)||0.5 l||€2.80|
|Coctail drink||1 drink||€5.40|
|Dinner (Low-range)||for 2||€16.00|
|Dinner (Mid-range)||for 2||€32.00|
|Dinner (High-range)||for 2||€47.00|
|Mac Meal or similar||1 meal||€4.95|
|Beer (Imported)||0.33 l||€3.10|
|Beer (domestic)||0.5 l||€2.80|
|Coctail drink||1 drink||€5.40|
|Toilet paper||4 rolls||€1.20|
CLOTHES / SHOES
|Jeans (Levis 501 or similar)||1 pair||€42.00|
|Dress summer (Zara, H&M….)||1 pair||€25.00|
|Sport shoes (Nike, Adidas…)||1 pair||€52.00|
|Leather shoes||1 pair||€54.00|
|Local Transport||1 ticket||€0.70|
43 € per day
Estimated cost per 1 day including:
- meals in cheap restaurant
- public transport
- cheap hotel
105 € per day
Estimated cost per 1 day including:
- mid-range meals and drinks
Transportation - Get In
Ankara Esenboğa International Airport (Ankara Esenboğa Havalimanı or Esenboğa Uluslararası Havalimanı), Balıkhisar Mh.,Özal Bulvarı (Esenboğa Yolu)(some 28 km northeast - Airport buses are operated by HAVAŞ through the city centre reaching Ulus (the historical centre of the city, close to the museums and baths), and AŞTİ (where the intercity buses depart from to almost all the cities in Turkey). The price is 10 TL. There is also a cheaper public bus line 442 run by Ankara Municipality (5.25 TL), and it stops on multiple locations including Ulus, Kızılay, Aşti along its circular route (i.e., no terminus in the city centre). Also by taxi around TRY 70 one way, metered. -), , fax: , e-mail:[email protected]. -International flights are rather low in frequency and scope - apart from Turkish Airlines (THY), only Lufthansa, Austrian Airlines and British Airways offer direct flights to their respective European hubs. Iran Air also has two weekly flights to Tehran. For other carriers flying into Turkey, a flight into Istanbul is necessary, followed by an air transfer to Ankara by Turkish Airlines or Anadolu Jet (a low cost brand of Turkish Airlines). - EasyJet also offers discount flights to and from Istanbul Sabiha Gökçen Airport (SAW) and Basel-Mulhouse-Freiburg in the summer months (until October 25) and to and from Istanbul and London Luton airport all year round for fares as low as £22. - About the place: The brand-new airport was opened in 2007. It features many more gates, a more orderly parking system, and in general, better traffic flow. The road connecting Ankara's airport to the ring road has also been fully renovated.
Being in a central location in Turkey, Ankara is also the centre of the Turkish rail network and can be reached from many cities. The information below about Istanbul to Ankara trains is outdated; you now take a high-speed train directly from Pendik station in Istanbul to Ankara.
- Ankara Central railway station (Ankara Garı), Hipodrum Cd (M Maltepe. M Ulus - north of Kızılay Square. -connected to by a wide number of public buses which stop in front of the station. About 10 minutes walk from the station, on the northern corner of Gençlik Park, is a metro station which has services to a number of central locations in the city in addition to Kızılay.). The train trip from Istanbul to Ankara takes around 5 hours and 36 minutes and most (but not all) daytime services involve changing from one of the older express trains from Istanbul to Eskişehir onto the new high speed rail link. Night trains, on the other hand, are direct from Istanbul with no transfers to high speed trains, however, these slightly older trains are comfortable and of Western European standard. Reserve a cabin in advance if you prefer sleeping in a bed to sleeping in a seat. Internet connections are available in certain wagons of the train. Tickets are slightly cheaper than the bus and the journey is more comfortable. - Some destinations (Duration, Price,Transfer): Istanbul (5:36; TL 32; Eskisehir (High Speed Rail)), Eskisehir (1:28; TL 20; Direct (High Speed Rail), Konya (1:30; TL 25; Direct (High Speed Rail)), Bursa (4:00; TL 32; Eskisehir), Konya (1:45; TL 22; Direct (High Speed Rail), İzmir (11:47; TL 27; Direct), Adana (12:24; TL 22; Direct).
If you are travelling from places other than Istanbul, you will find buses fast, inexpensive, and modern. Watch out for the drivers spraying your hands with lemon cologne if you do not like it.
- Ankara Intercity Terminal (Ankara Şehirlerarası Terminal İşletmeleri AŞTİ(pronounced ush-tee), Beştepeler Mh. (connected to the Kızılay Square- Metro 'AŞTİ' . There are also free of charge shuttle buses to Kızılay (and a number of other locations) run by the AŞTİ administration. They depart from behind the main building.), , fax: , e-mail: [email protected]. The buses terminate at this bus station (otogar), a huge, two-storey building with extended wings on sides. Most of the cities in Turkey have direct buses to the capital of Turkey, and buses are much faster than trains in Turkey. From Istanbul to Ankara, the bus trip takes around 6 hours and one way fare is between 35 and 55 TL. The fare varies by bus companies. Usually big companies like Pamukkale, Kamil Koç, Metro and Ulusoy have high fares when other regional bus companies have low prices. However, the trip takes around 8 hours when you prefer these cheap regional bus companies. You can check prices of the latest bus tickets in otobus.
Transportation - Get Around
The city has a dense public bus network, a two-line subway called Ankara Metrosu and a single line suburban railway called Ankara Banliyö Treni.
For tourists, Ankara’s public transit system, particularly the public bus network, can be difficult to figure out, because maps are rare and all information is in Turkish. Nor is there any access provided for disabled travellers in any form of public transport. Buses and metros tend to be very crowded during rush hours, especially on Mondays and Fridays.
If you know the city well, public transportation, especially the metro, is an ideal, easy, quick and cheap way to get around particularly for longer distances. For shorter distances taxis are an easy, quick and cheap way to get around.
There are two types of public buses in Ankara; those run by the Ankara Municipality namedAnkara Belediye Otobüsleri (EGO) and those run by a private corporation named Ankara Özel Halk Otobüsleri (ÖHO). You can differentiate these two types by their colours. EGO-run buses are white and blue while ÖHO-run buses are blue. Both types of these public buses use the same bus network and bus stops.
Ankara Municipal Buses
The Ankara Municipal Buses, named Ankara Belediye Otobüsleri (EGO), consists of an extensive and dense bus network, and is owned and operated by the Ankara Municipality.
Payment system for municipal buses is based on multi-use magnetic cards which are also used for the metro; starting from the smallest available which is the 1-unit card which costs 1.65 TL, 2-unit cards which cost 3.30 TL, 3-unit cards which cost 4.95 TL, 5-unit cards which cost 8.25 TL, 10-unit cards which cost 16.50 TL and 20-unit cards which cost 33.00 TL. A free transfer with the magnetic cards is possible within a duration of 45 minutes between the bus lines and metro lines. The magnetic cards cannot be purchased in buses and have to be purchased beforehand at kiosks and metro stations.
Unfortunately, no stops and maps are displayed in the buses and bus stops nor announced by voice in the buses. However all current bus information is available online at the EGO English website. In addition, apps for smartphones are available with the same functionality.
Ankara Non-Municipal Public Buses
The Ankara Non-Municipal Public Buses, Ankara Özel Halk Otobüsleri (ÖHO), consists of an extensive and dense bus network, operated by a private corporation.
Payment system for non-municipal buses is with cash. The ticket, which is only a one-way ticket, is purchased in buses at a cost of 2.25 TL.
Unfortunately, no stops and maps are displayed in the buses and bus stops nor announced by voice in the buses.
The Ankara Metro , named Ankara Metrosu, consists of two metro lines, which are calledAnkaray and Ankara Metro which is owned and operated by the Ankara Municipality .
The west-east light-rail line named Ankaray and the north-south heavy-rail Ankara Metro line are both mostly underground lines and intersect at Kızılay station.
The Ankaray line runs between AŞTİ (Ankara Şehirlerarası Terminal İşletmesi - Ankara Intercity Bus Terminal) and Dikimevi. The line is 8.7 km long (8.0 underground and 0.7 km surface railway) and has 11 stations
The Ankara Metro line, runs between Kızılay, the city center, to Batıkent in the northwest. The line is 14.7 km long (6.5 km underground, 4.5 km surface, and 3.7 km elevated railway) and has 12 stations.
Payment for the subway is based on multi-use magnetic cards which is also used for the municipal buses; starting from the smallest available which is the 1-unit card which costs 1.65 TL, 2-unit cards which cost 3.30 TL, 3-unit cards which cost 4.95 TL, 5-unit cards which cost 8.25 TL, 10-unit cards which cost 16.50 TL and 20-unit cards which cost 33.00 TL . A free transfer with the magnetic cards is possible within a duration of 45 minutes between the bus lines and metro lines. The magnetic cards can be purchased at kiosks and metro stations.
All stations are announced both on a display and by voice in the metros.
By Suburban Railway
The Ankara Suburban Railway, named Ankara Banliyö Treni, consists of a single suburban line running on the national rail network which is owned and operated by the Turkish State Railways.
The suburban line, runs between Sincan in the west, through the city center, to Kayaş in the east. The line is 37.0 km long (all of which is surface and elevated railway) and has 26 stations.
Payment for the subway is done by cash at each train station for a one-way ticket which costs 1.70 TL and a return ticket which costs 3.00 TL .
Taxis are numerous in Ankara and are recognizable by their yellow color and word Taksion top of the car. All licensed taxis have the letter T in their license plates.
The fare shown on the meter reads according to distance traveled. The ride will start at 2.20 TL, and the rate is 1.90 TL per kilometre. The rates for day and night are same. Tipping is not done other than rounding the fare to the next 50 kurus or 1 lira.
Occasionally, some taxi drivers will refuse to start the meter and try to negotiate a fixed price, especially with tourists. But most taxi drivers will start taximeters at all times. You should avoid these cabs and simply take another one as you will almost certainly end paying too much. Many taxi drivers, even though very few of them speak a foreign language, will understand your requested destination and instructions. Tell them then to put the taximeter on. Taxi drivers do normally work with the taximeter, so they will not be surprised at all when you ask them to put it on. Emphasize to the taxi driver that you will pay for the meter price before getting in.
Always try to stop a taxi that is passing by on the road or find a legitimate taxi stop.
If you are not familiar with the city and see that you are a tourist, the taxi driver may drive a detour in order to charge you more. Insist on going to the destination that you want, and have a map to show them your destination, to avoid a detour.
Also beware that all taxis are required to have the designated license plate with the letter T apart from their yellow colouring.
Be careful on what notes you hand them for payment; some taxi drivers have tried to pretend that the 50 lira note that was handed was just a 5 lira note. Occasionally taxi drivers may actually also rip notes you give them, and tell you it is no good, in order to make you hand them a 50 lira note. So, make sure the notes are not ripped, and is actually the right one before you hand them over. Do not buy their quick-sell tricks and also do not allow them to round the price up to the higher denomination.
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Ankara's Castle (Kale) has been a trade centre for centuries, and its sellers of carpets, leather and antiquities are slowly moving upmarket hoping to attract the tourist trade. It's still a delicious place for walking and browsing, and there are family firms where you can buy, for a price, excellent carpets and kilims. Walking down from the Castle you can walk through the covered market, an iron structure reminiscent of places like Les Halles in Paris, where you can buy very cheap and excellent produce. Ankara has a number of large shopping malls each of them offering fashion stores (including Zara, Mango, Harvey Nichols, Marks and Spencer, etc), technology retailers (like Media Markt and Electro World) supermarkets (like Carrefoursa and Tesco/Kipa). Many of the new malls are located on the Eskişehir Yolu, including Armada, Cepa, Kentpark and Gordion.
- Ankamall (Ankamall alışveriş merkezi) (in the northwestern suburbs, : Akköprü). The largest one of Ankara's shopping malls.
- Armada Tower Ankara Shopping Mall (Armada Alışveriş Merkezi.).
- Atakule Mall (At Atakule tower).
- Karum Shopping center (Karum Alışveriş Merkezinin), Iran Street (Caddesi).
Ankara is best known with its "döner kebap". In order to pick a good döner restaurant (there are many) you should take a look at the döner round. it should be rectangular and the cuts must be flat and separated.
Like many other capitals, Ankara is where you can eat the best and the freshest fish of the country all around the year (not the cheapest, though). Around Sakarya str., there are various types of fish restaurants, from fast food to stylish ones and it can be a good opportunity to also try rakı, which is known as a companion of fish. But fish restaurants abound in the city; in Cankaya there are at least two excellent ones, "Akdeniz Akdeniz" and "Lazoli" featuring the first Mediterranean and the second Black Sea cuisine. "Ege", located close to Tunali street, is another excellent choice for fish and raki. The restaurant has also a variety of wines. If you want to listen good Turkish classical music while you eat and drink raki, then "Sudem" should be seen. It is located on Olgunlar Street.
Besides many classic iskender kebab restaurants there are also many restaurant featuring the traditional cuisine of a specific city, catering to the community of more affluent immigrants: from the spicy Urfa to the variety of vegetables coming with Adana kebab. Uludag Kebabcisi on Denizciler Caddesi in Ulus has been around for about sixty years and is a top of the line restorant mainly serving Iskender kebap.
Finally, as the national capital, Ankara has a large population of diplomats, and hence there are a number of "international" restaurants in Kavaklıdere and Cankaya (also where the majority of diplomatic missions are located). Prices tend to be on the steep side.
- Hacı Arif Bey, Güniz sokak 48/1. Kebaps and South Anatolian cuisine , on , is a well managed and delicious restaurant for savoring Gaziantep cuisine. A wealth of options are available and prices are not very high. A person can eat well for around 30-40 TL.
- Also there are plenty of cheaper restaurant options in Kızılay and Maltepe, selling fast food or kebaps, döner, lahmacun. In Cankaya, Tunali, GOP region you may find various types of Turkish cuisine and luxurious restaurants where prices go higher.
- Sushico. Japanese, and Thai food. Sushico's GOP restaurant especially has a very good garden.
- Quick China, Park caddesi. Good option for Chinese, Thai cookings. Quick China's branch on the Park Avenue "Park caddesi" is also very good, particularly for a Sunday brunch.
Sights & Landmarks
- Kocatepe Mosque (Kocatepe Camii), Olgunlar Cd, Kızılay ( Kizilay N 1km). built between 1967 and 1987 Completed in 1987, this project is built in a neoclassical Ottoman architecture style, and is an eclectic building
- Hacı Bayram Mosque (Hacı Bayram Veli Cami), Sarıbağ Sk(near the Temple of Augustus - Ulus SW 0.7 km). restored by architect Mimar Sinan in the 16th century, with Kütahya tiles being added in the 18th century. Just next door is the small tomb of Hacı Bayram Veli, a poet and Sufi, who settled in Ankara in the 15th century to spread his teachings. This is considered to be the holiest shrine in the city by pious Muslims, who can be found praying in and outside the tomb in large numbers regardless of the time of the day. Take a look inside to see the colourful dome topping the structure.
- Arslanhane Mosque (Arslanhane (Ahi Şerafeddin) Camii), Can Sk ( Kurtuluş S 1km). A 13th-century Seljuk mosque near the citadel, and quite worth the effort to climb up the steep hill leading there. Has a finely carved wooden ceiling supported by a "forest" of stately wooden columns, following the style of a few such mosques dispersed throughout Anatolia.
- Sultan Alaeddin Mosque (Sultan Alaeddin Cami), Altındağ ( 'Ulus' W 1 km). It has a carved walnutmimber, the inscription on which records that the mosque was completed in early AH 574 (which corresponds to the summer of 1178 AD) by the Seljuk Sultan. Ankara's first mosque was built in former Kaleici district.
- Ahi Elvan Mosque (Ahi Elvan Camii), Koyunpazari Sk. ( 'Ulus' NW 1.7 km). was constructed during the late 14th and early 15th centuries. The finely carved walnut member (pulpic) is of particular interest.
- Yeni Mosque (Cenab Ahmet Mosque, Ulucanlar Yeni Cami), Ulucanlar Avenue (Ulucanlar Caddesi) (Cebeci Tren İstanbul 600m SE, or Dikimevi). was built by the famous architect Sinan in the 16th century. The mimber (pulpit) and mihrap (prayer niche) are of white marble, and the mosque itself is of Ankara stone, an example of very fine workmanship.
- Citadel . There were laid by the Galatians on a prominent lava outcrop, and the rest was completed by the Romans. Walk through the cobbled streets lined by old houses to climb up to one of the towers, which offers a good view of the sprawling city below and the surrounding mountains.
- Roman Theatre (Antik Roma Tiyatrosu,), Hisar Parkı Cd No:~18/Çankırı Cad. Dışkapı ( Ulus 1.0 km West), . The remains, the stage, and the backstage of the Roman theatre can be seen outside the castle.
- Temple of Augustus and Rome (Monumentum Ancyranum), Sarıbağ Sk. The remains of a temple constructed between 25 BC - 20 BC after the Roman conquest of central Anatolia. and created the formation of the Roman province of Galatia, with Ancyra (modern Ankara) as its administrative capital. The temple, on the ancient Acropolis of Ancyra, was enlarged by the Romans in the 2nd century. In the 5th century it was converted into a church by the Byzantines. Its remains, some sturdy rock-cut walls decorated by ancient motifs, lie just next to the mosque and tomb of Hacı Bayram Veli, marking this site as a sacred one regardless of belief and age.
- Column of Julian (Julian Sütunu, Belkıs Minaresi) (at a small square behind the İş Bankası building, Ulus). A Roman column erected in 362 CE to commemorate the visit of Emperor Julian (r. 355–363) to Ancyra.
- Roman Bath (Roma Hamami), Çankırı Cd (walk up the street north from Ulus Square, 15 min). Excavated ruins accessible to the public.typical features of a classical Roman bath complex: a frigidarium (cold room), a tepidarium (warm room) and a caldarium (hot room). The baths were built during the reign of the Roman emperor Caracallain the early 3rd century AD to honor Asclepios, the God of Medicine. Today, only the basement and first floors remain.
- Anıtkabir, Mareşal Fevzi Çakmak Cd 55-71 (20 min walk from the Tandoğan/Anadolu station, along a road that smoothly climbs uphill through the forest that surrounds the mausoleum grounds). Daily.Completed in 1953 and situated on an imposing hill in the Anittepe quarter of the city is the mausoleum of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the founder of the Republic of Turkey. The mausoleum and its adjacent buildings make an especial effort to combine the elements of both ancient Anatolian and ancient Turkish art. A museum underneath displays a large collection of Atatürk memorabilia and provides an excellent overview of modern Turkey's history, and the wars led to the proclaimation of the republic. Australians and New Zealanders will find it interesting to hear the story of Gallipoli presented entirely from the Turkish point of view.
- Atatürk's Tomb (Mausoleum) and Museum, Anıt Caddesi Tandoğan, . Tu-Su. There is a museum housing a superior wax statue of Atatürk; writings, letters and items belonging to Atatürk, as well as an exhibition of photographs recordings of important moments of his life
- Atakule Tower. A 125m high communications and observation tower in the Çankaya district. The highest structure of the city, with a shopping mall located under the tower. (Note: Atakule shopping mall itself, where very few shops are left open, will close in autumn as it will be transformed to a hotel.)
- Victory Monument (Zafer Anıtı), Ulus square.. erected in 1927 at The monument is made of marble and bronze and features an equestrian statue of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk. Since it was erected a year before the "alphabet reform", it is one of the very few republican monuments in Turkey that has an inscription written in Ottoman Turkish, using the Arabic script.
- Statue of Atatürk, Zafer Square ( Zafer Meydanı),. A marble and bronze statue was crafted by the renowned Italian sculptor Pietro Canonica in 1927 and depicts a standing Atatürk.
- Monument to a Secure, Confident Future, Güven Park (near Kızılay Square). Built in 1935 and bears Atatürk's advice to his people: "Turk! Be proud, work hard, and believe in yourself." Features the statues of two gun-holding men with a rough look, presumably representing the Turkish police and the Turkish army, all perfectly fitting the totalitarian art style fashionable during the years the monument was erected.
- Hatti Monument, Sıhhiye Square (Sıhhiye). Built in the 1970s, this impressive monument symbolizes the Hatti gods and commemorates Anatolia. It features the statues of a deer and two oxen, similar to those found in innumerable archaeological sites throughout Central Anatolia, all surrounded by a stylized Hittite sun disc.
- Akköprü . A 13th century stone bridge (the oldest in Ankara) built by the Seljuk Turks spanning the Çubuk River. Despite its name (Turkish for "white bridge"), it is made of local reddish stones that are so ubiquitously used in Ankara's other major old buildings. Once on the trade route between Istanbul and Baghdad through Ankara, it is now engulfed by suburban development on all sides, and may not worth the effort of heading there just for the sake of it unless you are really enthusiastic about old stone bridges, but drop by if you are around for nearby Ankamall or the Etlik bus station, where minibuses for nearby towns depart from.
Museums & Galleries
- Ankara Ethnography Museum (Etnoğrafya Müzesi), Türk Ocağı Cad./Talat Paşa Bulv, Ulus .Tu-Su 08:30-17:00.
- Museum of Anatolian Civilizations (Anadolu Medeniyetleri Müzesi), Gözcü Sokak 2 (on the way to the citadel from AkköprüUlus 1.0 km W), , fax: , e-mail:[email protected]. Apr-Oct 8.30-19.00, Nov-Mar 8.30-17.15. Display of the artefacts remained from the pre-Greek and -Roman Asia Minor/Anatolian civilizations — the best bits of sculptures and reliefs of the ancient Near East are all here. The oldest artefacts in display date back to the Paleolithic. This museum is one of the best in Turkey and by itself makes Ankara certainly worthwhile to visit. TL15.
- State Art and Sculpture Museum (Resim-Heykel Müzesi), Türkocağı Sokak, Altındağ . Hosts galleries with temporary exhibitions as well as a permanent display of Turkish art from late 1800s up to today.
- Cer Modern, Altınsoy Cad. No:3 06101 Sıhhıye, , e-mail: [email protected]. Tu-Su 10.00-18.00, Closed on Mondays. The recently opened (April 2010) modern art museum of the city, Cer Modern is housed in the historic power plant building of Turkish Railways. Contemporary art. - P: +90 312 3100000 F: +90 312 3101000
- TCDD Open Air Steam Locomotive Museum (TCDD Açık Hava Buharlı Lokomotif Müzesi), Celal Bayar Blvd, Maltepe .Tu- Sa 08:30-17:00. An open-air museum.
- Rahmi M. Koc Museum (Çengelhan Rahmi Koç Museum), Koyunpazarı Sk 64-76 , . Similar to Istanbul's industrial museum (of which Çengelhan is actually a part), the technological progress from 1850s onwards is on display in this museum housed in an old Ottoman caravanserai, what was the former Çengel Han, an Ottoman era caravanserai (han) which was completed in 1523, during the early years of the reign of Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent. - The lower floor is reserved for a carpet gallery, agricultural machinery and pharmaceutical exhibits. Various machines, medicine, everyday life tools and road transport vehicles are exhibited in the ground floor. A brasserie is also at the ground floor. The upper floor hosts sections of rail transport items, toys, communications, scientific instruments, maritime and navigation. There are also sections about Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the founder of modern Turkey; Vehbi Koç, Rahmi Koç's father and one of the first industrialists of Turkey, and Ankara city
- Ankara Aviation Museum (Türk Hava Kurumu Müzesi), Etimesgut, Doğanbey Mh. or Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bulvarı (İstanbul Yolu) (near highway to Istanbul - Subayevleri Tren İstanbul Stn.), . W-Su 09:00-16:30. Various aircraft, aviation items, missiles, and whatnot are in the exhibition, as well as a number of MiGs from the other side of Iron Curtain.
- METU Science and Technology Museum (Odtu Bilim Ve Teknoloji Müzesi), ODTÜ Kampüsü A-8 Kapısı (ODTÜ Teknokent Kapısı), Dumlupınar Bulvarı No:1 (on Middle East Technical University campus, on the highway to Eskişehir, 7 km away from the city center. ), . M-F 9:30-15:30.
- Stamps Museum at Turkish Telecom, Aydinlikevler district, Çağdaş Sk No:57 . daily 08:30-17:00.
- Mehmet Akif Ersoy Old House & Museum, Hacettepe University Campus, Sıhhiye , .
- Mehmet Akif Ersoy Literature Museum Library (Mehmet Akif Ersoy Edebiyat Müze Kütüphanesi), Hacettepe Mah. Sarıkadı sok. No: 47 Hamamönü, Altındağ , , fax:. Tu-Su 10:00-19:00.
- Liberation War Museum (War of Independence Museum, Kurtuluş Savaşı Müzesi), Karşıyaka Mh., Cumhuriyet Cd No:14/22 , . This originally was the first building which hosted Turkish Republican Parliament, in which the War of Independence, fought in 1921-22 was directed from, as evidenced by photographs and other items in the display. Waxworks of former Turkish presidents are also on display.
- Hacettepe University Arts Museum, Sihhiye district, inside the university's cultural center.Gevher Nesibe. M-F 10:00-17:00. you can see over 250 works of many Turkish painters and artists from the early ages of the Republic until our times.
- Roman Road of Ankara(Cardo Maximus). This is an ancient Roman road
- Artifacts of Pious Foundations (Vakif) Museum, Ataturk Boulevard in Ulus (: 'Ulus').There are Turkish carpets from 15th and 16th centuries, historic candle holders and Korans, old watches, woodworks from 13th century, traditional tiles, and many other ethnographic objects.
Things to do
Ankara offers a good selection of cinemas both in Kavaklıdere and Çankaya and several concert halls for classical music and opera. Many universities promote concerts and spring festivals but these are sometimes open to their students only. Folk and traditional music is very alive, from small bars and restaurants to big concert halls where you can find local stars like Musa Eroğlu.
Parks and Gardens
Depending on your interests, you can find trekking in local parks and in the surroundings, visiting the museums or hunting for the Ottoman or Selçuk remains in the ancient castle. Upscale shopping centers like Armada along the Eskisehir road also offer cinemas and quality restaurants.
- Abdi Ipekci Park (Abdi İpekçi Parkı), Sağlık Mh. ( Sıhhiye 200 m). See here the 'Hands' statue
- Adile Nasit Park (Adile Naşit Park), Kuzgun Sokak, Ayrancı.
- Ankara Botanic Park (Botanik Parkı), Çankaya Street,Cinnah Street, Çankaya Mh. (, Kizilay).
- Atatürk Forest Farm and ZOO (Atatürk Orman Çiftliği ve Hayvanat Bahçesi), Alparslan Türkeş Caddesi (Çiftlik Cd.) No:150 (Train stop 'Gazi Mh. Tren İstasyonu' ~one km). This is an expansive recreational farming area, which houses a zoo, several small agricultural farms, greenhouses, restaurants, a dairy farm and a brewery. It was started by Kemal Atatürk, who wanted to prove that the neglected steppes around Ankara could be converted into a lush, fertile agricultural land.
- Genclik Park (Gençlik Parki), Doğanbey Mh., Ulus Dolmuşları (Ulus 100 m). The earliest park of the city, which features a large lake in the middle with cafes and restaurants along its sides, as well as an amusement park complete with a rollercoaster.
- Goksu Park (Göksu Parki), Etimesgut suburb (Etimesgut Train Station 2 km South or nearest Metro Stn Batikent SE 3 km). Enjoy the scenic Susuz Lake (Gölu)
- Guvenpark (Güvenpark), Kizilay square (Kizilay 100 m). A small park surrounding the Security Monument
- Korea Park (Kore Parkı, Kore Şehitleri Anıtı), Hipodrum Street (Tandoğan 700 m SW). A stylized Korean pagoda in this park commemorates the Turkish soldiers who lost their lives in the Korean War.
- Kugulu Park (Kuğulu Park), Atatürk Boulevard, Polonniya Street, Kavaklıdere (Kizilay 2 km North - Near to Egyptian Embassy).Fountains and contemporary sculptures. Famous for, and named after, the swans (Turkish: kuğu) inhabiting the small pond in the middle of the park.
- Papsi bar, Tunali Street. is a good choice to take a cold beer in a friendly atmosphere for years
- Cafe Vanilla, Tunalı Hilmi Cd. No:18 Çankaya Ankara. A trendy bar and restaurant in the heart of Tunali Hilmi Street. This street is always busy and there are plenty of options but Cafe Vanilla's Turkish ravioli is worth to try.
- "Kitir" and "Random" bars, Tunali (adjacent to Kugulu Park). are two other most popular bars
- Corvus, Bestekar Street. offering Rock Music.
There are many bars and places to drink on that street which is parallel to Bestekar. The Edge, Twister, Hayyami (wine bar) are nice places. Sakal on Kennedy Street is a unique place with electronic, reggae or retro (offering different kinds of music). On the same street Mono is pleasant place to drink. Tunus Street, parallel to Bestekar is another street where you may find many pubs like Retrox, Flat, James Cook and Zodiac. If Performance Hall, Manhattan, Overall and Siyah-Beyaz are places where you can drink and dance till 4 am with live rock music. There normally are rock cover bands and a huge crowd, especially on Friday and Saturday nights in these places.
"Sakarya" is full of the cheapest solutions. Among the best places in Sakarya, one should note "Net", which is a good choice not only take a glass of beer or raki, but also to eat. "Buyuk Ekspres" is also a nice old bar of the town. Also Eski-Yeni, Pasaj and Telwe are nice bars where you may find rock or alternative live music styles with cheaper drink prices compared to Tunali, Cankaya region.
"Park Avenue" -in Konutkent district- is the new street for classy bars, cafes and night clubs. You may also find second branch of Kitir, Random & Crossroads in "Park Avenue". Istanbul's fashionable night club Sortie has also opened in this avenue and is a nice place to drink any kind of drinks and listen to latest club mixes. Narquilla is a great place to have your nargile while drinking beer and enjoying nice food. Also, there are meyhanes (tavern) in which fixed menus are served with drinks and classic Turkish music played. There are bars and restaurants also in the historic core of Ankara, close to citadel. You definitely have to go and return by taxi though.
Don't expect a lively gay life of Istanbul in Ankara. No-one comes to Ankara for its amazing gay life, however you can still enjoy your time while you are here. It has only one gay bar-club (Sixties) and this is open only on Wednesday, Friday and Saturday nights. It gets pretty crowded after 00:00 and plays Turkish and Western pop music. In addition to that, though it is not a gay bar, Eski-Yeni Bar in Sakarya Caddesi (street) seems to attract a gay-lesbian crowd especially in its bottom floor. Kaos GL and Pembe Hayat, the leading queer organizations in Ankara, hold activities throughout the year.
Things to know
The "downtown" area of this large city is around Kızılay Square (Kızılay Meydanı, named after the headquarters of the Red Crescent, the Turkish equivalent of the Red Cross, now replaced by a modern shopping mall) which has a fair number of transportation links to almost anywhere in the city. To the north, Kızılay Square is connected by a wide avenue, Atatürk Boulevard, to the squares of Sıhhiye (Ottoman Turkish for "sanitary works" as this has been the site of the building of the Ministry of Health since the foundation of the republic), marked by an unmissable Hittite monument in the middle of its roundabout, and Ulus("nation", the site of the major institutions of the early years of the republic, such as the old parliament), which has a large equestrian monument of Kemal Atatürk, the founder of the republic, at its side. Ulus, the adjoiningHisar district around the hilltop citadel, and Hamamönü just south of it down the hill form the old town of Ankara.
To the immediate south of Kızılay lies the upmarket districts of Kavaklıdere,Gaziosmanpaşa and Çankaya. The city's most expensive hotels and restaurants are found in this region, as are most of the embassies and consular services.
Southwest of Kızılay, past the aptly named Bakanlıklar ("ministries") district, İsmet İnönü Boulevard (named after the second Turkish president) leads into the area collectively known as Eskişehir Yolu (literally "the road to Eskişehir"), which is lined by most of Ankara's large and afforested university campuses and the buildings of the administrative institutions, including the current National Parliament. The area morphes into exurbs several tens of kilometres out of the city, which eventually give way to the wide open steppe.
Safety in Ankara
Ankara is probably one of the safest big cities you will ever visit. Most people, including single female travellers, would very rarely encounter problems walking along the streets alone at night. Street crime is extremely rare, even late at night. However, "little crime" does not mean "no crime", and common sense should still be applied as anywhere in the world. Petty crime such as pickpocketing can occur, however, especially in crowded areas. Therefore, one should always take care of their belongings and keep bags closed.
The biggest danger for travellers is the road traffic, because there is little respect for pedestrians. Every road should be crossed carefully and very quickly. Even if pedestrian traffic lights show green, it is absolutely essential to have a watchful eye. At crosswalks definitely look out before crossing the street.
Another danger for pedestrians, are the sidewalks because they are often in a very poor condition. Because of the poor or irregular renovation of sidewalks, many of them have loose paving stones and holes in the asphalt. The risk of tripping and hurting oneself should not be underestimated.
Ankara Police Department has a "tourism police" section with staff multilingual in English, German, French, and Arabic.
- Tourism Police (Turizm Polisi), Emniyet Turizm Şube Müdürlüğü, İskitler, , , +90 312 384-0606/6350-6353fax: .