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Bursa is a large city in Turkey, located in northwestern Anatolia, within the Marmara Region. It is the fourth most populous city in Turkey and one of the most industrialized metropolitan centres in the country. The city is also the administrative centre of Bursa Province.
Bursa was the first major and second overall capital of the Ottoman State between 1335 and 1363. The city was referred to as Hüdavendigar (Ottoman: خداوندگار) (meaning "God's gift") during the Ottoman period, while a more recent nickname is Yeşil Bursa (meaning "Green Bursa") in reference to the parks and gardens located across its urban fabric, as well as to the vast and richly varied forests of the surrounding region. The ski resort of Mount Uludağ towers over it. The mountain was called the Mysian Olympus by the Romans who lived there before. Bursa has rather orderly urban growth and borders a fertile plain. The mausoleums of the early Ottoman sultans are located in Bursa and the city's main landmarks include numerous edifices built throughout the Ottoman period. Bursa also has thermal baths and several museums, including a museum of archaeology.
The shadow play characters Karagöz and Hacivat are based on historic personalities who lived and died in Bursa. Bursa is also home to some of the most famous Turkish dishes such as İskender kebap, specially candied marron glacés, peaches and Turkish Delight. Bursa houses the Uludağ University, and its population can claim one of the highest overall levels of education in Turkey. The historic towns of İznik (Nicaea), Mudanya and Zeytinbağı are all situated in Bursa Province.
In 2014, Bursa had a population of 1,800,278, while Bursa Province had 2,787,539 inhabitants.
|POPULATION :||• City 1,957,247
• Metro 2.787.539
|FOUNDED :||5200 BC|
|TIME ZONE :|
|LANGUAGE :||Turkish (official)|
|AREA :||1,036 km2 (400 sq mi)|
|ELEVATION :||100 m (300 ft)|
|COORDINATES :||40°11′N 29°03′E|
|SEX RATIO :||• Male: 49.1%
• Female: 50.9%
|AREA CODE :||224|
|POSTAL CODE :||16000|
|DIALING CODE :||(+90) 224|
Bursa, the fourth largest Turkish city, is in the northwestern part of the country, just south of the Sea of Marmara.
The first impression of the city might be that of a large, concrete-ridden modern metropolis that is betraying its largely recognized Turkish epithet ofYeşil Bursa ("Green Bursa"), and its historical prominency as being the cradle of the Ottoman state; however, upon a closer look you will see it really lives up to its name, by proudly displaying its Ottoman heritage in the shape of many mosques, tombs, and lovely quarters of old houses, as well as by harbouring many pleasant parks, which fill the city with fresh air, and provide the weary traveller some shade to rest in—and even if you haven't found the parks sufficient enough to have this city earned the honorific of "green", then the lush woodlands of Mt. Uludağ is just above that steep hill.
In 2014, Bursa and a nearby village of Cumalıkızık were added to the UNESCO world heritage list. The remains at several sites illustrate the creation of an urban and rural system establishing the Ottoman Empire in the early 14th century.
Bursa lies 20 km inland from the coast of the Sea of Marmara, with which it is connected by the River Nilüfer, which meanders its way through the northwestern suburbs of the city. With its 2.5 million residents, it closely follows the "big three" of Turkey—Istanbul, Ankara, and İzmir—in population. Much of the population are immigrants, or their descendants, who have been in the city for a couple generations or more, either from Balkan countries fled from their homeland mostly during the years of often oppressive communist regime (mainly ethnic Turks from Bulgaria, Macedonia, and Kosovo, as well as some Albanian Muslims), or from the far northeast of the country, including Muslim Georgians, who settled in the city in numbers for economical reasons. The city is also receiving immigration from elsewhere in the country, due to the recent growth of industry.
As one of the western terminuses of Silk Road, Bursa was, and still is, the main centre of Turkish silk industry. Other local products include fruits—especially peaches—grown abundantly in the fertile plain below the city, and chestnuts harvested from semi-wild stands on the hillsides. Relatively recent newcomers include automative industry, and a more diverse array of textiles, which have surpassed the traditional trades lately.
Bursa also strives to be "green" in the other sense: It is the first and so far the only Turkish city to have been measuring the electromagnetic pollution, and has some of the highest recycling rates in the country raked up by its metropolitan municipalities within the last two decades (the program is geared more towards the residential districts, though, so you won't see many separated bins in the centre to put your empty water bottle in). The environmental auspices reach beyond the city limits as well; Bursa has pioneered in signing the power lines in the surrounding countryside with big coloured spheres so as to minimize the danger they pose upon migratory birds (a project now implemented nationwide), and hosts the sanctuary of the bears that were rescued from the cruel tradition of "dancing bears" now outlawed (in which bear cubs were taken away from wilderness and forced to "dance" upon the percussion of their masters, of course, unbeknownst by the spectators, with the threat of physical harm—this was a common theme of the tourist photo shots taken in Istanbul up to the early 90s) in the forests near Karacabey, 70 km west of the city. The sanctuary is still in operation, now serving as a temporary rehabilitation centre for all kinds of wildlife that were illegally taken into captivity.
The earliest known human settlement near Bursa's current location was at Ilıpınar Höyüğü around 5200 BC. It was followed by the ancient Greek city of Cius, which Philip V of Macedon granted to Prusias I, the King of Bithynia, in 202 BC. Prusias rebuilt the city and renamed it Prusa (Ancient Greek: Προῦσα). After 128 years of Bithynian rule, Nicomedes IV, the last King of Bithynia, bequeathed the entire kingdom to the Roman Empire in 74 BC. An early Roman Treasure was found in the vicinity of Bursa in the early 20th century. Composed of a woman's silver toilet articles, it is now in the British Museum.
Bursa became the first major capital city of the early Ottoman Empire following its capture from the Byzantines in 1326. As a result, the city witnessed a considerable amount of urban growth throughout the 14th century. After conquering Edirne(Adrianople) in East Thrace, the Ottomans turned it into the new capital city in 1363, but Bursa retained its spiritual and commercial importance in the Ottoman Empire. The Ottoman sultan Bayezid I built the Bayezid Külliyesi (Bayezid I theological complex) in Bursa between 1390 and 1395 and the Ulu Cami (Grand Mosque) between 1396 and 1400. Bursa remained to be the most important administrative and commercial centre in the empire until Mehmed IIconquered Constantinople in 1453. The population of Bursa was 45,000 in 1487.
During the Ottoman period, Bursa continued to be the source of most royal silk products. Aside from the local silk production, the city imported raw silk from Iran, and occasionally from China, and was the main production centre for the kaftans, pillows, embroidery and other silk products for the Ottoman palaces until the 17th century.
Following the foundation of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, Bursa became one of the industrial centres of the country. The economic development of the city was followed by population growth and Bursa became the 4th most populous city in Turkey.
The city has traditionally been a pole of attraction, and was a major centre for refugees from various ethnic backgrounds who immigrated to Anatolia from the Balkans during the loss of the Ottoman territories in Europe between the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The most recent arrival of Balkan Turks took place in the 1940s until the 1990s, when thecommunist regime in Bulgaria expelled approximately 150,000 Bulgarian Turks to Turkey. About one-third of these 150,000 Bulgarian Turkish refugees eventually settled in Bursa.
Bursa has a borderline Mediterranean/humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification: Csa/Cfa) under the Köppen classification since only two summer months have less than 40 millimetres (1.6 in) of rainfall, and dry-hot summer temperate climate (Csa) Trewartha classification. The city has hot, humid summers that last from June until September. Winters are cold and damp, also containing the most rainfall. There can be snow on the ground which will last for a week or two.
Climate data for Bursa
|Record high °C (°F)||23.8
|Average high °C (°F)||9.6
|Daily mean °C (°F)||5.4
|Average low °C (°F)||1.7
|Record low °C (°F)||−19.2
|Source: Turkish State Meteorological Service|
Bursa is settled on the northwestern slopes of Mount Uludağ in the southern Marmara Region. It is the capital city of Bursa Province bordered by the Sea of Marmara and Yalovato the north; Kocaeli and Sakarya to the northeast; Bilecik to the east; and Kütahya and Balıkesir to the south.
Bursa is the centre of the Turkish automotive industry. Factories of motor vehicle producers like Fiat, Renault and Karsan, as well as automotiveparts producers like Bosch, Mako, Valeo, Johnson Controls, Delphi have been active in the city for decades. The textile and food industries are equally strong, with Coca-Cola, Pepsi Cola and other beverage brands, as well as fresh and canned food industries being present in the city's organized industrial zones.
The top 10 industry corporations in the Bursa province are as follows:
- Oyak Renault
- Tofaş Fiat
- Sütaş Dairy Products
- Bursa Eczacılar Kooperatifi
- Türk Prysmian Kablo
- Asil Çelik
- Componenta Döktaş
Apart from its large automotive industry, Bursa also produces a substantial amount of dairy products (by Sütaş'), processed food (by Tat), and beverages (by Uludağ).
Traditionally, Bursa was famous for being the largest centre of silk trade in the Byzantineand later the Ottoman empires, during the period of the lucrative Silk Road. The city is still a major centre for textiles in Turkey and is home to the Bursa International Textiles and Trade Centre (Bursa Uluslararası Tekstil ve Ticaret Merkezi, or BUTTIM). Bursa was also known for its fertile soil and agricultural activities, which have decreased in the recent decades due to the heavy industrialization of the city.
Bursa is a major centre for tourism. One of the most popular skiing resorts of Turkey is located at Mount Uludağ, just next to the city proper. Bursa's thermal baths have been used for therapeutical purposes since Roman times. Apart from the baths that are operated by hotels, Uludağ University has a physical therapy centre which also makes use of thermal water.
The telephone code of the city is (+90) 224.
Prices in Bursa
MARKET / SUPERMARKET
|Beer (domestic)||0.5 l||€1.70|
|Bottle of Wine||1 bottle||€7.50|
|Dinner (Low-range)||for 2||€14.00|
|Dinner (Mid-range)||for 2||€27.00|
|Dinner (High-range)||for 2||€|
|Mac Meal or similar||1 meal||€3.90|
|Beer (Imported)||0.33 l||€2.10|
|Beer (domestic)||0.5 l||€1.80|
|Coctail drink||1 drink||€5.80|
|Men’s Haircut||1 haircut||€6.50|
|Mobile (prepaid)||1 min.||€0.25|
|Pack of Marlboro||1 pack||€2.80|
|Toilet paper||4 rolls||€0.98|
CLOTHES / SHOES
|Jeans (Levis 501 or similar)||1||€39.00|
|Dress summer (Zara, H&M)||1||€27.00|
|Sport shoes (Nike, Adidas)||1||€57.00|
|Local Transport||1 ticket||€0.75|
64 € per day
Estimated cost per 1 day including:
- meals in cheap restaurant
- public transport
- cheap hotel
124 € per day
Estimated cost per 1 day including:
- mid-range meals and drinks
Transportation - Get In
The local airport, Yenişehir Airport (IATA: YEI), is located 43 km east of the city, near the town of Yenişehir. A limited number of international and domestic flights connect to the airport (listed below); however, given the inconvenient location of the airport, and the infrequent connections with the city, Istanbul's Atatürk and Sabiha Gökçen are frankly easier airports to get to the city, and with a ferry connection, form the most common way of getting to the city. And you will very likely have to transit in one of them to land in Yenişehir, anyway.
Here is a list of international and domestic flights to Bursa:
- Munich Franz Josef Strauss Airport — Operated by Lufthansa [www]
- Skopje "Alexander the Great" Airport — Operated by Borajet [www]
- Ankara Esenboğa Airport
Operated by Borajet [www]
- Adana Şakirpaşa Airport
- Diyarbakır Airport
- Erzurum Airport
- Samsun Çarşamba Airport
- Sivas Airport
- Trabzon Airport
Since the decommissioning of Bursa–Mudanya railway in the 1950s, there has been no railway connecting with Bursa.
However, when coming from Ankara, you can take the high-speed train (YHT) to Eskişehir, which is located about the mid-way, and then transfer to the bus heading for Bursa there, which is provided by Turkish State Railways and departs right in front of the station. This combined trip takes around 4 hours (as opposed to 5 and a half hours by bus only), and there are seven fast train departures daily from Ankara.
Buses connect with most, if not all, significant cities in the country, including, but not limited to, Ankara, İzmir, and Antalya. Prices vary between € 10 to € 50, depending on the distance.
A bus ride from Istanbul, which costs about € 10 or 30 TL, involves taking a ferry when crossing the Gulf of İzmit between the ports of Eskihisar east of Istanbul and Topçular east of Yalova, and takes about three to three and a half hours, depending on the stops the bus makes in the towns along the route and the length of the queue for the ferry. Note that the food and drinks in the ferry are overpriced; a small sandwich gulped down with some orange juice can easily cost 12 TL.
All intercity buses arrive at the modern bus station (locally called Terminal), about 10 km north of the city, off the highway to Istanbul, and just inside the newly-built beltway (which the buses heading for east, west, and south take). All buses offload at one side, the ticket kiosks all located inside, and at the other side are the yellow city buses leaving for the downtown and various districts of the city centre. The row of bus stops are equipped with illuminated signs telling the route number and the main stops the bus in the stop in question will go through—#38 goes in a loop between the downtown and the station, while #96 connects with Çekirge, also going through parts of the downtown first, and closing its loop through Kükürtlü and Çekirge before returning to the station. (Upon returning to the station while leaving the city, you should also take your bus in the stops on the same side of the street that you got off, because of the circular fashion of the routes of these buses.) It takes these buses around 45 minutes to complete their route, first along the highway in the edge of the city, then into the narrow alleys of the slum-like district of Çirişhane, and finally into the city centre through Stadyum Caddesi . While in the station, buy your ticket (2.50 TL) from the small building next to the bus stops.
There are also very frequent turquoise coloured buses marked HEYKEL which will let you off right in the centre of Bursa opposite Ulucamii.
Highways that are fairly wide and in good condition connect the city to north (D575/E881, from İzmit, Yalova, and Istanbul, the shortest route from last of which involves taking a ferry to Yalova), west (D200/E90 from Balıkesir with a connection to D565 from İzmir in the southwest), and east (D200/E90 from Eskişehir and Ankara, with a connection to D650 from Antalya in the south).
The following journey is the fastest option from Istanbul:
- Take the Yenikapı-Bursa ferry from Istanbul Yenikapı terminal (in the European part of Istanbul near Sultanahmet) to Güzelyalı (80 minutes, 20 TL). Alternatively, take the Ido ferry from the Kadıköy ferry terminal, that departs several time a day (from 1 TL if booked in advance, or 19 TL on the same day).
- Güzelyalı is about 20 km from Bursa, and buses meet the ferry to take passengers to Organize Sanayi metro station (30 mins, 3 TL) in the outer suburbs of the city.
- Take the metro to downtown Bursa — get off at Şehreküstü station for the old section of the city close to the market area (30 mins, 2 TL). The whole journey from Istanbul to the centre of Bursa will take about two and a half to three hours.
It's also possible to transit through Yalova fast ferry jetty, about an hour bus ride (which costs 9 TL pp) north of Bursa.
Until recently, all of the ferries were operated by İDO , once affiliated with the metropolitan municipality of Istanbul, and now a private company. BUDO, owned by the metropolitan municipality of Bursa, is now entering the market as well. Tickets can be booked online.
Transportation - Get Around
The city has a metro line connecting downtown with suburbs in the northwest. There is also an extensive bus and dolmuş network. The dolmuşes in Bursa are more likely to be a normal looking white car with a sign on the roof rather than the yellow minibuses that are common in Istanbul.
- BEST RATED -
- BEST VALUE -
- Silk - one of the major industries of Bursa in the past, this is still one of the major draws of Bursa.
- Koza Han (Silk Bazaar) (in downtown, very near Ulucami). M-Sa 8AM-8PM. Silk bazaar dating back to 1491. Think of a very historical mall devoted only to silk.
Try the İskender kebap, a dish originated from Bursa. İskender consists of roasted, sliced lamb spread atop diced bread pieces, topped with tomato sauce, served with yoghurt. A similar dish, meatballs instead of sliced lamb only, would be Pideli Köfte which is definitely cheaper and perhaps more delicious. Go to Kayhan Carsisi, very close to Heykel, for best options.Candied Chestnut is the best choice for dessert but sadly you cannot get it from a restaurant.
- İskender, Ünlü Cadde (near Heykel). Restaurant is named after the dish since the owners are descendants of the person who "invented" the dish.
- Pidecioğlu, Bozkurt Caddesi (just off Altiparmak Caddesi, near the Bursaspor stadium). Another good İskender kebab restaurant.
- Çiçek Izgara, Belediye Caddesi 15, Heykel. A meat ball restaurant referred to by many Turkish novelists.
- Hacı Dayı is a kebab restaurant in the Tophane district with tasty dishes and large portion sizes for a decent price. Look for it right behind the tombs of Osman and Orhan.
- Kebap 16, Atatürk Caddesi, Selcuk Hatun Mah. Unlu Cad No:7 Osmangazi Bursa. Very tasty Iskender kebab and grills for decent prices.
Coffe & Drink
The cafe at the gardens of Kozahan might be the most authentic place in the city to have a Turkish coffee—which might be what Queen Elizabeth II was thinking, who visited there in 2008.
Sights & Landmarks
- Ulucami (in downtown). The "great mosque" of Bursa. Built in early Ottoman period, in 1399, it resembles more of earlier Seljuqbuildings of inland Anatolia than the typical Ottoman mosques such as Blue Mosque of Istanbulbuilt later. Ulucamii is perhaps most renown for the striking calligraphic panels that adorn its walls and columns as well as the fountain within the mosque whose trickling sounds contribute to its serene atmosphere.
- Orhan Camii ve Külliyesi (Orhan Mosque)
- Yeşil Camii(Green Mosque)This mosque is in the Yesil or 'green' district of Bursa just left over the bridge. It contains a wonderful Turbe or tomb completely covered by tiles inside and out. The mosque opposite is very unusual in that it has a fountain inside the prayer area - with lots of legends attached to it. It is also built in a cruciform shape. No one knows why. Beside it are tea gardens with spectacular views over the Bursa valley and Uludag mountain.
- Emir Sultan Camii
- Muradiye Camii
- Hüdavendigar Camii
- Yıldırım Camii
- Koca Sinan Paşa
- İshak Paşa Külliyeleri
- Celal Bayar Müzesi
- Yeşil Türbe(Green Tomb) is the tomb of the Ottoman Sultan Mehmed I (1412-1420) and is the iconic monument of the city.
- Emir Sultan Türbesi
- Gazi Timurtaş Paşa Türbesi
- Gazi Osman Türbesi is the tomb of the first Ottoman sultan located in the Tophane district
- Orhan Gazi Türbesi is the tomb of the second Ottoman sultan, the son of Osman. It's located immediately next to his father's tomb in the Tophane district.
- The Muradiye Complex surrounding the Muradiye Mosque is a small necropolis filled with tombs of illustrious Ottoman figures such as Murat II; Prince Mustafa, son of Suleiman the Great; Gülbahar Hanım, midwife of Mehmet the Conqueror and various wives of sultans.
- İnkaya — a huge centuries-old (well, approximately 600 years, to be precisely) plane (Platanus orientalis) tree with an open-air café sheltered by its deep shadow, on the foothills of (and just off the road to) Uludağ.
- Darüzziyafe. A poorhouse during the Ottoman period, this building now serves as a family restaurant (with no alcohol service).It is a stunningly restored building in the Muradiye district of Bursa. The garden has wonderful views of Bursa. The cuisine is pure Ottoman and difficult to find in a modern Turkish city.[www]
- Sarı Konak In Tophane.
- Balıbey Han
- Koza Han
- Irgandı Köprüsü (Bridge)in Setbasi.Its an old version of shopping malls.There are small shops on bridge.
- Cumalıkızık A village founded more than 700 years old. There are 265 centuries-old half timbered houses in the village and approximately 190 of them are still occupied.
Museums & Galleries
- Bursa Archaeological Museum
- Bursa City Museum
- Bursa Atatürk Museum
- Bursa Turkish Architecture Museum
- Bursa Islamic Works Museum
- Tofaş Museum of Cars and Anatolian Carriages
- Armistice of Mudanya Museum
- İznik Museum
Things to do
- Yeni Kaplica (Termal Hotel and Baths), Kukurtlu Mh. Cekirge Cadd(Immediately down from the Celik Palais Hotel), . An experience not to be missed while visiting Bursa for anyone interested in a relaxing thermal bath. The mineral water boils up from below the extensive baths built in 1555 and flows into a large central pool from a lion's head fixed into the wall. The baths are anything but touristy but the staff are used to tourists. Not a word of Turkish is necessary! The building remains unchanged since it was built by the Vizer 'Kara Mustafa' or 'Black Mustafa'. It is a large multi roomed building with a wonderful sense of space and proportion. it is modeled on the Roman Baths rather than a hamam as pools - or non-flowing water were never permitted under Islam. This is the exception. A good rubdown (kese) and a massage are essential. Afterwards just go for a nap in one of the beds provided wrapped in towels. Bliss. 12 tl.
Since Bursa lies on a geologically-active area, the place is rich in mineral waters and accordingly is famous for its traditional baths.
- Keçeli Hamamı. For women. More than 600 years old and renewed.
- Umurbey Hamamı
- Yeşil Hamamı
- Beyaz Saray Hamamı. For men. In Altıparmak.
- Kervan Saray Hamamı For Women and For Men, in CEKIRGE district.The Hamam has a nice pool.Its so clean and hygienic.
Things to know
The steep foothills of Uludağ forced the city to grow in a linear, elongated form in an east-west direction, rather than spread out. Most of the sights and useful locations are on or near the main street, which finds its way through the entire length of the city centre (roughly 6–7 km), called under various names in different parts of the city.
The central square of the city is Heykel ("statue"), named so because of an imposing equestrian statue of Kemal Atatürk, the founder of the Turkish Republic, standing in front of the building of the Province Governorship (the official name of this square is Cumhuriyet Alanı, "Republic Square", but no one uses it).
West of Heykel, the name of the main drag is Atatürk Caddesi. Past Ulucami and the bazaars area (or the "Khans and Bazaars District", as those in the tourism industry in Bursa love to name it), the street becomes Cemal Nadir Caddesi, skirting around the hill of Tophane, the oldest core of the city surrounded by ancient walls. Useful landmarks on this part of the city include the Ottoman clocktower rising on Tophane, and just below it on the street level, the much modern blue glass pyramid standing on the square in front of the Zafer Plaza shopping mall. Heading further west, passing under the overpass at the intersection with another main street (Ahmet Hamdi Tanpınar Caddesi), the main street is named Altıparmak Caddesi, one of the main shopping streets of the city, sharing the same name with the district it traverses. The western end of Altıparmak Cd, and the hill on which the Ottoman quarter of Muradiye resides south of/above it, mark the limit of the traditional centre of the city; further west from here lies Çekirge Caddesi, leading to the one-time suburb of Çekirge, through the affluent and leafy neighbourhood of Kükürtlü. Between Altıparmak and Kükürtlü, due north of Muradiye, Stadyum Caddesi lying on the edge of the football stadium and Kültürpark connects the city centre with D200, the main intercity highway skirting the city centre to north.
East of Heykel, just past the Setbaşı Bridge, spanning the fairly deep gorge of Gökdere Stream (the bridge, due to the unexpectedly long drop below it, is infamous as the favourite suicide spot of Bursa), the main street forks into two in a Y-junction, marked by an old plane tree right in the middle: Take left, Yeşil Caddesi, for Yeşil, and Emirsultan further east, or right,Namazgah Caddesi, for the station of cable-cars to Uludağ.
Safety in Bursa
Bursa is a safe city. But of course you should always be cautious if you're wandering alone in late night.