Monterrey , is the capital and largest city of the northeastern state of Nuevo León, in Mexico. The city is anchor to the third-largest metropolitan area in Mexico and is ranked as the ninth-largest city in the nation. Monterrey serves as a commercial center in the north of the country and is the base of many significant international corporations.
It is the second wealthiest city in Mexico and the ninth in Latin America with a GDP PPP of 130.7 billion dollars in 2012. Monterrey's GDP PPP per capita of 31,051 dollars is the highest in the country and second of Latin America. It is considered a Beta World City, cosmopolitan and competitive. Rich in history and culture, Monterrey is often regarded as the most "americanized" and developed city in the entire country, even above the cities along the U.S.-Mexico border.
As an important industrial and business center, the city is also home to an array of Mexican companies, including Grupo Avante, Lanix Electronics, Ocresa, CEMEX, Vitro,Mercedes-Benz Mexico,OXXO, BMW de Mexico,Grupo Bimbo, DINA S.A.,Cuauhtémoc Moctezuma Brewery and Heineken, which features Norteño capital andGrupo ALFA. Monterrey is also home to international companies such as Siemens,Accenture, Ternium, Sony,Toshiba, Carrier, Whirlpool,Samsung, Toyota, Babcock and Wilcox, Daewoo, Ericsson,Nokia, Dell, Boeing, HTC,General Electric, Gamesa, LG,SAS Institute, Grundfos,Danfoss, andTeleperformance, among others.
Monterrey is located in northeast Mexico, at the foothills of the Sierra Madre Oriental. The uninterrupted settlement of Monterrey starts in 1596, with its founding by Diego de Montemayor. In the years after the Mexican War of Independence, Monterrey became an important business center. With the establishment of Fundidora Monterrey, the city experienced a great industrial growth.
|POPULATION :||• City 1,130,960
• Metro 4,520,329 (2,016)
|FOUNDED :||September 20, 1596|
|TIME ZONE :||• Time zone CST (UTC−6)
• Summer (DST) CDT (UTC−5)
|AREA :||• City 969.70 km2 (374.40 sq mi)
• Metro 5,346.80 km2 (2,064.41 sq mi)
|ELEVATION :||540 m (1,770 ft)|
|COORDINATES :||25°40′N 100°18′W|
|SEX RATIO :||• Male: 48.45%
• Female: 51.55%
|AREA CODE :|
|POSTAL CODE :|
|DIALING CODE :||+52 81|
Monterrey is the third largest city in Mexico and the capital of the state of Nuevo León. It is the commercial, industrial, educational, and transportation hub of northern Mexico, also third in economic importance after Mexico City and Mexico State. Although it is historically an industrial and commercial city (in fact most foreign visitors come for business purposes), tourists will be surprised at the wealth of cultural and entertainment attractions that the city has to offer.
Monterrey is an aggressively modern city, unlike most destinations in Mexico. Although it does have some colonial era sights, and its Barrio Antiguo district preserves a sense of Monterrey as it was in its once "sleepy town" days, the city is very much a product of the industrial age of the late 19th and 20th centuries.
Today, Monterrey has a culture that values education and business ethics. Often referred to as "an industrial giant", the label is more true in the imagination than it is in reality. Monterrey's big steel and iron works have been shut down for almost two decades, and even the concrete, glass, and brewing industries don't dominate the economy as they once did. Instead, people in Monterrey are today more likely to work in retail, in banking, in telecommunications, IT, health care or education.
The city enjoys one of Mexico's highest standards of living, and the population is more educated and cultured than average.
Monterrey is also a large city. The central downtown has a population of about a million, but the metropolitan area that includes all of its adjacent suburban municipalities brings its total city population to just under 4 million --- similar in size to the San Francisco Bay Area in the U.S.
While it is true that visitors seeking the traditional flavor of colonial Mexico find little to love about Monterrey, the city has emerged as a leading cultural center: it likes cutting edge contemporary architecture (like the visually stunning Puente Atirantado or Puente Viaducto de la Unidad in San Pedro Garza Garcia, the new circular Tec business school in el Valle, or the physics-defying twin leaning bookends look of that shocking white concrete and black glass building that you see as you drive past the ITESM campus). It's also a youthful city that tends to prefer cutting edge rockeros like Plastilina Mosh or Kinky to the cowboy-hat wearing cumbia groups that built the city's music industry in the '70s and '80s. Monterrey is a city where international cuisine finds a welcoming reception, and where high-speed broadband internet connections are actually becoming more commonplace than in many U.S. communities. Monterrey is a progressive, modern city that likes to learn, likes to work, and likes to live for the weekend.
Prior to the European foundation of the city, there was no established nation state, and the population instead consisted of some indigenous semi-nomad groups.Carved stone and cave painting in surrounding mountains and caves have allowed historians to identify four major groups in present-day Monterrey: Azalapas,Huachichiles, Coahuiltecos and Borrados.
In the 16th century, the valley in which Monterrey is located was known as the Extremadura Valley, an area largely unexplored by the Spanish colonizers. The first expeditions and colonization attempts were led by conquistador Alberto del Canto, naming the city Santa Lucia, but were unsuccessful because the population was attacked by the natives and fled. The Spanish expeditionary of Sephardic Jewish descent, Luis Carvajal y de la Cueva negotiated with King Philip II of Spain to establish a territory in northern New Spain, which would be called Nuevo León, the "New Kingdom of León". In 1580 he arrived in the newly granted lands but it was not until 1582 that he established a settlement called San Luis Rey de Francia(named for Saint Louis IX of France) within present-day Monterrey. The New Kingdom of León extended westwards from the port of Tampico to the limits of Nueva Vizcaya ("New Biscay", now State of Chihuahua), and around 1,000 kilometers northwards. For eight years Nuevo León was abandoned and uninhabited, until a third expedition of thirteen families led by conquistador Diego de Montemayor founded Ciudad Metropolitana de Nuestra Señora de Monterrey("Metropolitan City of Our Lady of Monterrey") on September 20, 1596, next to a water spring called Ojos de Agua de Santa Lucia, where the Museum of Mexican History and Santa Lucía riverwalk are now located.
Monterrey Coat of Arms is represented by an Indian throw an arrow to the sun in front of cerro de la silla mountain, this scene represent the natives ceremony, they daily form a row in front cerro de la silla and wait the sunrise to throw one arrows, each one to the sun
During the years of Spanish rule, Monterrey remained a small city, and its population varied from a few hundred to only dozens. The city was a place that facilitated trade between San Antonio(now in Texas), Tampico and from Saltillo to the center of the country. Tampico's port brought many products from Europe, while Saltillo concentrated the Northern Territories' trade with the capital,Mexico City. San Antonio was the key trade point with the northern foreign colonies (British and French).
After Mexican Independence (19th century)
In the 19th century, after the Mexican Independence War, Monterrey rose as a key economic center for the newly formed nation, especially due to its balanced ties between Europe (with its connections to Tampico), the United States (with its connections to San Antonio), and the capital (through Saltillo). In 1824, the "New Kingdom of León" became the State of Nuevo León, and Monterrey was selected as its capital. However, the political instability that followed the first 50 years of the new country allowed two American invasions and an internal secession war, during which the Governor of the State annexed the Coahuila and Tamaulipas states, designating Monterrey as the capital of the Republic of the Sierra Madre as it did before in 1840 for the Republic of the Rio Grande.
In 1846, the earliest large-scale engagement of the Mexican-American War took place in the city, known as the Battle of Monterrey. Mexican forces were forced to surrender but only after successfully repelling U.S. forces during the first few advances on the city. The battle inflicted high casualties on both sides, much of them resulting from hand-to-hand combat within the walls of the city center.
Many of the generals in the Mexican War against France were natives of the city, including Mariano Escobedo, Juan Zuazua (b. Lampazos de Naranjo, NL) and Jerónimo Treviño.
During the last decade of the 19th century, the city of Monterrey was linked by railroad, which benefitted industry. It was during this period that José Eleuterio González founded the University Hospital which is now one of the best public hospitals in the northeast of Mexico, and serves as medical school support to the School of Medicine of the Autonomous University of Nuevo León (UANL). Antonio Basagoiti and other citizens founded the Fundidora de Fierro y Acero de Monterrey, In 1890 the brewery company Cervecería Cuauthemoc one of the milestone local enterprises was founded and in 1900, a steel-producing company that accelerated the already fast industrialization of the city and became one of the world's biggest of its time. In 1986, several official games of the 1986 FIFA World Cup were hosted.
In 1988, Hurricane Gilbert caused great damage to the city; the Santa Catarina River overflowed, causing about 100 deaths and economic damage.
The city has hosted international events such as the 2002 United Nations Conference on Financing for Development with the participation of more than 50 heads of state and government, as well as other ministers and senior delegates from over 150 countries. The conference resulted in the adoption of the Monterrey Consensus, which has become one relevant reference point for international development and cooperation. In 2004, the OAS Special Summit of the Americaswas attended by almost all the presidents of the Americas.
In 2007, Monterrey held the Universal Forum of Cultures with four million visitors. In 2008, Monterrey held the FINA World Junior Championships.
In 2010, Monterrey was hit by another damaging storm, Hurricane Alex. Alex was considered worse than Hurricane Gilbert, with record breaking rain bringing floods, and causing severe economic damage. Damage estimates totaled $1.885 billion USD, and in $16.9 billion MXN. After this event the city was under reconstruction and urban renewal. Recently, the project Nuevo León Development Plan 2030 was presented, along with some other metropolitan projects.
In August 2011 the city was the scene of a terror attack on a casino, in which more than 50 people were killed.
The city of Monterrey is 540 metres (1,770 ft) above sea level and located in the northeastern Mexican state of Nuevo León. The Santa Catarina River—dry most of the year on the surface but with flowing underground water—bisects Monterrey from East to West, thus separating the city into north and south halves, and drains the city to the San Juan River and Rio Grande.
Monterrey is adjoined to San Nicolás de los Garza, García and General Escobedo to the north; Guadalupe,Juárez and Cadereyta Jiménez to the east; Santiago to the south; and San Pedro Garza García and Santa Catarina to the west. Together, their population reaches over 4,080,329 people.
Monterrey lies north of the foothills of the Sierra Madre Oriental mountain range. A small hill, the Cerro del Topo and the smaller Topo Chico are located in the suburbs of San Nicolás de los Garza and Escobedo. West of the city rises the Cerro de las Mitras (Mountain of the Mitres), which resemble the profile of several bishops with their mitres.
Cerro de la Silla (Saddle Mountain) dominates the view at the east of the city and is considered a major symbol of the city. Cerro de la Loma Larga—South of the Santa Catarina river—separates Monterrey from the suburb of San Pedro Garza García. At the summit of the Cerro del Obispado, north of the river, is the historic Bishopric Palace, site of one of the most important battles of the Mexican-American War.
Monterrey is a major industrial center in northern Mexico, producing a GDP of 78.5 billion US dollars (2006). The city's GDP per capita in 2010 was 607,042 Mexican pesos or $46,634 US dollars. The city was rated by Fortune magazine in 1999 as the best city in Latin America for business and is currently ranked third best by the América Economía magazine.
The city has prominent positions in sectors such as steel, cement, glass, auto parts, and brewing. The city's economic wealth has been attributed in part to its proximity with the United States-Mexican border and economic links to the United States.
Industrialization was accelerated in the mid-19th century by the Compañia Fundidora de Fierro y Acero Monterrey, a steel-processing company. Today, Monterrey is home to transnational conglomerates such as Cemex (the world's third largest cement company), FEMSA (Coca-Cola Latin America, largest independent Coca-Cola bottler in the world), Alfa (petrochemicals, food, telecommunications and auto parts), Axtel (telecommunications), Vitro (glass),Selther (leading mattress and rest systems firm in Latin America), Gruma (food), and Banorte (financial services). The FEMSA corporation owned a large brewery, the Cuauhtémoc Moctezuma Brewery (Cervecería Cuauhtémoc Moctezuma) that produces the brands Sol, Tecate, Indio, Dos Equis and Carta Blanca among others, in the beginning of the year Cuauhtémoc Moctezuma Brewery was sold to Dutch-based company Heineken. By the end of the same year, there were more than 13,000 manufacturing companies, 55,000 retail stores, and more than 52,000 service firms in Monterrey.
The metals sector, dominated by iron and steel, accounted for 6 percent of manufacturing GNP in 1994. Mexico's steel industry is centered in Monterrey, where the country's first steel mills opened in 1903. Steel processing plants in Monterrey, privatized in 1986, accounted for about half of Mexico's total steel output in the early 1990s.
Monterrey was ranked 94th worldwide and fifth in Latin America in terms of Quality of Life according to Mercer Human Resource Consulting (2006), and was ranked second in 2005 and fourth in 2006, according to America Economia.
Some of the shopping malls in the city include Paseo San Pedro, Plaza Fiesta San Agustín, Galerías Monterrey, and Galerías Valle Oriente, which distribute goods and services to the Mexican population.
High-speed broadband internet is widely available and most hotels provide wi-fi hotspots. Cyber cafes provide short-term internet access for about US$1 per hour. There are many of these cyber cafes around Monterrey, and you can usually find one on the side alleys off Morelos
Newspapers in Monterrey include: